The article is focused on the consideration of the advantages of the technology of subject-language integrated learning (CLIL) and the problems of its use in English lessons in an innovative school. Currently in Kazakhstan the most popular secondary educational institutions are schools with in-depth study of subjects in English, the essential difference of which is the attitude to educational innovations, the search for new models of education, the creation of fundamentally new educational information. An important role in this is played by the choice of the optimal teaching method. In this capacity the generally recognized technology of integrated teaching of a language and a subject, known as the CLIL technology, is used. This teaching method is the study of a certain science using a second or third language, mastering the language in a subject, achieving subject and language goals. In the course of applying CLIL, learning English becomes more focused, as it is used to develop specific communicative and sociocultural competencies. In addition, by working on various topics, students learn specific terms, replenishing their vocabulary with subject terminology, which prepares them for further study of subjects in English and successful dialogue in various fields of activity. An important place is occupied by the selection of educational material, which depends on the structure and specifics of the subject, which, in turn, requires professionalism from the teacher and a constant search for new methodological solutions. When compiling assignments, the teacher should take into account the specifics of language forms, include exercises for the development of four types of speech activity (reading, listening, writing, speaking), use various types of assessment to stimulate independent and creative activity of students, as well as increase their motivation.
Currently, a new education system is being established in Kazakhstan, focused on entering the international space. This process is accompanied by significant changes in theory and practice of the pedagogical process. “Today, the desire of an independent country is an educated generation”, the leader of the nation N. Nazarbayev said, “The future of our country is in the hands of today's young generation, and the fate of the younger generation is in the hands of teachers” . For this purpose innovative schools were opened.
An innovative educational institution is understood as an educational institution in which new models of education and management are being searched for, new teaching and upbringing technologies are being developed, the content and modern forms of organizing and stimulating labor are being improved. The main factor in the effectiveness of the development of innovative susceptibility of an educational institution is compliance with the technology of innovative design. One of the main trends in the development of an innovative institution is focus on solving the most important problems of Kazakhstani society (social, economic, spiritual, moral, etc.), which involves ensuring the social and professional mobility of the individual. Innovative education is characterized by universality and complexity, which provides the basis for the modern worldview of the unity of the noosphere, sociosphere and psychosphere. Currently in Kazakhstan the most popular secondary educational institutions are schools with in-depth study of subjects in English, the essential difference of which is the attitude to educational innovations, the search for new models of education, the creation of fundamentally new educational information. There are several innovative schools in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, such as NIS, Miras, Nurorda, English school, “Bilim-Innovation” lyceum etc.
In these innovative schools the choice of the best teaching method plays an important role, and the recognized technology of integrated language and subject teaching, known as CLIL technology, is implement-
ed. This teaching method is the study of a certain science using a second or third language, mastering the language in a subject, achieving subject and language goals.
The study of various topics allows you to learn not only terms, but also certain language constructions, which increases both the student's vocabulary and prepares him for the subsequent study and application of new knowledge and skills. During such training, students can study geography, literature, biology, physics, and even physical education in a foreign language. English teachers use the soft CLIL method, the task of with is to teach a foreign language using topics from other subjects. CLIL is used in a variety of educational systems, from kindergarten preparation to higher education.
As for the history of this concept, the term CLIL was first coined in 1994 by David Marsh. CLIL in English Content and Language Integrated Learning can be considered as teaching subjects in a second or third language (Kazakh, Russian or English). Subsequent research provides the following definition: “CLIL is a didactic method that allows students to develop linguistic and communicative skills in a foreign language”. Basically, CLIL has 2 goals: to study a subject in a foreign language and to master a foreign language through the subject taught. Kazakhstan's trilingual policy is aimed at providing schoolchildren with the opportunity to learn a language while learning it. CLIL is conventionally divided into two: Hard CLIL — a more complex view that requires a good knowledge of the language and its practical application. Soft CLIL — translated from English “soft” includes the use of simple elements in the classroom, in particular terms and short expressions .
Various studies claim that CLIL improved student content learning and cognition through а foreign language. Nitеo Moreno dе Diеxmas discovered young learners aged 9–10 developed their language competence and language skills by CLIL. Results confirmed that spoken production and interaction were positively affected for the first language competence, although CLIL learners showed higher scores in reading аnd writing . The application of this methodology considers the 4 main aspects of “C” in European countries. They are: Content is the content of the discipline. Development of knowledge, skills and abilities in the field of discipline. It is impossible to determine the content of teaching a foreign language without referring to linguistic science, which deals with the study of languages as certain code systems that people use to communicate . The methodology, on the other hand, studies the problems associated with teaching — the code that is comprehensively studied in linguistics. So, linguistics describes the norm of language, that is, the accepted speech uses of linguistic means, a set of rules that order the use of linguistic means in the speech of individual. In the modern linguistics the idea is expressed that any use is correct if it clearly and accurately conveys the intention of the speaker or writer, explores the stylistic means used in language, the sound, morphological, syntactic, lexical aspects of the language, as well as the language of spoken and written speech.
