Статьи, год 2012

The scientific works of 4th International Oligochaeta Taxonomy Meetings are presented. Modern methods of gathering and the account, taxonomy and the genetic analysis of different species of earthworms are resulted. Problems of systematisation of group are described. New methods of phylogenetic constructions are characterised. The basic of ecological researches in the biodiversity of oligochaetes analyzed in various regions of the world. The life forms informations is given in the aspects of modern ekologo-physiological researches. 

Literature review on natural-climatic conditions of urban areas is conducted in this article. Environmental assessment of urban areas is given. Natural and climatic environment of urban areas continues to lose its quality that makes it not only uncomfortable, but also dangerous to public health. Loss of quality of urban environment is associated not only with an extremely high level of physical-chemical air pollution, but also with noise, vibration and other anthropogenic impacts. These impacts on the surface layer of the atmosphere adversely affect the health of the population that uses urban areas both for recreation and for a walk or for other purposes. 

The generalization of the personal experience of students in the development of a project to study the determinants of health and the impact of preventive measures in relation to the health of students-foreigners in KSMU at the departments of physiology; social medicine and organization of health care. Formation of a healthy way of life is a determining factor in the upbringing of the students of KSMU. In order to study the health status of students from India and Pakistan, a survey was conducted among the students of the first--the fifth year of medical faculty of KSMU. Students assessed the state of their health as excellent (38 %), average (57 %), poor (5%). For improvement of health status of students take a balanced diet (67 %), sports (33%).

In article bioecological characteristics turgajsko-betpakdalinskoj populations Saiga tatarikа are reflected. The purpose of the conducted research consisted in participation of restoration of populations of saigas and their protection as the saiga is one of key kinds of a steppe ecosystem. For today the decision of this problem consists in that inhabitants of the Central Kazakhstan participated in all undertakings on protection of saigas because Betpakdalinsky population of saigas lives, migrates, is impregnated, prepared for winter time in this region. In article it is told about the spent actions in region of dwelling of this of populations.

An estimate of the risk of respiratory pathology depends on experience exposure. With the increase of length of service in the «dusty» occupations mucosal defenses are gradually depleted, that confirmed by cytochemical and functional studies. Determination of the critical work experience in hazardous conditions can produce, according to some authors, to some extent alleviate prenosological diagnosis of occupational or professional work-related diseases [1, 2].

Industrial dust in the conditions of modern production influences on the respiratory tract and mostly on the upper respiratory ways. Taking into account that between the nasal mucosa, pharynx, larynx and bronchi exist close morphofunctional connection, we can assume the presence of a common pathogenesis of   professional diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Numerous authors note that industrial dust causing a breach of mucociliary clearance, which in its turn contributes to the penetration of dust into the respiratory system deep laying parts and leads to the development of professional pathology of the respirato- ry system (sub-and atrophic rhinitis, the dust bronchitis, pneumoconiosis and asthma).

The main source of asbestos in environmental air are, apparently, construction materials, and also those industrial sectors where professional contact to dust which contains asbestos is possible. It’s, first of all, industries which product production and enrichment of asbestos, asbestos-containing materials (enterprises of asbestos and cement, asbestos technical and asbestos fiber materials). The main consumer of asbestos  today is production of asbestos and cement products (wavy and flat plates, pipes, etc.) which are widely used in industrial and civil construction [1–3].

The main consumers of chrysotile in Ukraine are asbestos cement and asbestos technical enterprises. It should be noted that Ukraine neither mines nor mills asbestos. Asbestos-consuming industries import the raw from the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. The annual volume of import is 85–100 thousand tons. It is important to stress that Ukraine uses only chrysotile that belongs to the serpentine group of asbestos and has physico-chemical properties and, respectively, biological effects quite different from those of amphiboles (crocidolite, anthophillite, amosite) that were  widely used  in  many countries  during a  long time  in  the past [1, 2].

The issue of asbestos use is a critical world problem [1–3]. It has been long debated and being primarily a medical problem it has also acquired an economic and political nature. The presence of a certain risk of asbestosis, a specific fibrosis of lung tissue, and of a blastomogenic process (bronchial carcinoma, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma) in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos raises no doubt [4–8]. However the body of evidence showing that asbestosis and specifically lung cancer are related to the uncontrolled use of amphibole asbestos has been increasing recently [9, 10]. Thus, the ban of this type of asbestos is perfectly substantiated today [11, 12]. As for chrysotile asbestos accounting for almost 95 % of all asbestos mined in the world, there appear more and more convincing data in the world literature proving that this type of asbestos is low aggressive and can be safer for human health than its substitutes, the number of which exceeds 20, in case of its controlled use [13, 14]. At least at the moment there exist no epidemiologic studies giving evidence of a higher health risk of chrysotile compared to its substitutes.

The Directive of the European Union 1999/77/EU on the global asbestos ban is based on results of oc- cupational studies and the assessment of risk of asbestos-related respiratory diseases (such as lung cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma, etc.) in workers since such diseases develop only after 20–40 years from a long-term exposure to high concentrations of asbestos-containing aerosols. At the same time, the results of assessing risks of developing a respiratory malignancy from environmental exposures to low concentrations of chrysotile dust still remain the subject of debate.

Mesothelioma is a rare neoplasm of serosal surfaces (such as pleura, peritoneum, pericardium and others) [1]. The most common form of these neoplasms is malignant pleural mesothelioma, peritoneal and pericardium mesotheliomas occur tenfold rarer, and mesotheliomas of other localizations are the most uncommon. The median latency of the disease is 32 years but it may range from 5 to 70 years.

The article presents results of studies of chrysotile asbestos and health conducted by the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS) Institute of Occupational Health, a brief review of foreign studies, the list of protective measures in the use of asbestos and other fibrous materials ensuring their controlled use.

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