In the article there are the principles derived from the laws and regularities of implementation of innovative processes characterized as the elements of complex organization and management system of educational process. Authors have analyzed a number of concepts and definitions of the complex of principles and techniques of pedagogical systems’ management, including educational process, and that is management directed onto functioning development. Realization of the basic principles of polylingualism didactics is presented on the basis of a number of efficient technologies mediated by etnolingual didactic approach. Authors have defined a number of problems of implementation of polylingual education system as innovative complex pedagogical process.
Innovative processes are known to be the innovation in education, the introduction of new content and methods possessing different properties that connected with the change of notional points. The following innovative pedagogical processes are necessary to be distinguished: introduction of original concepts and new models of educational institutions; transition to variable training programs; teaching and education techniques; implementation of education development programs considering the social, economic, cultural and ethnic factors; active reforming of education content on the basis of humanization and humanitarization ideas; improvement of teaching and education organizational forms and methods taking into account the personally focused and personally centred approaches; education quality management on the diagnostic basis; implementation of permanent professional development for pedagogical staff; development of creative initiative, professional competence and pedagogical culture of educators.
Innovative educational processes management is realized according to certain principles presented as the norms, activity objectives. The basic principles of innovative educational processes management determine the common ground in management organization comprising all the stages and predicting their success and efficiency.
There are principles derived from the laws and regularities of implementation of innovative processes emphasized in a pedagogical innovation .
Principle of organized innovative transformation of education system status. The certain system of activity is supposed for this principle applying. The system comprises the stage of preparation for transformation of education system status and the stage of these changes realization. Preparation for changes in education system involves advancement, substantiation of main goal of the planned changes, and evaluation of means and conditions to get a goal. The most difficult and important point is to provide changes in education system by appropriate means: new textbooks, guidance papers composed by teaching staff, necessary material equipment. The principle of organized innovative transformation of education system status is considered to be the basic one while preparing and realizing various reforms and modernizations.
Principle of interchange of the elemental and invariable operated mechanisms of innovative processes development. Specification and development of effective mechanism of conscious management for changing conditions are supposed to this principle realizing. Development of effective mechanism is properly to be realized in various directions. One of them is presented by combination of invention processes, by teachers’ acquisition and practical applications in any educational institution as the operated innovative system.
Principle of information support, logistics, staffing assistance for implementing the main stages of innovative educational processes. It provides obligatory information and financial support, staffing assistance for innovative processes at each of the main stages (in particular, logistics construction, information databanks).
Principle of forecasting the possible reverse or irreversible structural changes in the innovative social and pedagogical environment. This principle follows up the law of irreversible destabilization of pedagogical innovative environment, and also its integrity and adaptation resources. Resistance of innovative environment to innovations in the form of conservative actions against anything new is natural and even obligate for preservation of environment constancy as a system. Admitting or rejection of innovation can be considered from the positions of innovative system’s qualitative condition, and opportunity or impossibility of its preservation, wellbeing and ability to self-development.
Principle of strengthening of innovative educational processes’ stability. The essence is that, while interchanging elemental and operated processes, there is to be amplified the stability of innovative processes and their ability to a peculiar self-defense, self-adapting. Modern dynamics of public life has increased both the number of innovative processes covering various links of education system and their essential quality changing. Stability growth of innovative processes is their keynote of quality changing. It is expressed by recognition of their non-randomness and regularity being essential for educational system.
Principle of acceleration of innovative processes’ development in education system. Effect of this principle is to organize and realize the mechanisms of innovative processes. It means progressive innovative changes due to their rational introduction into practice of educational institutions.
All the principles are the elements of complex system of organization and management of innovative processes in education. Their close interaction strengthens their effects by means of synergetics.
Implementation of polylingual education implies the new projecting both the results and the education process, the mechanism of its management.
Traditional idea of educational process management has been characterized as:
- purposeful and systemically organized process of impacts on its structural components and connections between them to provide their integrity and effective realization of functions, its optimum development;
- influence of managing system on the operated system to transfer the latter into proper new state;
- introduction of elements of the scientific organization of pedagogical efforts and so
V.P. Simonov considers pedagogical management as the complex of principles, methods, organizational forms and techniques of management for pedagogical systems, including educational process, and aimed on their functioning and development .