Focuses on teaching content using the target language
Students learn and use the English language to talk about content topics.
Many language learning programs focus on teaching vocabulary that is used every day communication.
Conversation activities in CLIL classes are very important to help students to develop the ability listen and speak about the subject and use the subject-specific vocabulary along with key sentences structures and other languages. Extensive use of foreign languages in the learning process. Communicativeness presupposes he speech orientation of the educational process, which consists not so much in the fact that a practical speech goal is pursued (in fact, all areas of the past and present set such a goal), but in the fact that the path to this goal is the very practical use of the language. Practical speech orientation is not only a goal, but also a means, where it is conditioned. Constant practical use of the language helps to overcome the dislike of the majority of students for linguistic manipulation, makes learning attractive, because it is consistent with the ultimate goal and thereby ensures the assimilation of speaking as a means of communication.
Cognition — thinking. Development of thinking and cognition. Thinking as a process of cognition requires perfect mastery of the instrument of cognition — language. When teaching a foreign language at school, thinking carries out its communicative function. And here it is inextricably linked with language,
speech. It is necessary to support the thesis “in the lessons of a foreign language, one should be taught to speak, not think. Consequently, any communicative task is essentially a speech-thinking task” .
Culture — understanding of interdisciplinary communication and subject culture. A large role of a foreign language belongs to the broadening, raising students’ general culture. It is an introduction to the culture of the people who created it, to their spiritual life. Through the language students get acquainted with traditions, geography, history, literature, education, art and many other aspects of the life of the peoples who speak the target language.
Whenever possible all forms of speech activity should be present in the classroom (CLIL), but the peculiarity of this method of teaching (CLIL) is that it takes up most of the study time. However the teacher can plan the lesson, some material can be presented in the form of audio text, and the material can be understood through dialogue and conversation through search methods of teaching. The audition can be combined with a subscription (filling in tables, drawing diagrams, correcting deficiencies). When choosing teaching materials, it is important to choose original texts of different styles that suit the age and level of language training of students. Audio and video materials could alo be used. The study material should achieve two goals: theme and language. Texts are divided into small parts, such as illustrations, diagrams, maps, and so on, with are well received when accompanied. Thus, conducting CLIL in English provides meta-disciplinary links and allows to achieve practical results in the development of the principles of the new educational standard, in particular, develops cultural awareness, internationalization, language competence, not only readiness to learn, but also the ability to apply new knowledge and, accordingly, to increase the evidence of life, to achieve the ultimate goal of success — the formation of professional competence of future graduates, increase their mobility and ability to adapt to rapidly changing life situations.
Purpose of CLIL:
Introduce students to new concepts and ideas related to the subject.
Ensuring that students master both the subject and the language.
Improving students' confidence in speaking a second language.
Prioritize the content of the subject in the lesson.
Plan according to the abilities of students in accordance with the second language curriculum.
Assignment of tasks that increase students' ability to think differently.
To support students in learning the language and the subject at the same time.
CLIL includes general education, not multilingualism in the first place. Therefore, it is a feature of additional training .
Training is based on 4 “C” aspects.
Requires psychological balance during the lesson.
During the explanation of the topic the teacher uses facial expressions, gestures, various pictures, voices, etc.
- Students improve their ability to communicate with each other in a foreign language.
- Increases students' intercultural knowledge.
- Develops students' thinking and creativity.
- Increases the confidence and motivation of students.
- Increases interest in learning a foreign language and the importance of using it in different situations.
In addition to improving the quality of education through the CLIL method, it is possible to improve the quality of education by learning a second or third language by saving time.
Teaching a second language is based on four skills: listening, reading, writing and speaking. There are many types of listening-based tasks. For example: listen to the text in the first language and recite it in the second language. This task teaches students to listen to information in one language and speak it in another. It also leads to quick thinking and systematic, informative delivery of information. Students are able to separate the main information of the listened text from the additional information and say it on their own. Based on this listening task, students can create a chart, comic, or mental map. It selects keywords from the listened information and teaches them to group them correctly.
Improving students' reading skills can range from simple tasks to problem-based learning tasks. The PISA international exam is held around the world to determine the level of functional literacy. Reading literacy means ability to understand the texts given to the student, reflect on them and relate the content of the given text to life. The main feature of reading skills is the ability to read comprehensibly, to study, to think critically, to present arguments, to prove them and to review. One of the tasks based on reading skills is “Pe-
riphrasis”. That is, students need to rewrite a given sentence in their own words. This task determines how well students understand a sentence, as well as teaches them to compose grammatically correct sentences in a second language. The task of reading information in the first language and telling it in the second language through pictures, tables, diagrams is also very interesting for students. For example, they can give information about the weather forecast that we use in everyday life through pictures and tell it in a second language .
