Studying of specific structure and condition of green plantings at the territory of industrial centers of the Karaganda region (Karaganda, Temirtau, Balkhash, Zhezkazgan) is carried out. The specific structure of wood flora on the surveyed points is presented by 13–18 main species. Vitality of wood plants made from 1 to 3 points. On a scale of the characteristic of environment by means of the fluctuating asymmetry, wood plants have got five marks on all research sites, which ecosystems were in areas with extraordinary anthropogenic pressure.
The significant role in neutralization and weakening of negative impacts of industrial zones of the city on people and nature in general is played green plantings. Besides decorative and planning and recreational functions they are carrying out an important protective, sanitary and hygienic role [1, 2]. However, carrying out protective functions, the wood vegetation is affected by industrial pollution.
Ability to receive integrated characteristics of quality of the environment, which is under the influence of all variety of physical, chemical and other factors, takes only biological methods, because live organisms bear the maximum information about habitat.
From all variety of known methods of bio indicative researches, perhaps, one of the fullest methods is to use of manifestations of the fluctuating asymmetry of organisms .
Understand as the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) insignificant and the casual (not directed) deviations from strict bilateral symmetry of bio objects . Lack of absolutely symmetric organisms can be regarded as a result of imperfection of the mechanisms controlling ontogenesis, their inability to resist to negative impact of environment [5, 6].
The purpose of the real work — an assessment of manifestations of the fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral signs of sheet plates of Populus nigra and Betula pendula at the territory of industrial cities of Karagandy region.
Objects and methodology
For research of a forest stand as bio indicators of an urban environment, in the cities of Karaganda, Balkhash and Temirtau sites with various anthropogenic pressures were chosen (Table 1). As control environmentally friendly territories — Karkaraly Mountains are chosen. The three-point scale was applied to an assessment of vitality: I — Vitality is good (full) — plants in a phyto coenosis normally blossom and fructify (there are individuals of all age groups), adult individuals reach the sizes, normal for this species; II — Vitality is satisfactory (oppressed) — the plant is oppressed that is expressed in smaller sizes of adult individuals, seed reproduction is impossible; III — Vitality is unsatisfactory (strongly oppressed) — the plant is oppressed so strongly that the sharp deviation in morphological shape of adult plants (branching, a form of leaves, etc.) is observed; seed reproduction is absent (there are no the blossoming and fructifying escapes) [3, 4].
The assessment of a condition of a forest stand was made for establishment of an adverse effect of anthropogenic factors and forecasting of destiny of the studied wood ecosystem:
- point — healthy trees, without external signs of damages, the size of a gain meets standard;
- points — the weakened Krone is poorly developed, separate branches dried out. Leaves and needles often with a yellow shade. At coniferous trees have release of pitch and dying off bark on separate sites;
- points — strongly weakened trees. Krone is poorly developed, with considerable dried branches, dried top. Leaves light green, needles with a brown shade. Leaves small, but happen and are increased. The gain is reduced or is absent. Release of pitch is strong. Considerable sites of bark died off;
- points — the drying-out Dried branches are on all krone. Leaves small, underdeveloped, pale green with a yellow shade, the early leaf fall is noted. The needles are damaged for 60 % of total. The gain is absent. On trunks signs of settling by bark beetles, bags with a big mustache (a boring fly, an opening on bark, wood);
- points — dry trees. Krone dry. Krone is dried. Leave aren’t present, the needles yellow or brown, are showered or Bark on trunks exfoliates or completely fell down. Trunks are populated with xylophages (consumers of wood) (Table 1).
Point of gathering leave probes at the territories of industrial cities of Karagandy region
T a b l e 1
Impact of the environment into wood organisms was estimated on the basis of FA of leaves, that is deviations from bilateral symmetry [5, 6]. From each leaf removed indicators on five measurements from the left and right parties (Fig.).
For the characteristic of a condition of the environment the absolute five-point assessment of quality of the environment on degree of a deviation of its state from an ecological optimality (Table 2) is used.
