ABSTRACT. This article is devoted to activity of Kazakhstan within OSCE. From the first day of its independence Kazakhstan supports peaceful foreign policy aimed at developing mutually beneficial and equitable multilateral cooperation with all interested countries, as well as with international organizations. Kazakhstan, deals with issues of national security in the region and around the world, collaborating in strengthen the ways of international peace and security in the OSCE. Kazakhstan took over the responsibility for chairmanship in the OSCE. Consequently, partnership and cooperation with the EU is the most important policies of the country, which has positioned itself as the largest Eurasian state, playing a big role in ensuring global and regional security. Economic and military-political factors in the strategy of Kazakhstan in relation to the EU complement each other, they are interrelated and interdependent.
During the first stages of the relationships between OSCE and Kazakhstan the main focus was on the practical exchange and information. «The development of the relations between Kazakhstan and the OSCE facilitated the creation of the framework for cooperation resulting, in particular, in the adoption of a range of bilateral documents, such as the Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the OSCE. In January 1999, the OSCE Centre was opened in Almaty (currently the OSCE Centre in Astana). As the result of the Memorandum of Understanding signed with Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights the office (ODIHR) Kazakhstan began to develop aimed at facilitating of the protection of human elective legislation and the reforms of the taxation and judiciary systems. Main priorities of the is to overcome regional conflicts, struggle with terrorism, religious extremism and drug traffic, assist in struggling against human traffic, and confirm the tolerance and religious freedom. Instability in Afghanistan is a matter of particular conсеt today. Therefore, Kazakhstan helping the OSCE strengthen its role in regulating the situation, which has emerged in this country after the conflict»[1,p.3].
Both for Kazakhstan and the OSCE, the chairmanship in 2010 was important event. For Kazakhstan it means, first of all, the recognition of the need to further political, social and economic reforms and to take on the responsibility for the security on the territory of the organization along with its OSCE partners. For the first time in history a member state of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) applied for the position, being a country that is going through political and economic transformation; a country geographically located mostly in Asia; a country where Islam is the dominant religion.The OSCE Summit in Astana, was on December 1-2, 2010.The previous summit was held in Istanbul in 1999.Kazakhstan was the first post-Soviet state that took chairmanship in the OSCE.
Trust, tradition, transparency and tolerancebecame the main idea of Kazakhstan‘s chairmanship in OSCE. Trust is a key factor of international relations that is needed by all countries. «Tradition underlines Kazakhstan‘s commitment to fundamental principles and values of the OSCE. Transparency conveys maximum openness, free of ―double standards‖ and ―dividing lines‖, and a focus on constructive cooperation in the field of security. Tolerance is realization of the increasing importance of intercultural and intercivilizationaldialogue. The Astana Summit demonstrated a clear political will of heads of OSCE participating states in overcoming crisis phenomena and mutual estrangement between the states-participants. Besides that, the Summit took place in the heart of Eurasia, thousand kilometers from the Europe‘s geographical borders. This event reflected the changed paradigm of the European security. The meeting in the capital of Kazakhstan encouraged joint efforts aimed at safe future of the people of participating states».
«Kazakhstan‘s main ideas that lied in the basis of Kazakhstan's chairmanship program:
- to make a practical contribution to the ensuring of security and stability over the whole Eurasian area;
- to enhance the role and significance of Central Asia in the OSCE geography to introduce general democracy values in this region;
- having a rich experience of presiding in a number of regional organizations (CIS, EAEC, SCO,CCCMA) to be ready to organize a constructive cooperation of the OSCE with the regional organizations mentioned;"
- to strengthen the role of the OSCE as a unique ground for the dialogue between Europe and Asia» [1,p .6].
The President of Kazakhstan declared transition to a new level of security and cooperation in wider geographical borders – ―from ocean to ocean‖. In particular, it relates to creation of a common security space within borders of four oceans from Atlantic to Pacific and from Arctic to Indian. Thus, the OSCE Summit in Astana has launched creation of Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian community of common and indivisible security.
The Summit ended with the adoption of Astana Declaration. Towards a Security Community,‖ committing all states ―to the vision of a free, democratic, common and indivisible Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian security community stretching from Vancouver to Vladivostok, rooted in agreed principles, shared commitments and common goals.
In the declaration, the heads of state and government reiterated ―commitment to the concept, initiated in the [Helsinki] Final Act, of comprehensive, co-operative, equal and indivisible security, which relates the maintenance of peace to the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and links economic and environmental co-operation with peaceful inter-state relations‖.
OSCE summit in Astana have shown that that event was timely and, as promised, indeed helped give a much needed boost to the organization. «Its continued success and relevance in the face of evolving challenges, though, will depend on the ability of all participating states to find compromises and on their desire to work together to reach the consensus needed to approve all of its decisions. Such a trend will certainly benefit all participating states, from the U.S. and Canada to European and Eurasian nations».
Nowadays cooperation between Kazakhstan and OSCE is carried out in three dimensions of the Organization: politico-military, economic and environmental, humanitarian and carried out in collaboration with both the central institutions of the OSCE (ODIHR, HCNM, Office of the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, Office of the Special Representative of the OSCE on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings) and its field mission OSCE Centre in Astana.
In the politico-military dimension Kazakhstan continues to support multilateral efforts to ensure Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian security, confidence-building measures, settlement of the "frozen conflicts" in the South Caucasus and Transnistria, as well as post-conflict rehabilitation in Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of international troops in 2014 and presidential elections. Special attention is paid to the activities of the OSCE in connection with the situation in Ukraine and in work of Special monitoring mission..
An important priority for the economic and environmental track OSCE for Kazakhstan remains the development of transcontinental transport corridors linking Asia and Europe. Continuing work to use the potential of the OSCE in the field of environmental protection, including in problem in the Aral Sea and the effective management of water resources in Central Asia.
In the human dimension Kazakhstan remain important issues such as the fight against all forms of intolerance and discrimination, tolerance, human rights the rule of law, independence of the judiciary, the promotion of gender balance and fight against human trafficking.
- Sultanov Kazakhstan and preparation for the OSCE Chairmanship in 2010// Central Asias affairs. 2009. №4(28). –P. 3-6.