Intellectual Potential of the Nation: the Strategy of Development

Development of the world leading countries has led to the formation of a post-industrial, and then a new economy — economy of the knowledge, innovation, global information systems, and economy of intellectual labor, science and latest technology. The basis of this new economy is intellectual potential, which is a dominant of the socio-economic development of modern society. In recent years an interest in studying the processes of intellectual development of society has sharply increased. According to V.K. Levashov, “primarily, it is associated with the formation and the emergence of the knowledge society — the new socio-economic formation, the production, distribution and effective use of science and technology of which becomes the main driving force and product”. [1] It is obvious that education in modern times becomes an economic sector, and the main resource for the development of the economy is a human factor — the most valued person who can open, create something new in the industry, science, culture, etc. And that is why the most important mission of higher education in Kazakhstan is preparing intellectually developed, creatively working professionals-citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The system of higher education today is facing today fundamentally new problems, the main of which is designated by the President of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev in initiated by him national project “Intellectual Nation — 2020: “Bringing up Kazakhstan’s People of New Formation, Transformation of Kazakhstan into the Country with Competitive Human Capital”. [2]

Formation of intellectual nation is recognized as one of the strategic objectives of Kazakhstan’s development, with all this the main vectors are high-quality education and support of the younger generation. According to the reviews of foreign experts in the fi eld of education, as well as indicators of competitions, tests, etc., the Kazakhstan’s youth has a high intellectual potential. It is only necessary to be able to use it properly. Not only by just giving a good education to the future specialists, but also by helping to reveal the talent and opportunities, by creating conditions for the skillful use of the knowledge gained, by ensuring the formation of competitive employees.

The project “Intellectual Nation” must consider three potential points: the creation of new solutions, technologies and innovations; the informational revolution; spiritual education of the youth. The aim is to meet the intellectual needs of society in armed with new knowledge experts, the use of scientifi c advances in certain economic sectors and the formation of human values of our country. Humanitarian technologies occupy leading position in the formation of a citizen of an intellectual society, and their main task is to control socio-humanitarian systems.

Scientifi c debate about the defi nition of the concept “human technology” has been going on for half a century. Research on this topic held in many countries around the world. One of the developers of a new discipline — socionics A.V. Bukalov defines humanitarian technologies as teaching methods, the organization of the system education, psycho-informational compatibility, psychotherapy, deep psychoanalysis. [3] Humanitarian technologist E. Ostrovsky gives another defi nition: “Humanitarian technologies are a set carefully calibrated and scientifi cally grounded methods and special techniques of indirect impact of humanitarian technologies on society through control of social behavior.” [4]

According to Russian scientist Kurochkin, “humanitarian technologies are a set of methods to manage socio humanitarian systems that have the following characteristics: a public sphere of application, orientation to the future (strategic nature), exclusivity and optimistic”. [5] Thus, the main objective of humanitarian technologist becomes a searching of common grounds, a general principle, on the basis of which one can interpret an effect, make it understandable in the context of various institutional subsystems, while recognizing that each of them has its own specifi c set of principles. Humanitarian strategies focus primarily on the development of direct communication. Humanitarian technologies also have a strategic character, in other words, are aimed at solving problems in the long term and, as a rule, are exclusive, in other words, are designed for a specifi c problem or project. Harvard University, USA conducts research in the fi eld of humanitarian initiatives — Harvard Humanitarian Initiatives. In Qatar comprehensive research is conducted in the humanitarian sciences. Humanities Research Base — http://crisismappers. net/ — is the leading information resource. The project involves 191 countries around the world. In 2007, on the basis of this project the Crisis Map was developed. The aim of this project is to identify the impact of technological advances on human technology and management of crisis situations in the society. Successful research may be noted, which are conducted within the framework of the Innovation Summit for Education and Science — http://www.wise-qatar.org/ — in Qatar.

Russia carried out studies in this area, which have been implemented in practice. For example, the applied research of humanities education, technology and expertise, conducted at the Center for Bioethics at the Institute of Fundamental and Applied Studies, Moscow Humanitarian University.

Research of HR-Lab “Humanitarian Technologies” (Human Technologies), Faculty of Psychology, Moscow State University after M.V. Lomonosov, develops intelligence tests, assess and expertise aimed at developing of human capital. Department of Psychology of this university and Center of Tolerant and Humanitarian Technologies under scientifi c-practical center “Gratis” develop educational programs, psychological games, conduct empirical research among the target groups.

Laboratory “Humanitarian Technologies” in Moscow is known for its information, the expert- analytical studies on its basic trends, competitive on market humanitarian technologies. Among the several centers conducting research on this project may include the Center of Social Communication of the St. Petersburg State University, the Center for Community Development and humanitarian technologies.