The concept «pedagogical management» has a number of the meanings characterizing different aspects of administrative activity:
- the theory of management in educational institution (V.I. Zagvyazinsky, L.E. Kapto, M.M. Potashnik, et al.);
- the educational institution’s control system concerning the urgent searching of ways for its extensive rejecting the strategic and operational decisions (B.S. Gershunsky, V. Lazarev, E.V. Yakovlev, et al.);
- management of educational activity (A.M. Moisseyev, V.P. Simonov);
- the complex of principles, methods, organizational forms and techniques of management for pedagogical systems to increase their functioning and development (N.V. Kuzmina, E.Yu. Nikitin, et ).
The analysis of various definitions let us summarize that the main sense of innovative pedagogical management involves advancement and substantiation of administrative complex (that is management principles, methods, organizational forms and techniques) concerned with innovative transformation of pedagogical system and it is supposed to set the strategic objectives, decision-making, development of ways and means of their achievement .
Formerly we have specified step-by-step implementation of etnolingual didactic approach in field of higher educational system, and there is obviously involved a number of technologies mediated by the corresponding principles and methods: profile technology, technologies of pedagogical projection and polylingual training, technologies of communicative orientation development for future specialists [4, 5].
Designing the matrix model of didactic process with applying the effective ethnolingual didactic approach has been based on the optimum selection of technologies.
The concept of technology according to pedagogical literature (scientific, publicistic, educational) is distinguished by content diversity having been defined by various authors. We consider that technology as «the ordered set of actions, operations and procedures instrumentally providing achievement of predicted result in the changing conditions of educational process» (V.A. Slastenin) seems to be the most associated definition as well as technology determined by V.V. Yudin as «the set of methods, training techniques to effect reliably» .
Applying of pedagogical projection that includes analysis, diagnostics, forecast and projecting of activity texturizes and orders both teaching, administrative activity of management personnel, scientific and teaching staff of higher education institutions and educational cognitive activity of the learners. The main objective of pedagogical projection is to create the most favourable conditions for self-development and selfrealization of polylingual education’s subjects. The project activity involves state education standardization, developing of curricula and working programs executed by higher education institutions, that is evaluation of phasing and organization logic of pedagogical process, and also projection of the subjects’ personal and professional development.
Whereas, the projection technology of pedagogical process can be presented as unity of technologies :
- content projection (projective and content-related) to orient the language education practice in the Republic of Kazakhstan for language balance (the native and the state (Kazakh) languages), the native and the Russian languages, the native and foreign languages, the state (Kazakh) and the Russian languages, the state (Kazakh) and foreign languages, the Russian and foreign languages;
- logistics projection (projective and material): logistics development of polylingual education, working out of the syllabuses (AMC) and terminological trilingual dictionaries for implementation of the programs for scientific, methodical and academic organizational support of polylingual education are carried out by means of formulization of integrated rules to compile the academic organizational documents in the field of polylingual education;
- activity projection (projective and operational), first of all, teaching activity according to the main directions of development of scientific and methodical support for polylingual education: improvement of advanced training system for academic staff (language training through advanced curriculum in English and part-time study to get diploma on the second (lingual) specialty); improvement and development of academic programs and guidance manuals, comprising in a whole the problems of languages teaching (the state, the Russian, the foreign and the native languages), and also teaching several subjects in a foreign
The technology of polylingual training and technologies of communicative orientation development for future specialties realize the basic principles of multilingualism didactics :
- the principle of integrative teaching in several languages that is based on natural conformity, polylingualism, scientificity, integrity, availability, contextuality and functionality, presentation, factor of national cultures and universal values’ diversity, humanistic orientation and humanization. Requirement of integrative teaching is specified by integration role while resolving the problems of comprehensive scientific worldview, development of scientific-theoretical thinking, cognitive interests; as well as training of personal creative abilities and personal self-determination connected, mainly, with profilisation. Profile training is one of the important problems of education system modernization to create the selection conditions for meeting the educational We consider language subjects having multifunctionality to be one of the means promoting the purposes and problems of profile training, in particular, to develop communicative competence in effective knowledge acquisition according to special taught subjects;
- the principle of combining learning the several foreign languages based on inextricable connection of specific language and corresponding culture. Combining learning of languages and cultures allows to find out the distinctions and similarities of co-learning the cultures and to appreciate diversity as the norm of cultures coexistence in contemporary polycultural space;
