Introduction. Recycling industrial wastewater can increase profitability while helping to conserve water - an increasingly scarce and expensive commodity.The wastewater engineers at Everfilt design treatment systems to suit each client’s particular needs and operating conditions. Our manufacturing group then fabricates the system to your requirements. We deliver a turnkey system that includes all the components required to condition the wastewater for re-use.
Purpose of the study. Everfilt has over thirty years of experience in virtually every industry. Our broad base of experience and knowledge enable Everfilt to design cost-effective, practical wastewater treatment systems [1-2].
Materials and methods. Once that information has been obtained, our engineers and the client: - Identify the various ways the water can be used in the specific facility.
- Identify the substances to be removed from the water to make it suitable for each use.
- Determine the process needed to re-condition the wastewater for each use.
- Estimate how much water consumption would be saved by recycling and calculate the annual cost of the water.
- Obtain a cost estimate for the required treatment system.
Results and discussion. The steps needed to treat industrial wastewater, and the ways recycled water can be used effectively, depend on the substances present in the wastewater and the water requirements of a particular facility.
Treated wastewater can be used as: Process water.Make-up water for: cooling loops,boilers, fire fighting, washing/rinsing/wash down, Process water. Non-potable water for: Restrooms.Landscape irrigation.Decorative water features.
Deciding how best to use wastewater begins with a laboratory analysis of the substances present in the water. Everfilt engineers work with each client to specify the laboratory tests that should be performed.
Compare the cost savings of reduced water consumption to the capital and operating expenses of the treatment system to determine whether the investment in recycling is cost-effective [2-3].
The success of superchlorination-dechlorination system depends on putting enough chlorine in the water to provide a residual of 3.0 to 5.0 ppm. This is considerably greater than chlorine residual of 0.1 to 0.5 ppm usually found in municipal water supplies when drawn from the tap. A superchlorinationdechlorination systems consists of two basic units. A chlorinator feeds chlorine into raw water. This chlorine feed is stepped up to provide the needed residual. A dechlorinator unit then removes the excess chlorine from the water before it reaches the household taps. The chlorinator should be installed so that it feeds the chlorine into the water before it reaches the pressure tank. A general purpose chemical feed pump will do the job. The size and the placement of the dechlorinator unit depends on the type of treatment necessary. This will usually be an activated carbon filter. If pathogen kill is all that is required, a small dechlorinator can be installed at the kitchen sink. This unit then serves to remove chlorine from water used for drinking and cooking. The advantage in dechlorinating only a part of the water is obvious. A smaller filter unit does the job and since only a small portion of the total water is filtered under such conditions, the unit lasts longer before either servicing or replacement is necessary. Essentially dechlorination is not needed to ensure a safe drinking water. Once the water is chlorinated, the health hazard is gone. The chlorine residual is removed merely to make the water palatable. If the problem is compounded due to the presence or iron and/or manganese, all the water should be filtered. Under such conditions, a larger central filter is necessary and should be placed on the main line after the pressure tank.
Conclusions. The prime advantage of the superchlorination-dechlorination process is that it saturates water with enough chlorine to kill bacteria. Simple chlorination sometimes fails of its objective because homeowners may set the chlorine feed rate too low in order to avoid giving their water a chlorine taste. Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate - Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate can sterilize drinking water, swimming pool, tableware and air, or be used for fighting against infectious diseases as routine disinfection, preventive tableware and environmental sterilization in different places, or act as disinfectant in raising silkworm, livestock, poultry and fish.
- Climate Change 2001. Synthesis report., Cambrige University Press, UK, 2003.
- G.I. Marchuk, Mathematical Modelling in Environmental Problems Nauka, Moscow 1982.
- G.I.Marchuk, Adjoint Equations and Analysis of Complex Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1995.