- — leaf half width (in the middle of a leaf plate);
- — length of the second vein from the leaf basis (to the left and to the right from the central vein);
- — distance between the first and second veins, (to the left and on the right sides);
- — distance between the first and second veins, reading out from a scape, from the external leaf edges (to the left and to the right from the central vein);
- — a tilt angle of the second vein to central (to the left and to the right)
Results and their discussion
Results showed that the specific structure of wood flora is presented by 13–18 main species, among which Fraxinus lanceolate, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Populus alba, Populus nirga, Populus balsamifera, Betula pendula, Acer negundo, Acer tatarica, Ulmus pumila, Pinus sylvestris and other. Most often meet are following: Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila, Populus nirga, these plants grow practically on each surveyed point. Other species meet sporadically, are more often dated for certain inhabited massifs, parks and squares (Table 3).
Condition of wood plantings of industrial cities of Karagandy region
T a b l e 3
Good vitality (1 point) is noted for wood plants from Karkaraly mountains, city park of Maykuduk (Karaganda), Mira Street (Zhezkazgan) and Karagandy Street (Temirtau). Satisfactory vitality (2 points) is noted for the main volume of green plantings of the industrial cities. Unsatisfactory (3 points) the state is noted in the square on Gogol Street and in the central recreation park (Karaganda), and also in the territory of steel plan (Temirtau).
The assessment of a condition of wood stand showed that 1 point was gained by plantings of Karkaraly city, the most part of plantings of Karaganda, 2 points in Temirtau. Plantings of Balkhash and Zhezkazgan gained 2–3 points that spoked about their critical condition.
On all research sites conducted researches for determination of size of the fluctuating asymmetry, for the purpose of definition of environment state which the wood vegetation (Table 4) grows.
Results of assessment of FA of leave of wood plants
T a b l e 4
The smallest values of FA which correspond to normal conditions of the environment are noted for park zones, squares, forests and few brisk streets for all of the industrial cities, and also for Karkaraly mountains. The described points can be carried to territories with conditionally normal state of environment.
The most critical indicators of FA (4–5 points) are noted for inhabited massifs and industrial zones of Temirtau, industrial zones of Karaganda, Balkhash and Zhezkazgan. Sites are characterized by the raised transport loading, a close arrangement of the industrial enterprises with emissions. These values correspond to sites with critically broken ecosystems.
It should be noted that it is a little territories with average values of FA (2–3 points). There are following: Bukhar-Zhyrau Avenue, Gogol Street, Central city park (Karaganda), park Zhastar (Zhezkazgan). Here is observed transition from small deviation of environment condition until essential violations.
Thus, in the territory of the Karaganda region in the territory of all industrial cities is observed the extraordinary anthropogenic pressure testifying to a critical and dangerous state of environment.
Following the results of the executed researches it is possible to make the following conclusions:
- The specific structure of wood flora of Karagandy region on the surveyed points is presented by 13– 18 main species. Most often meet are Ulmus pumila, Populus, Fraxinus, Acer; other species met sporadically, were more often dated for certain inhabited massifs, parks and
- Vitality of wood plants made from 1 to 3 points. Good vitality (1 point) is noted for wood plants from Karkaraly mountains, city park of Maykuduk (Karaganda), on Mira St. (Zhezkazgan) and on Karagandy (Temirtau). Satisfactory vitality (2 points) is noted for bulk of green plantings of the industrial cities. Unsatisfactory (3 points) the state is noted in the square on Gogol Street and in the central recreation park (Karaganda), and also in the territory of steel works (Temirtau).
- The assessment of a condition of a forest stand showed that 1 point was gained by plantings of Karkaraly city, the most part of plantings of Karaganda, 2 points in Plantings of Balkhash and Zhezkazgan gained 2–3 points that spoke about their critical condition.
- In the territory of the industrial cities of the Karaganda region the extraordinary anthropogenic loading testifying to a critical and dangerous state of environment is
Researches are executed within the RK MES grant project «An assessment of accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, water, plants and animals of the Central Kazakhstan and detection of toxicity of vegetable food pollutant at short-term and long impact on experimental animals».
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