- the principle of supporting linguistic and educational experience of the learners that means to take into consideration the original linguocultural base of the learners. Realization of this principle provides the enrichment of the learner’s worldview created by means of the native language, thereby to broaden one’s horizons by means of another language. Theoretical study of the problem approves the difficult scheme of foreign speech production to be the main reason for evolving difficulties. Foreign speech production is surely to be more complicated by production of additional phrases. As a result the meaning of future second foreign speech production is realized in internal speech by means of the native language, and then to be transcoded onto the second foreign language. Owing to imperfect, as a rule, the first foreign language mastering, its interfering influence strongly complicates the mechanism of code conversion of speech production on the second foreign language and can't form the basis to transfer any skills. Therefore, while forming language skills and developing communicative abilities, the native language can serve as the only support;
- principle of appreciation of artificial, didactic, subordinate multilingualism. Subordination and other characteristics reducing qualities of trilingualism are caused by imperfection of foreign language skills. While imperfect foreign language mastering the communicative act is followed by significant number of various interferences caused by essential phenomena: a) lack of high extended automation to free languages using in various communication situations according to objective difficulties of mastering and inadequacy of training conditions; b) functioning of certain system of meanings, and as a result, constantly operating
On the other hand, imperfect foreign language skills can be result of real lack of needs to use foreign language as a communication means. Second language acquirement can be involved in the context of native and second (nonnative/foreign) languages interaction, while the second language being as the subordinate one. And the nonnative language becomes a communication means only as result of overcoming this inevitable considerable interaction.
- In response to successive acquisition the second language is inevitably acquired in terms of the first one or on its basis. The first language as a leading one in cognitive development defines the intellectual worldview. Strategy to transfer phenomena of native language onto the second one, mutual simplification of language expressions, hyper-generalization have been observed in all similar cases. At the same time the acquisition of some communicative skills in the second language is capable to improve learner’s abilities in the first language: some reading skills, polite statements, ability to be guided by language intuition, to make guesses about statement content in order to have a positive effect on the native speech development. Furthermore, after beginning of second language studying the native language pronunciation is reported to be more proficient;
- the principle of comprehensive process of teaching in several (including foreign) languages to suppose temporary organization of educational process, strict dosage of new academic and speech material, and transition from one part to another only after the previous basis being carefully mastered by learners. Moreover, combination of factors influencing language acquisition process should be considered. Training practice of the second (nonnative) foreign language testifies that the organization of training process is specified by the following characteristics: a) profitability of the process organization due to use of previously gathered language experience and experience of independent work in native and first foreign languages; b) minimization of the subject content that means to form a minimum level of communicative competence, that is the competence to be sufficient, firstly, for communication with another cultures’ representatives, and secondly, for the subsequent independent and complete language learning on the basis of selected language and speech
- In this regard, there is the issue about the choice of optimized teaching technology, and first of all, oral speech training, to consider the interaction between new developed foreign-language speech mechanism and mechanism of native and first foreign languages during its generation. For this purpose, in the course of oral speech training in the second (nonnative) foreign language there is positive experience in the first foreign language teaching that necessary to borrow and there are negative moments to avoid to be transferred. Thus, rate of learning has to be adequate to acquire the material;
- the principle of cognitive orientation of the process of foreign languages teaching to offer and prove the methods that approximate the foreign languages learning to the natural way of language acquisition as the sign system to solve the educational problems of specific and real The principle also operates for development of general and special educational abilities, universal ways of activity, for reviewing available ways and methods of independent studying of languages and cultures, including using the new information technologies. To realize this principle means not so much the learners’ attaining new means of language coding of concepts as developing the worldview due to familiarizing both authentic verbal and subject meanings of new system of outlook and world perception;
- the principle of cross-cultural orientation of process of foreign languages teaching by means of familiarizing with culture, traditions, realities of the foreign-language speaking countries/country in the course of subjects, communication spheres and situations, concerning to experience, interests, personal psychological characteristics; by means of developing the ability to represent one’s own country, its culture in the conditions of cross-cultural
The program of polylingual training sets the following mission: to determine optimum parameters for parallel acquisition of three and more languages at the operational and communicative level; to check effective teaching techniques and technologies in practice; to determine at the theoretical level and to establish real conditions of polylingual personality development; to define the optimum mode of sequence of languages inclusion; academic hours required for languages mastering .