In this regard, the study of humanitarian technologies aimed at developing the intellectual capital of the nation and the formation of “citizen of knowledge-based society” of Kazakhstan is represented as not just scientifi c, but political task. According to Kazakh scientists, “at the present stage, the formation of a “citizen of knowledge-based society” must implement a comprehensive study of humanitarian technologies affecting the public consciousness and the results of the strategic objectives. During the period of rapid development of the world’s economic, social and political processes, the defi nition of spiritual values and ideological principles of Kazakh society, their direction to the state of civilization is an urgent problem”. [6]

Development of new scientifi c technologies in Kazakhstan, including the development of a new fi eld — the fi eld of humanitarian technologies that are the basis for the formation of the moral values of society, can be seen as a way to answer the pressing questions of our time. In general, the idea of humanitarian technology enables to consider humanitarian sciences, their possible impact on the state of society and human life in a new way.

Among the basic modern concepts about humanitarian technologies, researchers have identi- fi ed the following:

  1. Humanitarian technologies are used and in demand as a projective technique for implementing a specifi c type of interaction aimed at maintaining social relationships. Basic value-target orientations of the representatives of interest groups and elites of one or another of the existing modern societies lay in their foundation. In this context, as a rule, one refers to the ideological, manipulative or conventional public policy strategies and “humanitarian” potential of the latter is evaluated based on how it is institutionally and legitimately cope with the possibility of political and administrative management of the social system as a whole.
  2. Humanitarian technologies are considered as a way to broadcast the information, optimal forms and qualitative grounds are produced with and through technologies, which could allow solving a very topical at the moment the problem of shortage or oversupply of the information resources, and achieving their effective use in different historical formations.
  3. Humanitarian technologies are molded around the priority forms and ways of fi xing behavioral stereotypes and related social roles. Former, strictly defi ning the spheres of social action by sanctions and regulations, totally unifi es the political, cultural, etc. socialization and existing in the society forms of activity itself. The second type is called a “humanitarian”, in it is base there is the search for new opportunities for social cooperation based on the principles of dialogue, freedom of choice and mutual security in a multicultural society.
  4. Purposeful collective activity of people on the basis of humanitarian knowledge is also becoming one of the most important components in the development of appropriate technologies of social modeling. The question of innovation production in the humanitarian sphere is closely related to the forms of scenario human behavior in a consumer society, their abilities on the psychological and mental level to produce and test innovative meanings in the fi eld of their own mental activity. [7]

Speaking about the nature and content of human technologies, it should be noted that the humanitarian technologies are a system of scientifi c and humanitarian knowledge, the use of which allows implementing a specifi c humanological plan due to certain conditions, means and methods. At the present stage of research it should be noted that humanitarian technologies are technologies focused on the development of the human personality and creation of the appropriate conditions for this. In other words, it is the ways of improving the moral and ethical norms, the ways of development of intellectual capacity and physical condition.

Humanitarian technologies were designed to comprehensively develop competence of modern specialist in various branches of knowledge, who is able to constantly improve, to compete in the labor market and easily adapt to changing conditions. Professional in any industry today shows not only innovative knowledge and technology, but also a fundamentally different level of thinking, based on those socio-cultural settings in which the communication develops. This is a result of the impact of global information technology. Thus humanitarian technologies go to a higher level of the impact on the human factor.

Development of communication technologies has led to the emergence of humanitarian instruments. Humanitarian technologies, on the one hand, are the result of development, and, on the other, they stimulate progressive development. There is also a wide spectrum of interpretations for concepts. For example, the textbook issued by the Russian State Pedagogical University after A.Gertsen discusses the problem of “communication studies, in particular, about understanding and explication of the innovative concept of “humanitarian technologies” as well as in the application to various aspects of social life. [8]

Under humanitarian technologies the authors mean algorithms of communicative activities on the organization and implementation of human communication: algorithms of generation and interpretation of various texts, algorithms of design and implementation of communicative events of effective interaction of consciousnesses. Particular attention is paid to the content of the strategic positioning and methodological support of modern higher education.

Indeed, today, education is a priority value, it also has practical importance in different spheres of human life — from the assimilation of culture samples to the professional execution of various forms of labor. Successful, developing Kazakhstan’s society is in need for intelligent, business, competitive, enterprising individuals, armed with quality knowledge. In this regard the President in his Address to the Nation “Socio-economic modernization — main direction of Kazakhstan’s development” noted: “Education should give young people not only knowledge but also the ability to use them in the process of social adaptation”. [9]

Education in modern times should not be confi ned solely to the transfer of knowledge and retraining people. It must change a person’s attitude to the surrounding social, cultural and geographical environment, to ensure the people’s suitability to work in a changing labor and production conditions, to foster fl exible thinking and attitudes on dialogue and cooperation.

