The article considers the psychological peculiarities of children in orphanages in science and practice. Defines the essence of the phenomenon of «we» in the orphanage. Presents special psychological problems of children conventional residential institutions and their differences between the pupils of children's homes of family type. A significant place is given to the consideration of the structure of the model orphanage of family type. On the basis of socio-pedagogical activity are identified in general terms, the tasks of the children's homes of family type. Examine the main branches of the correctional-educational work with children and the implementation of the principle of family education.