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Цель нашей работы - изучение аминокислотного и минерального состава травы чертополоха поникшего

Слово «этика» произошло от греческого «ethos», что в переводе означает обычай, нрав. Нравы и обычаи наших предков и составляли их нравственность, общепринятые нормы поведения.

Артериальная гипертензия (АГ) является важнейшей медико-социальной проблемой. У 30% взрослого населения развитых стран мира определяется повышенный уровень артериального давления (АД) и у 12-15 % - наблюдается стойкая артериальная гипертензия

Целью нашего исследования явилось определение эффективности применения препарата «Гинолакт» для лечения ВД у беременных.

Целью нашего исследования явилось изучение эффективности и безопасности препарата лазолван 30мг у амбулаторных больных с ХОБЛ.

Деформирующий остеоартроз (ДОА) в настоящее время является наиболее распространенным дегенеративно-дистрофическим заболеванием суставов, которым страдают не менее 20% населения земного шара.

Целью работы явилась оценка анальгетической эффективности препарата Кетанов (кеторолак трометамин), у хирургических больных в послеоперационном периоде и возможности уменьшения использования наркотических анальгетиков.

Для более объективного подтверждения мембранно-стабилизирующего влияния карбамезапина и ламиктала нами оценивались перекисная и механическая стойкости эритроцитов у больных эпилепсией

Нами было проведено клинико-нейропсихологическое обследование 250 больных с ХИСФ (работающих в фосфорном производстве Каратау-Жамбылской биогеохимической провинции)

C использованием разработанных алгоритмов и моделей был произведен анализ ситуации в системе здравоохранения биогеохимической провинции. Рассчитаны интегрированные показатели здоровья

Специфические особенности Каратау-Жамбылской биогеохимической провинции связаны с производством фосфорных минеральных удобрений.

Organizational and economic mechanism of education rights implementation related to disabled people

Purpose – Studying and discussing the current state of inclusive teaching the disabled individuals in the country, and providing the whole population with the access to qualitative education, the given article underlines that the above mentioned items are considered to be a major trend of the state policy of Kazakhstan.

Methodology – On the basis of statistical data that characterize the state and development tendencies of the research object there were used systematized, logical and comparative analyzing methods in the process of research studying and information analyzing.

Originality / value – prerequisites and problems of formation of the above mentioned new teaching experience are considered. Also, the author analyses the domestic and international legislations and statistical data that provide disabled people’s opportunities to get education, accordingly the number of outcomes and suggestions are made as well.

Findings – According to the study results, in order to increase the level of inclusive teaching related to disabled people, the availability of the republican center on inclusive teaching development and control is important; allocation of supplementary financial resources for providing with material-technical equpment; improvement of normative legal base relating inclusive teaching, also, it is necessary to create new financialeconomic mechanisms in order to teach the children who need special approach in teaching. 

Introduction. In modern globalization conditions energy, financial, social and cultural systems are facing crises. All the above mentioned things are intensifying contradictions in social development, at the same time motivate people to look for the new patterns related to social organisation model, and to pay attention to human resources as well. Especially, these items are urgent while solving the problems concerning disabled people, the mentioned category of population should be adapted to society, education and should relevantly be employed. It is not an ordinary phenomenon that population has congenital disorders of health; it does not matter whether these diseases are incurred or appeared later. In particular, in Kazakhstani economy approximately 1.7 million people have sensory, intellectual, psychiatric or other illnesses. Conversely, because of the absence of necessary conditions for invalids, therefore this population have a very low potential to be active in social, economic and political life. The question of invalids’ active participation in various spheres of life requires a lot of attention from the side of state and society as well.

Taking into consideration the complicated socio-economic situations that disabled people face, and issues, relating the mentioned individuals, which are considered to be an integral part of relevant sustainable development strategies; having recognized the significance and actuality of these things UN General Assembly adopted on December 13, 2006 International Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (hereinafter Convention) [1], Optional Protocol [2], and the given document was considered to be open on March 30, 2007 to ratify for the states that are willing to sign To date the Convention was signed by Heads of 147 states (90 states signed optional protocol) and 95 countries have ratified the convention, (58 ones ratified the optional protocol) [3]. 

The states that signed the Convention and Optional protocol must realize the following things: adopting laws and measures that have organizational and economic characteristics to improve disabled people’s rights, also, these countries are to get rid of those legal rights and habits, which violate interests and needs of individuals with poor health.

On December 11, 2008 the Republic of Kazakhstan started the preparation for ratifying the above mentioned documents, at the same time this state made complex decisions that led to improvement of organizational and economic levers, accordingly, they empower realization of the rights relating disabled individuals, and certain amendments and changes were made into the legislation on people with limit opportunities, thus, on February 20, 2015 Kazakhstan ratified the given Convention. According to the mentioned document people with limit development, as other members of the society, are allowed to use all major rights and freedom as well.

Alongside, it is significant to realize the education rights of individuals with limit development (hereinafter

ILD) starting from early ages in order to attract and integrate the given category of population to active life. Studying and gaining appropriate knowledges is considered to be a very important thing in everyone’s life, especially, in the lives of population with limit opportunities comparatively plays a much bigger role and significance. During the education process an individual can develop and improve self-reflection ability, also communication environment is created, and a person carries out their independent and responsible activities in various spheres, at the same time creation of abilities that regulate people’s physical and intellectual development are provided. If ILD do not get full education there will appear a high risk of poverty relating the given category of population, consequently they may be isolated from community. Therefore, it is important when ILD get equal incusive education of the same level with others.