Mindful of the fact that universities have always been supporting social and cultural points of the historical process, we need to educate the future expert regardless of the profi le, who will be able to consider his activity from a common to all mankind point of view, from the perspective of the global sociocultural and technological processes, from the position of global cooperation and rapprochement between peoples and cultures.

Simultaneously spiritual space of university environment today should be saturated with national priorities: the ideas of patriotism and statehood, high spirituality, values of labor and service for the benefi t of the Fatherland, traditions of ethnic and religious tolerance, and openness to other cultures.

“In this context, the role and importance of modern education system, human capital as criteria of social development increase; they constitute the basis of a new society and quality of life is an important factor and the base of economic strength and national security of the country” [10], — the Concept of Development of Education in Kazakhstan. “In its turn, changes in the system of social relations affect the education and require from him mobility and adequate response to the challenges of a new historical stage and must meet the needs of economic development as a whole”. [11]

Today, no one disputes the fact that the backbone of any organization and its the main wealth are people. Man has always been a key and valuable resource, and in the last decade, especially in developed in respect of the market countries — such as Kazakhstan, there is a tendency of further increase of this value. Not by chance in modern literature, devoted to the management of large enterprises, much attention is paid to the “human factor” in the system of management training. Accordingly, the economic effi ciency of such enterprises is complemented by social effi ciency. In this regard, the concepts “human capital” and “intellectual capital” acquire relevant signifi cance.

The concept of intellectual capital was introduced into the scientifi c use by the great economist of the twentieth century John Galbraith. T. Stewart, a member of the editorial board of Fortune magazine was the fi rst who investigated the nature of intellectual capital. In 1991, in the article “The Power of intelligence: how intellectual capital is becoming the driving force behind America,” he introduced the intellectual capital as the sum of all that workers are aware of and that gives us a competitive advantage in the market: “... patents , processes , management skills, technology, experience and information about customers and suppliers. Combined together, these knowledge form the intellectual capital.” According to Spanish researchers Miguel Gonzalez and Figueroa Dorrego, despite the lack of an unambiguous defi nition of intellectual capital (hereafter IC), as a rule, one refers to as intangible the invisible assets or resources of knowledge that can generate the value of a fi rm. The European Commission has identifi ed IC as a combination of activities and intangible resources (human, organizational and relational) organization, which enables to turn a set of material, fi nancial and human resources to a system, capable to create value for stakeholders. In fact, IC can be considered as “... knowledge owned by the organization (explicit knowledge) or its members (tacit knowledge) that makes or produces a current value for the organization”. [12]

French researcher A. Bounfour proposes to treat human capital as an effective asset of not only companies’ activity, but also international, non-governmental organizations, educational institutions. In his opinion, it is necessary to develop innovative approaches, in particular, monitoring and evaluation of the prospects of development of intellectual capital. [13]

According to the Belarusian scientist V. Zhuravlev, as elements of human intellectual potential are considered reputation, innovation and social potentials. Educational and scientifi c potential, indices of global competitiveness and innovation are considered as the elements that characterize the intellectual potential of the country (society). The intellectual potential of the country and society also includes education, health, science, culture, demographics, and standards of living.

There are several defi nitions of intellectual potential, in particular:

  1. Intellectual potential is the total accumulated by society intellectual resource, which has the ability to participate in the production process and generate income for the owner;
  2. Intellectual and information potential is a set of possibilities of the society as a whole and its subsystems: some individuals, groups of people to the reproduction of gained knowledge and their use in the formation of new approaches to the assessment over the changes for innovation development;
  3. Intellectual potential is a comprehensive assessment of the development level for intellectual, creative opportunities, the country’s resources, industry, and personality. Intellectual potential is determined by the development level of society, education, science, culture, genetic foundation of society. [14]

In today’s world, human capital is one of the most effective factors in the economic, social, cultural and political development. It became the main instrument of formation and development for innovative economy and the knowledge economy as a higher stage of development in the world economic system. The program “Intellectual Nation 2020” is the production of the main capital and the supreme value — human, and not just the professional specialist, but the person in its entirety of qualities and characteristics of spiritual and moral personality.

