Статьи, год 2011

In modern conditions in connection with development of numerous technological processes, both in a society, and in a science there is a considerable quantity of sources which create danger, as for harm-doing of the person, and to his property by the corresponding sources. Accordingly, also the quantity of cases of occurrence of obligations, owing to harm-doing by the given objects increases. There is a necessity to establish who will have the duty to bear consequences of such damage: the one who has caused it, the one who has incurred it, or probably any third party which wasn't harm-doer or victim. The appreciable place among set of various legal means by means of harmful consequences can be smoothed down, belongs to the obligation arising owing to a trespass by a source of raised danger. The quantity of infringements of the rights of citizens, despite accepted by a society and the measure state, unfortunately, still remains high.
2011

Niniejszy tekst ma na celu ocenę polemiki wokół deklarowanej nielegalności demokratycznej decyzji prawnych, które oceniają ustawy i przepisy prawne jako niekonstytucyjne. Artykuł stanowi wprowadzenie do dyskusji na temat problematyki demokratycznej legalności kontroli konstytucyjności praw, w oparciu o doświadczenia brazylijskie, i w tym odniesieniu, zachęca do refleksji na ten temat w kontekście Polski.
2011

Le principe de proportionnalité provient décidemment de la doctrine et de la pratique judiciaire allemandes. Quand le Tribunal constitutionnel polonais l’a reçue, le 26 avril 1995, pour la première fois, de façon complète et officielle, il l’a fait conformément a la formule jurisprudentielle de la Cour constitutionnel fédéral allemande [1]. Son approche comporte trois exigences. La première se rapport a la caractéristique dénommée appropriation (Geeingnetheit). La mesure restrictive de liberté peut être réputée appropriée lorsqu’elle est au moins capable de protéger effectivement l’intérêt légitime d’une liberté en  péril. En d’autres termes, le moyen est appropriée lorsqu’il est de nature a favoriser le résultat désiré. Le contrôle s’exerce en regard des informations dont l’autorité pouvait en tenir compte au moment de la prise de décision. L’évaluation de l’appropriation requiert du juge constitutionnel qu’il se substitue a l’autorité compétente dans la mise au point d’un pronostic.
2011

The vast majority of Eastern religion plays a significant role, religious organizations, in some cases are more effective than secular political parties, the mechanism of influencing the behavior of the masses. An important and powerful tool is the Mosque, its practical ability to work with people. Activation of religious trends in the spread of Islam, their latent influence on the system of international relations set in the late 1960–1970-ies in the theoretical, political and practical terms, the problem of an Islamic alternative world order.
2011

One of the earliest published examples of zooarchaeology was written by paleontologist Chester Stock in 1929 [1; 281–289]. He was given an assortment of animal bones found in the La Brea Tar Pits in Southern California. Instead of simply publishing a list of species, he identified the type of bone as known as an element, and calculated the minimum number of individual animals that must have fallen into the tar pit to have created this specific collection of bones. Stock’s analysis of the bones beyond simple identification of species is one of the earliest examples of modern techniques of zooarchaeology.
2011
Fingers and teeth: an example of zooarchaeological methods