HISTORY

The first difficulty in the successful dealing with that phenomenon is the lack of its definition in the legal documents. In the constitutional or international instruments, there is a talk of different kinds of terrorism, but never on a global one. We can only guess what we speak when we refer to: it affects at least two countries or the only one, but with an outside input.

Kurdish movement during an epoch of Cold war. Kurdistan because of the geographical affinity to the USSR was considered in the West as natural anti-Soviet base, and its basic population — Kurds owing to the well-known traditionally prorussian and prosoviet orientation, as a natural reserve of Moscow in case of possible complications in the Middle East which people have strengthened struggle against imperialism and colonialism. Therefore Kurdish national movement then in the West concerned with suspicion or it is directly hostile, and to the antikurdish chauvinistic policy of ruling circles of the Middle-Eastern countries — allies of the countries of the NATO and members of its Middle-Eastern branch — the Bagdad pact (then SENTO) it is favourable. For the same reason in Soviet Union concerned foreign Kurds as to potential allies and informally supported Kurdish movements and parties with the left orientations, such as the wars which have arisen right after «Democratic party of the Iranian Kurdistan» (DPIK), «Democratic party of Kurdistan» (DPK) in Iraq and their analogues approximately under the same name in Syria and Turkey. After falling of a Kurdish autonomy in Mehabad (to which defeat of Kurdish revolt in Iraq in 1943–1945, headed by Mustafa Barzani preceded, then the commander of armed forces of the Mehabad autonomy and the main figure in Kurdish resistance) in Kurdish movement some time recession though large performances, for example country revolt in Mehabad and Bokane (the Iranian Kurdistan) are noted some was observed. Only on a boundary 1950–1960 there were preconditions for a new steep slope of Kurdish national movement.

Just two years ago in 2007, the Siberian Republic of Tuva figured prominently in the Russian news as it was preferred out of 88 regions by the then Russian President Vladimir Putin to host Monaco Prince Albert II for a three-day holiday [1]. The fact that Tuva’s importance lies in its cultural richness and natural beauty must have attracted Putin to spend holidays with his guest there. Covering an area of 170,500 sq. kilometers with its capital Kyzyl formerly known as Belotsarsk, Tuva, previously known as Tannu Tuva is located in the geographical «center» of Asia where the Siberian and Central Asian landscapes congregate, i.e., in the south-eastern Siberia in the region of the Enisei (also spelled Yenesei) river. Moreover, the whole area is separated from Mongolia by the Tannu Ola range and from Russia by the Sayan range of mountains. Otherwise known as Uryankhai [2], whose indigenous inhabitants are connected with the Mongols, is now the smallest and most remote republic of the Russian Federation, situated at a distance of 1,000 kilometers south of the Siberian super city of Krasnoyarsk. From the eighteenth century onwards due to its strategic location of being in the zone of Sino-Russian rivalry, Tuva emerged as a geo-political entity, which finally came under Moscow’s sphere of influence in 1944 [3].

The Republic of India hasn’t fully pledged itself to any camp or global pole during the Cold War since 1947 and was one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement. Since the post-Cold War epoch that position has eroded. India has been moving away from its traditional position, relationships and policy in the international arena for over a decade. India has been vied for as an ally in the »Great Game» that is underway, once again. This round of the «Great Game» is, however, being played under a far broader spectrum than the one played between Great Britain and Russian Empire. In question is the Indian power relationship with two geopolitical entities: the first is the »Periphery» and the second is »Eurasia».

Central Asia covers territory of five countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is situated in the heart of the Eurasian continent with the total area of 3,882,000 square kilometres and the population over 53 million (2004) of which more than 82 % is living in the Aral Sea basin. It borders with Afghanistan and Iran in the south, with China in the east and with Russia in the west and in the north.

The vast majority of Eastern religion plays a significant role, religious organizations, in some cases are more effective than secular political parties, the mechanism of influencing the behavior of the masses. An important and powerful tool is the Mosque, its practical ability to work with people. Activation of religious trends in the spread of Islam, their latent influence on the system of international relations set in the late 1960–1970-ies in the theoretical, political and practical terms, the problem of an Islamic alternative world order.

One of the earliest published examples of zooarchaeology was written by paleontologist Chester Stock in 1929 [1; 281–289]. He was given an assortment of animal bones found in the La Brea Tar Pits in Southern California. Instead of simply publishing a list of species, he identified the type of bone as known as an element, and calculated the minimum number of individual animals that must have fallen into the tar pit to have created this specific collection of bones. Stock’s analysis of the bones beyond simple identification of species is one of the earliest examples of modern techniques of zooarchaeology.