Knowledge and information are defi ning categories of economic development, social and public life in today’s world. Example of developed countries shows that the dominant trend of their development is to focus on the knowledge as strategic base of a market economy, which stipulates the rapid development of those branches of industry and business in which the transfer of new technologies based on innovative approaches is implemented. But knowledge alone does not transform the economy. To solve this problem it is required a complex of structures and activities, not only allowing to carry out the production of knowledge and the proper training, but also innovation activity, broadly understood as placing scientifi c and educational potential on the market of goods and services. Great importance is paid to a stimulating these processes regulatory framework and appropriate macroeconomic situation, access to sources of knowledge, based on advanced information technologies and a number of other factors contributing to innovation. Meanwhile it signifi - cantly increases the role of universities as institutions of society, generating knowledge and providing pre-training scientifi c-educational, technological, managerial and cultural elite, as well as conceptually ready to deploy structures of innovative type and information systems. It should be noted, that at the time of advancing the “Intellectual Nation 2020”, principally new system of training that meets modern international practice was formed in our country.

Kazakhstan was the fi rst on post-Soviet space, who proceeded to world-wide adopted a three-step training of bachelors, masters and doctors of philosophy (PhD) in universities. Leading universities of Kazakhstan began internationally accredited training programs, which has become an important tool for improving the quality of learning. As is known, in 1993 Kazakhstan’s President announced the idea of “Bolashak”, on which ten thousands of young Kazakhstan citizens were able to study in the best universities of the world. Abroad such large-scale training program became a unique phenomenon, and its success is recognized by the world education community.

Another important step towards the development of creative young generation has become Kazakhstan’s accession in 2010 to the Bologna Process, which opened new perspectives of international integration. In Kazakhstan, series of reforms in the renovation of the education system were conducted. A landmark event was the adoption of the State Program of Education Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020, which aims to yield a fundamentally new quality of education, according to international standards, a transition to 12-year education. First time in Kazakhstan elearning was widely distributed, which provides a fundamentally new opportunities and prospects for increasing intelligence of the nation, the development of education throughout life, which is one of the leading trends. For highly developed, information type of society, which modern Kazakhstan strives to be, the widespread introduction of new information and high technologies, development and growth of the knowledge industry is typical. Thus, the reality of sovereign and independent Kazakhstan suggests the possibility of the formation and development of intellectual nation, which should be focused on the traditional national, universal values and cultural norms.

 

SOURCES:

  1. Levashov V.K. Intellektualnyi potentsial obschestva: sotsio- logicheskie issledovaniya i prognosirovanie http://www.gtmarket.ru/ratings/ legatum-prosperity-index/info
  2. Bukalov S.O. О meste sotsioniki v ryadu drugikh sistem. — СмиПЛ, 1995. — № 2. — P. 56-58.
  3. Ostrovskyi E. Reklama kak instrument vysokikh gumanitarnykh tekhnologii // www.rae.ru
  4. Kurochkin A. Gumanitarnye tekhnologii: problem vybora metodologicheskikh osnovaniy // www.gtmarket.ru/laboratory/exper- tize/2006/725
  5. Sultanbayeva G.S., Kulsariyeva A.T., Zhumashova Zh.A. Ot intellektualnoi natsii — k intellektualnomu potentsialu. Kollektivnaya mono- grafi ya. — Almaty: IP Volkova N.А., 2012. — 9 p.
  6. Lukyanov D.V. Istoriografi cheskoe znanie I gumanitarnye tekh- nologii sovremennnosti. Kommunikativnye strategii kultury I gumanitarnye tekhnologii. Nauchno-metodicheskie materialy. — SPB, 2007. — 79 p.
  7. Gumanitarnye tekhnologii v vuzovskoi obrazovatelnoi praktike: teoria I metodologiya proektirovaniya: Uchebnoe. — Sankt-Peterburg, 2007. — 198 p.
  8. Nazarbayev N.A. Sotsialno-ekonomicheskaya modernizatsiya — glavnyi vector razvitiya Kazakhstana // www.akorda.kz
  9. Kontseptsiya razvitiya obrazovaniya Respubliki Kazakhstan. — www.unesco.kz
  10. Kontseptsiya obrazovaniya Respubliki Kazakhstan. — Vvede- nie. — www.unesco.kz
  11. González-Loureiro M., Figueroa Dorrego P. University of Vigo (Spain), 2010. — 71 с.
  12. Bounfour А., University of Marne La Valle, France Assessing Performance of European Innovation Systems: An intellectual Capital Indexes Perspective.
  13. Zhuravlev V.A. Intellektualnyi potentsial kreativnogo obschest- va — element I kharakteristika // Kreativnaya ekonomika. — 2009. — № 8 (32). — p. 3-14.
  14. Nazanrbayev N.A. Sotsialno-ekonomicheskaya modernizatsiya — glavnyi vector razvitiya Kazakhstana // www.akorda.kz
Year: 2014
City: Almaty