Techniques and technologies of multilingualism training, development of main methods of educational process organization are one of the most important lingual didactic problems of multilingual training.
To develop and found in learners’ consciousness the motivation as specific orientation of their educational activity that varies in difficulty degree from educational activity of other students of higher education institution is surely to be the first major problem in polylingual education implementation. Students start languages studying consciously, they initially have got an aptitude to acquire theoretical knowledge in the field of foreign languages and foreign-language cultures, however, the above mentioned high degree of difficulty for training requires teachers’ ongoing efforts to keep up motivation for study.
The following problem concerns the organization of educational process. Optimum the way of subordinate didactic multilingualism is known to be defined while all the «co-learning, subsequent» languages being subordinated in relation to the native (state/official) and basic foreign languages, the latter is likely to be the English.
It is the English language that to be studied by all the learners as «progressive», and «intermediate», i.e. the auxiliary one at the second study level while the English language being entered into the curriculum as means of special disciplines studying. The basic stage includes the advanced studying the state and official languages not belonging to the German languages group. Parallel three languages studying should be entered for avoidance of phonetic, lexical and grammatical interference at the very first, the most important stage of linguistic training.
Polylingual education by means of flexible system of choosing the languages and conditions for their studying, and also due to variable system of studying forms and means reflecting a current state of subject training’s theory and practice, develops linguistic abilities: verbal intelligence, language reflection, analytical reflective skills, memory, language intuition.
The variety of foreign-language teaching’s options and learning tools imposes new requirements to vocational training of foreign-language teachers who should be able to act in new conditions not by strictly ordered rules, but according to one’s own choice of possible and the most adequate to learning conditions the methodical systems.
Further, in the process of polylingual educational program’s implementation there is provided the special organization of educational process to prove methodical foundation for sequence of the learned languages with major component being the support on linguistic and educational experience of learners. For this reason the sequence of the learned languages doesn't depend on their belonging to language groups: the German, the Turkic, the Slavonic . Training is provided according to specially developed program of teaching for aspects (phonetics, oral speech, grammar, reading) with use of authentic literary and didactic sources, applying the interactive training methods and technologies (conferences, Internet resources of higher education institution, listening to authentic telecasts of various genres and contents in the on-line mode), working in language laboratories.
The point represented as the essential one is the polylingual training’s technologies and methods aimed to form the speech mechanisms of polylingual code, and to change over the codes. For these purposes there are provided the innovative classes and teaching technologies, in particular, for instance, the organization of «multilingual class» provided by 2–3–4 teachers in parallel, role playing exercises in the form of multilingual briefings, press conferences, simultaneous (synchronous) interpretation from one foreign language into another one.
Summarizing in general the above and relying upon authoritative opinion of the scientists in the field of polylingual education development, we are sure to make a conclusion about potential and relevant developing polylingualism in the conditions of non-language higher education institution, polylingualism that is based on the following principles:
- divergence of natural multilingualism and educational multilingualism;
- conscious acquiring of language system with developing the ability to allocate the general and specific in each of certain languages;
- support on the theory of remote and surface structures;
- support on the native and basic-studied foreign languages;
- stage-by-stage development of mental efforts for activity formation with the set of
Thus, development and functioning of polylingual education system, apart from permanent changes or innovations of the existing system is definitely to be the complex process demanding the detailed planning.
Innovation is unlikely to be a goal in itself in educational practice. Its purpose is supposed to be the optimization of teaching and educational process, to match to conditions and tendencies of social being.
From this point of view there is the problem of efficiency of innovative pedagogical processes. For rational management of innovations it is necessary to know prerequisites of their efficiency that is the factors to promote or constrain their effective course and development. Introduction of innovations in pedagogical process of educational institution is urged to provide improvement of learning and education quality and to reduce costs for achievement of common results in education. The point at issue is that the purpose of any innovation is increasing of pedagogical process efficiency. Level of innovation efficiency depends on the obtained useful effect, term of innovative technology applying, introduction costs. The research of this problem aspect is supposed to be ultimately carried out by the authors.
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