Afghanistan presently has emerged as the leading producer of the illicit drug trade in the world. The illicit opiate poppy cultivation, production and trafficking has adversely impacted the governance, security, development and stability not only in Afghanistan but also its neighbors. However, the threat of the illicit opiate business on the social and individual life is of a colossal nature. Afghanistan opiates possess significant health challenges to humankind all around the world, affecting the populace of Afghanistan and its neighbors to a large extent.

The article is devoted to the topical issues of the language policy in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1920–1940. In the article we give consideration to one of the most favorable period of case history of national language system in Kazakhstan. We carry out a review of problematic situations occurred before the war time. Language situation and language development in the state are the most complicated and problematic issues of inter-ethnic relation regulation. To find reasonable ways to solve them means stability for society. To solve issues regarding state and legal regulation of language process is a quite difficult and ambiguous thing to do in the Constitution development both in the Former Kazakh SSR and in foreign countries. Everything depends on certain conditions and demands of society for use and development of a certain language, on combination of different languages.

The article is devoted to the analysis of Russian historical and political science literature on the problem of China’s Central Asian policy taking the example of the Chinese-Kazakhstan relations in the 1990–2000 ss. The author concludes that the Sino-Kazakh relations scholars are given a positive assessment, but a number of factors are named which can affect positive prospects of bilateral relationship.

Il lavoro analizza i problemi di comprensione ideologica delle varie fasi della filosofia italiana in quale si riferiscono ad un sistema assiologico della visione spirituale cattolica. Questa analisi è offerta attraverso lo studio del concetto originale del filosofo italiano Giovanni Gentile, che tenta di creare in modo diverso concetti filosofici e religiosi che riflettono la vista spirituale, socio-culturale del mondo. Grande importanza è dedicata all’analisi delle principali categorie di concetti che costituiscono la principale teoria filosofica di base della religione. Attraverso l'analisi del patrimonio creativo di Giovanni Gentile, l'autore va alle generalizzazioni sociali e filosofiche generali, universali, che a loro volta delineano più accuratamente delineano la ricerca spaziale di Paolo de Lucia.

İttihat ve Terakki, Osmanlı Hükümeti’nin Makedonya hususundaki yaklaşım tarzına muhalefet ederek 20 Mayıs 1908’de bir layiha yayımlayarak ilk defa açıkça adını duyurmuşlardır. Bu layiha Manastır’daki tüm konsolosluklara gönderilmiş ve durum protesto edilmiştir. Böylece Cemiyet’in artık Makedonya Sorunu’nu kendisinin tek başına çözeceğine dair kararını meşrutiyetten yaklaşık iki ay önce Büyük Güçlere bildirdiğini anlamaktayız. Olup biten olaylar Padişahı zora sokuyor ve sonunda Sultan II. Abdülhamit Han 23 Temmuz 1908’de “İkinci Meşrutiyeti” ilan eder, Anayasayı yeniden yürürlüğe koyar ve tatil edilmiş olan Meclis-i Mebusan’ı toplantıya çağırır. Meşrutiyetin ilanıyla Enver Bey artık “Hürriyet Kahramanı Binbaşı Enver Bey” olmuştu.

Kıbrıs 1878 yılında egemenlik hakkı Osmanlı Devleti’nde kalmak üzere, geçici olarak İngiliz yönetimine bırakılmıştı. Bu durum Birinci Cihan Harbine kadar sürdü. 29 Ekim 1914 tarihinde Osmanlı Devleti, İttifak Blok taraftarı olarak savaşa katılınca, bunu fırsat bilen İngiltere, 5 Kasın 1914’te Kıbrıs’ı ilhak ettiğini açıklamıştır. İngiltere’nin b tek yanlı ilhakı 1923’e kadar sürdü. Ancak Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ise 1923’te Lozan Antlaşmasıyla Kıbrıs’ın İngilizler tarafından ilhakını kabul etmiştir. Böylece 1960 yılına kadar Kıbrıs İngiliz egemenliği altında yaşayan ada statüsünde sürekli yeni gelişmelere sahne oldu. Yunanistan’ın ve Kıbrıs Rumlarının da çabasıyla adanın Yunanistan’la birleşmesi istenince, Kıbrıs’ta Türklerle Rumlara ve Türkiye ile Yunanistan arasında Kıbrıs uyuşmazlığı ve sorunu ortaya çıkmıştır.

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Яндекс.Метрика