Cooperation of pedagogue and pupil and its dependence on pedagogical skill in a condition of modern education system

The article deals with the problem of interaction of the teacher and the pupil, and its dependence on the pedagogical skill in today's education system. Main characteristics of pedagogical interaction here are mutual understanding, mutual learning, relationships, mutual action, and interference. The article discusses the pedagogical interaction, which can be represented as an individual process (between the tutor and pupil) sociopsychological (interaction in the team) and as an integrated (combining various educational impact in a particular society). 

The educational process is created from a wide variety of events, many situations. And from that, what is the position and behavior of teacher in them, and depends on the results of education. Child’s personally evolution and his own activity in achieving goals, independence of his choice. Humanistic pedagogy suggests about necessity of recognizing subjective role of child’s relations with world and people. Thus, the main unit of the educational process becomes, which involves mutual and productive evolution of the personal qualities of the teacher and his students on the basis of equality in communication and partnership in a joint venture.

In pedagogical Encyclopedic Dictionary [1], proposes for us a definition of pedagogical interaction as a process that occurs between a teacher and a pupil in the course of the educational process and aimed at developing the child's personality.

In the Kadjaspirov’s dictionary pedagogical interaction is treated as a pedagogical interaction — accidental or intentional, private or public, long or short verbal or non-verbal personally contact of tutor and pupil (s), which has the consequence of reciprocal changes in their behavior, activity, relationships, systems [2]. Pedagogical interaction could be in the form of co — operation, when it reaches mutual agreement and solidarity within in the meaning of aims of joint activities and in the ways of achieving, and in the form of competition, when some successes stimulate or inhibit a more productive and purposeful activities of other participants in the joint activity.

Humanistic-oriented pedagogical process can only be a process of pedagogical interaction of educator and pupil, where both parties act as parity (equal) to the best of their knowledge and capabilities partners work together.

Main characteristics of pedagogical interaction are here — mutual understanding, mutual learning, relationships, mutual action, interference. Educator should be understood, admit and accept the child.

The child's understanding — is the ability to grasp the meaning of actions and deeds pupil, the ability to look at the world with the eyes of a child.

Child’s admission — is a respective relation to rights of the child, a positive assessment of their uniqueness and diversity.

Acceptance of the child — unconditional positive relation to the child, his individual characteristics, whether it is on high or low level he has reached.

At the heart of pedagogical interaction is cooperation, which is the beginning of human social life. Interaction plays a crucial role in human communication in business, partnerships, subject to etiquette, the manifestation of mercy.

Pedagogical interaction can be seen as an individual process (between the tutor and pupil) sociopsychological (interaction in the team) and as an integrated (combining various educational impact in a particular society). Interaction becomes pedagogical, when adults (teachers and parents) act as mentors.

Pedagogical interaction presupposes the equality of relations, but in relations with children, adults often use authoritarian impact, based on their age and educational (professional) benefits. Therefore, for adults pedagogical interaction associated with the moral difficulties and danger of going to shaky line  beyond which begins authoritarianism, moralism and ultimately violence against the person. In situations of inequality in child comes the response, it has a passive resistance education. In situations of inequality with child comes feedback, he offers passive resistance to education.

Experienced, talented teachers have pedagogical intuition and tact and know how to manage the pedagogical interaction, which is improving, as the complexity of the spiritual and intellectual needs of its members, not only promotes the formation of the child's personality, but also the creative growth of the teacher.

Thus, we can conclude that the pedagogical interaction — is coordinated efforts to achieve common goals and outcomes to address the participants for their significant problem or challenge. Interaction is one of the main ways of enhancing self-development of the child.

Tendency to turn education into a subject-subject process is put into practice in teaching cooperation, ideas which have been hailed by teachers-innovators (Sh.A.Amonashvili, I.P.Volkov, E.N.Ilin, V.F.Shatalov etc.) a direction opposite to the authoritarian imperative pedagogy. The best option practices for cooperation in the construction of pedagogical interaction by Sh.A.Amonashvili, expected to increase the status and reference pupil is not accompanied by a decrease in these parameters in the teacher. The teacher becomes the pupil of an assistant in the awareness of themselves as individuals, to identify, disclose its capabilities, identity formation, implementation and personally significant public of acceptable self-assertion, selfdetermination, self-realization. Necessity and naturalness of pedagogical interaction and cooperation have been substantiated by L. S.. Vygotsky in the definition of the zone of proximal development of the child  [3]:

«The fact that a child can do today with the cooperation and under the leadership of tomorrow, he becomes able to perform independently. Exploring what the child is able to perform on their own, we will explore the development yesterday. Exploring something that the child is able to perform in cooperation, we define the development of tomorrow».