Tasks like analyze, comment, write essay, etc. are based on writing skills. Students also perform creative work using storyboards. For example: “Write a letter to your friends or write information on a blog using the picture provided”. When doing any written work, the student must remember to keep the consistent style of writing. If it is a letter, the style of writing the letter, if it is a character, the style of official documents, etc. One of the most important tasks in writing is to write an essay. Essay has its own writing system. It is a thesis, giving arguments according to the thesis, if necessary, giving contradictory arguments, reason, suggestion and conclusion. Many people do not understand the difference between an essay and a work. However, these two things are not the same. When writing an essay, the author's position, problem solving, summarizing should be in the forefront.
Results and discussion
The first step in using the CLIL method is to implement a roadmap for the development of trilingual education. Second, when the language competencies of teachers and students are developed, they are given the opportunity to learn science in another language. Third, an interdisciplinary community develops, that is, teachers work together to plan, analyze, and jointly determine the expected outcome. Therefore this method is very effective and relevant in the context of updated knowledge. So, this approach is widely used in “Bilim-Innovation” high school for gifted girls in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan. A distinctive feature of the educational process of lyceums is the integration of the content of curricula of subjects of the natural and mathematical cycle and interdisciplinary integration, extended program material due to the lyceum component, the use of innovative technologies. The BIL curricula fully implement the State Educational Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Due to the variable part and the lyceum component, the in-depth content is being assimilated. Training is conducted in four languages: Kazakh, Russian, English, and Turkish. The subjects of the natural and mathematical cycle are taught in English. In order to study the result of interdisciplinary integration we examined the working curricula of science subjects such as physics, chemistry, biology, algebra, and geometry. All these subjects are successfully taught through the CLIL method. Teachers of the English language and these subjects cooperate with each other.
Can identify issues raised in the text.
Can formulate ideas on the issues raised.
Independent and joint types of subscription skills are used. All students are actively involved in the work, and each group completes and defends the task assigned to them.
Вестник Карагандинского университета
- Manage language:
- carefully choose language used to present content;
- use the same language repeatedly and consistently;
- minimize the use of language.
- Manage affective factors:
- maintain a positive, enthusiastic attitude;
- praise students often;
- use positive reinforcement and guide students to correct responses.
- Stretch thinking
as time allows, expand on topics to encourage more conversation and deeper thinking.
- Engage students:
- make it interesting;
- adjust to student’s abilities and interests;
- change activities frequently and use a variety of activities.
- Make it real:
- apply to real-life situations;
- apply to students’ experiences.
- Discuss progress with students:
- praise students, mention specific ways they are doing well in;
- at the end of class tell each student what they did;
- fill out class feedback form.
communicate with teachers to learn effective approaches and make suggestions.
- Reflect on practice:
- review teaching effectiveness;
- use self-evaluation checklist;
- consider ways to improve and plan improvement.
- Systemize Integration:
familiarize yourself with the ABC Time systemizes approach of presenting, providing practice opportunities and encouraging students to demonstrate new language skills through production activities.
In addition, working on various topics, students of the mentioned innovative school learn specific terms, replenishing their vocabulary with subject terminology, which prepares them for further study of subjects in English and successful dialogue in various fields of activity. An important place is occupied by the selection of educational material, which depends on the structure and specifics of the subject, which, in turn, requires professionalism from the teacher and a constant search for new methodological solutions. When compiling assignments, the English teacher of this school takes into account the specifics of language forms, includes exercises for the development of four types of speech activity (reading, listening, writing, speaking), uses
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various types of assessment to stimulate independent and creative activity of students, as well as increase their motivation.
Thus, expected learning outcomes using the CLIL method are:
- a multicultural personality is brought up;
- language competence develops;
- quality of education increases;
- functional literacy develops;
- an interdisciplinary community is formed.
The main goal of education is to develop students' thinking skills, to teach them to speak fluently, to express themselves openly and fully, to broaden their horizons, and to teach each student to acquire knowledge and skills to the best of their ability. To achieve this goal CLIL is an effective way to implement a trilingual education program in connection with the updated learning process. The method is very popular in schools in a number of countries and significantly increases students' interest in learning languages. In classes where CLIL technology is applied, learning a foreign language becomes not just a task, but a means for learning a new subject. The student processes a fairly large amount of language material, which results in immersion in the natural language environment.
The educational technology under consideration is especially actively used in our country in innovative schools teaching a number of subjects in English, where the process of foreign language acquisition is inextricably linked with the achievements of science and technology in general. In particular, in the course of applying the CLIL method in English classes, language learning becomes more focused since it is used to develop specific communicative and sociocultural competencies.
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