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Medical and social problems of the elderly


Poor health of older people is determined in the present conditions in the main socio-economic factors. Marked by the greatest demand in the elderly people of all age intervals outpatient forms of medical and social services in the community.

Key words: elderly, medical and social problems, aging, gerontology

Topicality: Throughout the world, there is a rapid aging of the population. It is projected that by 2100, more than triple the number of persons aged 60 years or older. The process of aging of the population, expressed in increasing the proportion of older people, there is now almost everywhere. Older people, ie people aged 60 years and older, make an important contribution to society as members of families, volunteers, as well as active employees. The world's population is rapidly aging. Between 2000 and 2050, the proportion of older people in the world, estimated to double from about 11% to 22%. In absolute terms, is expected to increase the number of people older than 60 years from 605 million to 2 billion people. Older people face particular challenges in terms of physical and mental health, which must be recognized.The UN predicts the rate of population ageing in the 21st century will exceed that of the previous century. Countries vary significantly in terms of the degree, and the pace, of these changes, and the UN expects populations that began ageing later to have less time to adapt to the many implications of these changes.

Aging - the result of long-term changes in demographics, changes in the nature of human reproduction and migration. This process has its own specific features in each country, in most countries it led to a reduction in mortality and increased life expectancy. According to UN experts, a feature of this process in Kazakhstan is that population aging is the result of two factors: the declining birth rate and high mortality, especially among men of working age. In 2009, the proportion of the population 60 years and older in the world average is 10.8%. He was the smallest in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (1.9%), and the largest - in Japan (29.7%). The proportion of the population over 60 years in Kazakhstan by 2050 according to UN projections is 25.4%.

However, to date the dynamics of mortality is replaced by a trend of decline, and the birth rate - growth. In turn, the average life expectancy of the population of Kazakhstan is characterized by objective tendency of reduction, it is stated in the past three decades, which came to replace since the beginning of the twenty-first trend growth.

Purpose of the study: Waysofsolvingthemedicalandsocialproblemsintheelderly

Results of Research and Analysis:Population ageing arises from two demographic effects: increasing longevity and declining fertility. An increase in longevity raises the average age of the population by increasing the numbers of surviving older people. A decline in fertility reduces the number of babies, and as the effect continues, the numbers of younger people in general also reduce.

Of these two forces, it is declining fertility that is the largest contributor to population ageing in the world today. More specifically, it is the large decline in the overall fertility rate over the last half century that is primarily responsible for the population ageing in the world’s most developed countries. Because many developing countries are going through faster fertility transitions, they will experience even faster population ageing than the currently developed countries in the future.

The rate at which the population ages is likely to increase over the next three decades; however, few countries know whether their older populations are living the extra years of life in good or poor health. A "compression of morbidity" would imply reduced disability in old age, whereas an expansion would see an increase in poor health with increased longevity. Another option has been posed for a situation of "dynamic equilibrium".This is crucial information for governments if the limits of lifespan continue to increase indefinitely, as some researchers believe it will. The World Health Organization's suite of household health studies is working to provide the needed health and well-being evidence, including, for example the World Health Survey, and the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. These surveys cover 308,000 respondents aged 18+ years and 81,000 aged 50+ years from 70 countries.

Table 1 - The dynamics of life expectancy and mortality in Kazakhstan for 2009-2013. (5 years)


Life expectancy

The mortality rate per 1000 population





















64. 84








In 1982, the UN General Assembly in Vienna was convened by the World Association on Aging, which first adopted the International Plan of Action on Ageing humanity for up to 20 years. He proceeded from the fact that older people are a special group in their properties, needs and rights. Then in April 2002, the international community was adopted in Madrid next "Madrid Plan of Action on Ageing", also designed for 20 years.

Time has shown that the "epicenter" of demographic aging has shifted from Europe to developing countries, which now account for 70 percent of the elderly population.

Currently in Kazakhstan in social health health sector is not carried out systematic study of the health effects associated with the problem of limited social role of seniors at the end of the cycle of employment, medical health service resources are directed to the provision of health and social care in the presence of the disease in older period, there is no dynamic control of their health. Practical health care does not pay attention to preventive measures to protect the health of pensioners, for the implementation of the available methods for conservation of active longevity, maintaining mobility and self-service this population in different age periods.

Conclusion. Thus, it is important to prepare health professionals and the public to address the special needs of older people, including:

  • training of health professionals on assistance in old age;
  • prevention and management of age-related chronic diseases, including mental, neurological disorders and disorders related to psychoactive substances;
  • Develop a long-term sustainable policies and palliative care; and
  • Establishment of age-appropriate services and facilities.

Poor health of older people is determined in the present conditions in the main socio-economic factors. Marked by the greatest demand in the elderly people of all age intervals outpatient forms of medical and social services in the community. Notes the limited availability of medical and social assistance associated with their limited material means to pay for clinical diagnostic research and higher prices for medicines. Insufficient volume of the currently existing health and social care.