Students can’t work together in its entirety without the participation of the teacher. But still he can’t do without the children. The partnership involves not only participation, but also the exchange of certain values in the course of joint activity, the true significance of which is determined by the purpose, content, form and performance provided their awareness of all its members. The essence of cooperation between adult and child in the OHR is dialogical relations, communication. Due to this evolving:

  • Ability to build their action with the actions of the partner to understand the relativity of opinion, and to discover the difference of emotional states of the venturers;
  • Initiative, the ability to extract the missing information through questions, dialogue and willingness to offer a general partner plan of action;
  • Adequate self-esteem, self-criticism, friendliness in assessing partner capacity without aggression, rationally resolve

Pedagogical interaction, cooperation perform a developmental role for each participant. On the one hand, the teacher helps children in their development (intellectual, moral, emotional, physical, etc.), and on the other hand, children stimulate the development and self-improvement of the teacher in his professional and educational and human qualities of the individual. However, it should be recognized that the role of organizer of pedagogical interaction is significantly different from that of the dictator of the educational process requires a particular social setting, development of individual style. L.K.Grebenkina refers to D.A.Beluhina [4], which notes that the teacher should follow certain principles of pedagogical interaction among whom he calls:

  • Humanistic orientation (real software development positives personal potential person);
  • Creativity (ability to create and implement new approaches to the content and form of his teaching activities);
  • The leading character of pedagogical activity (teacher works for the future);
  • Equality in dialogue and partnership in joint ventures;
  • Psychotherapy nature of the interaction;
  • Emotional involvement (the experience of the experience).

In teaching, there are different classification diagram. Based on the practical work of the teacher, N.E.Schurkova considers the following groups of methods [Figure]:

Every teacher, choosing individual style, and finds its orientation in their professional activities. The first step in the implementation of pedagogical interaction is to realize its essence, objectives, principles and content, which are implemented in various forms of teaching. The next step — the selection  of  ways in which to achieve them.

Methods of pedagogical interaction

Figure. Methods of pedagogical interaction

From the teacher requires professional knowledge of the entire arsenal of methods, techniques, tools needed to solve pedagogical problems. P.I.Pidkasisty believes that methods of interaction rather a tool of theoretical analysis, and the methods of exposure are carried out in practice. The teacher has to build a direct interaction, relationships with pupils, resorting to the analysis of its instruments held only after intercourse or use methods planned when the teacher poses a problem to be solved, to answer the question: «What to do next?»

  • The methods by which influence on the minds of students, formed their views (ideas, concepts), the operative exchange of information in the educational system between its members;
  • The methods by which influence the behavior of pupils, organized their activities are stimulated by its positive motives;
  • The methods by which assist in self-analysis and self-esteem of

Methods of persuasion. Consciousness develops in humans naturally only in joint activities with other people. Work with information involves the perception, analysis, simulation and testing of the possible consequences of the results obtained in practice. Method of persuasion — is the way to influence consciousness. It can be done in various ways: a suggestion, story, dialogue, lecture, etc.

Methods of exercise contribute to the formation of the unity of consciousness and behavior. They are based on the method of management of students with a variety and repetitive cases, each performing certain assignments (tasks). Pedagogical requirement implies posing pupil in a situation to perform certain actions. It provides stimulation or inhibition of certain actions of the children, their actions, behavior in general by developing the personal relationship of the teacher to the pupil. Perspective — method of pedagogical interaction that stimulates socially useful activity of children by setting before them fascinating meaningful goals. In this case, the achievement of becoming a personal desire, desire and interest pupil.

Methods of self-esteem. Rewards and punishments — a method of teacher stimulations, which is by encouraging students to a particular activity, however, hinders their unwanted actions and behavior. Contents of rewards and sanctions is to bring about adjustments in individual rights and responsibilities of students as members of the team, as well as in the moral evaluation of their performance. Public opinion — the method of pedagogical interaction, which, as it absorbs all the others, because it attracts students to the development and presentation of each other socially and morally valuable requirements formulation and implementation of socially and personally significant prospects, has a decisive influence on the effectiveness of rewards and punishments.

Pedagogical interaction consists of the following main elements:

  • The ability to thoughtfully analyze the life and deeds of the children, their educational outcomes: an analysis of teaching situations;
  • Knowledge of the main methods of pedagogical interaction, their types, forms, as well as the conditions for their effective application;
  • Possession of a set of specialized knowledge and skills in the practical use of methods of interaction that is teaching

In the analysis of psychological and educational research, we pay attention to the findings and L.A.Shkutina E.K.Tayupova article «joint creative work of teachers as one of the conditions for the development of creative abilities of students in additional education system» [5]. Based on research and Yu.N.Kalyutina V.Y.Lyaudis, they concluded that the interaction of subjects can be regarded as a form of communication that enables the distribution and redistribution of functions between the participants in joint creative activity. It is important that the teacher considered the creativity of students and how their own process, along with the implementation of pedagogical functions (activities for students), included in the actual creative work (work for yourself), and thus became a partner in the creative process. The partnership is impossible without communication, so we believe that one of the basic conditions of pedagogical skills when interacting with the pupil is professional communication.

In communicating the teacher the whole system interaction (orientation, planning act of communication, the implementation of the tasks of speaking and feedback) professionalized, that is, the need for communication is dictated by professional goals, which leads to a change in professional direction and the other components of communication. One of the essential conditions for successful cooperation is the nature of the relationship of teacher and pupil, the capacity and ability to use information obtained through the feedback and how each of them is open, that is, the quality of the contact. We were interested in the study of the influence of the ratio N.V.Mirza feedback processes and contacts, which have been identified three groups of teachers [6]. Most effective in the interaction described style of communication educators — arenniki — they are open and able to take into account the condition of children, helping educators easily establish contact relationships with their children, and create conditions feelings of confidence, comfort, and this is another positive stimulation to learn. They create the conditions for the children themselves want to do what is necessary according to the logic of the process. When communicating with teachers-arenniki children have positive emotional states.

Considering communication as a system-integrating process will focus on communicative -performing skills of the individual. It appears as two interrelated and at the same time relatively independent ability to find adequate communication relating to the communicative structure, proper purpose of the communication, and the ability to realize a communicative intention to communicate directly, that is, to demonstrate communicative performance technique of communication. In communicative and performing skills personality manifested many of her skills, and above all, emotional and psychological skills of self-regulation.

Teacher, exercising professional communication activities must relate its content, method, rhythm, character with different psycho-physiological and social peculiarities of perception and response of all who come to him in human relations. Build their communication activities based on the characteristics of their partners, tuning in on a wave of feeling their condition; understand the incentives and motives, views, orientations. Able not only to explain them, but also so build communication, to take them into account, ensuring adequate for achieving the objectives of response. All the factors described communicative activity V.S.Grehnev divides into two groups: personal — that corresponds with the man himself as a person and operating — that characterizes the process of communication: how, by what methods, achieved contact with children [7].

A.A.Kalyuzhniy identifies the following features of professional-pedagogical communication — opening partner in the dialogue; Support partner in its output (associated with empathy); elevation of the individual [8]. The implementation of these functions are provided by professional communicative abilities of the teacher — the possession of its plastic, the removal of barriers of communication, ownership and adoption of multiple channels of communication (auditory, visual, tactile, verbal, object-effective), the ability to take an interest, advancing success. Effective interaction involves dialogic communication, which is based on mutual understanding and respect for the subjects of the educational process by which developing:

  • Initiative, the ability to extract the missing information through questions, dialogue and willingness to offer a general partner plan of action;
  • Ability to build their action with the actions of the partner to understand the relativity of opinion, and to discover the difference of emotional states of the venturers;
  • Adequate self-esteem, self-criticism, friendliness, in the assessment of partner aggression without the ability to rationally resolve

Pedagogical interaction, cooperation perform a developmental role for each participant. On the one hand, students stimulate the development and cultivation of the teacher in his professional and educational and human qualities of the individual. The effectiveness of teachers is inextricably linked to the art of communication and it is necessary to strive to improve their professional skills as well as communication to the teacher's professional activity. In terms of cooperation with the children the teacher should fulfill certain requirements for the organization of the communication process: credibility, dialogue, mutual understanding, and a real psychological contact, the ability to give up and move on to the impact of the interaction.

Thus, we believe that competence in communication (professional communication) is one of the conditions of pedagogical skills necessary for effective interaction between teacher and pupil.

  

References

  1. Pedagogical Encyclopedic Dictionary / B.M.Bim-Bad, Moscow: Great Russian Encyclopedia, 2002, 528
  2. Kadzhaspirova G.M., Kadzhaspirov A.Yu. Dictionary of pedagogy, Moscow: ICC «March»; Rostov N / D.: Publishing Center «March», 2005, 448
  3. Mizherikov V.A., Ermolenko M.N. Introduction to teaching, Moscow: Ped. on of Russia, 2002, 238
  4. Basis of Pedagogical Skills: Training. benefits. for specials. Higher. Training. Head / I.A.Zyazyun, F.Kryvonоs, N.N.Tarasevich et al.; ed. I.A.Zyazyun, Moscow: Education, 1989, 302 p.
  5. Shkutina L.A., Tayupova E.K. Bulletin of the University. Pedagogy., 2008, 2, 99–103 p.
  6. Mirza N.V. Professional competence of the teacher, Moscow: Publishing House of the Independent Literary Agency «Moscow Parnassus», 2008, 256
  7. Ilyasova A.N. Problems of development of pedagogical theory of Kazakhstan (1900–1960), Almaty, 1997, 300
  8. Kalyuzhniy A.A. Pedagogical imageology. Textbook for university students, Almaty: Scientific Publishing Center «Gylym» 2004, 200
Name of author: R.М.Aiytzhanova, А.K.Kitibayeva
Year: 2015
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy
Яндекс.Метрика