In particular, the word 'inclusive' is the derivative one from 'inclusion', it is understood as «integrate, launch». The term 'inclusif' from French means 'to be included by itself', from Latin 'include' means 'I include'. In dictionaries inclusive teaching is explained as ‘education process that provides ILD’s learning process’ [4]. Literature review. One of the most actual problems of modern life is low economic status of families who have children with limit opportunities. In the given families one of the parents has to leave their job because of their child with poor health. Mainly mothers are involved in bringing up and education of their kids, in the result they don’t pay attention to their own career items, consequently they become not competitive and less demanded in the labor market. Thus, such mothers are lack of further education or retraining [5], it leads to certain challenges such as psychological-emotional problems of a child because -of the shortage of money in the family budget, there appears stable deficit of clothes for kids and medical help that doesn’t meet and satisfy a child’s needs in connection with the absence of finance. When citizens’ welfare are estimated, integral part of economy is considered to be important [6].

According to E. Genipap socio-cultural and economic situations influence children’s development and the mentioned things function as an initial position when children enter universities [7]. Marginalization of a family is the reason of economic status of that family, especially if the given family brings up a child with limit development.

If education is not accessible for a family with disabled children, this category of population during many years bring problems both to the society and their close people, in the result they become very poor and also they are at the edge of poverty. Taking into consideration the importance of these problems before accepting the Convention on disabled population’s rights, some international documents consider the urgent and actual items relating individuals with limit opportunities, exactly, concerning protection of their legal rights and also teaching issues: child rights Declaration (1959), Convention on against considering unworthy in the education sphere (1960), individuals, Declaration on the rights of population who suffer from intellectual development (1971), invalids’ rights declaration (1975), children rights convention (1989), child protection and development world declaration (1990), Standard rules on disabled people’s equal rights provision (1993), Salamanca declaration on disabled people’s education and action plans (1994), child life necessary world declaration and action plan (2002) and so on.

Convention on children’s rights contains the first international document which had thoroughly considered all the rights of children, the realization of the given documents are compulsory [8]. The document focuses on those articles that relate to children’s rights, also the provision of accessibility relating education of invalid children. Committee on children’s rights was a supplementary tool that protects ILD individuals’ rights [9]. The simplicity of the mentioned rights help specialists, who are involved in this field, to adopt laws, and those who deal with politics can easily use the rules in their practice.

However, the main idea of the Convention on teaching population with limit development and the protection of their rights and other international documents converted inclusive teaching principle into concrete obligation. Alongside, there is a necessity of special teaching in the result of drawbacks in teaching and invalidness, teenagers and the youth should be included into general education environment, that is they should not be isolated. Inclusion in teaching is equal to the inclusion in society. One of the humanitarian development ideas is considered to be including people with limit opportunities into social-economic processes. Inclusion in teaching changes social communication system, at the same time positively influences general social development processes.

As most countries experience has shown, the mentioned above integration is successfully held at inclusive education establishments. The major principle of inclusive teaching establishments is the necessity of people’s cooperatively getting knowledge in spite of communication difficulties between different population categories and also despite any situations. The aim of inclusive educational establishments is giving a chance to all teachers who belong to the most active part of staff to be full members of social life, thus they are able to collaborate and help each other as local community members. Due to these things, population with limit opportunities can achieve the highest level of success in learning and social integration processes. In connection with this it is said in Salamanca Declaration: «According to the methods and ways of teaching in inclusive institutions it is possible to identify and take into account disabled learners’ various needs, accordingly to improve teaching syllabi and meet the given category’s needs, provide them with qualitative education.

Moreover, it is important to take organizational measures, work out teaching strategies, and use effectively resources and cooperation with partners [10] 'Inclusion' leads to new reforms, resupplying educational buildings with state-of-the-art equipment that provides the success of teaching according to the requirements in education sphere, therefore it is very possible to achieve equal and full education despite different population categories. Naturally, teachers of schools, where inclusion idea is accepted, can improve teaching quality and achieve high results and outcomes in teaching process.

In addition, it is economically beneficial when people with limit development are taught from the point of both, inclusion in the appropriate level, and when their rights are fairly protected. International experience and the research of economically effective inclusive education of high quality, providing everyone with equal rights have shown just positive sides, preciously, there appeared such terms as ‘profit, success, achievement’. It is wrongly understood that inclusive teaching is not money-saving, also it requires much power, the realization of which is impossible etc. But according to the research either of the World Bank or other international studies it is not so, on the contrary the given teaching is economical as compared with general education: from this type of teaching the government gains more profit.

Developed countries have been aware of the fact that general education system needs much more budget, for instance on educational establishments, boarding schools, organizational, administrative and other various departments. Inclusive teaching system is not so expensive in comparison with two other systems such as general and special ones: as for inclusive one, administrational expenditures are less. As the practice shows, in case of integration of 80, 90% related to individuals with limit opportunities, this category of population will be easily integrated into general educational institutions. In this connection statistics shows: in the USA about 45% of disabled people have been integrated into general educational institutions, in Italy, according to the first statistics, the given indicator reaches from 80% to 95%, and the other one indicates – 99,9%, that is, everyone. In Canada one province has no special educational establishments at all [11].

Both launching the idea of inclusive teaching trend and carrying out the rights on ILD Convention have been improved a lot lately: in article-24 relating teaching, it is said about the necessity on supplementary tools that are necessary for patients with bad eyesight, and those, who suffer from heavy and complicated sensor illnesses, need gesture language, Braille alphabet as well. For ILD population syllabi, effective teaching methods, teaching style and appropriate classrooms are to be reorganized. According to the Convention, all ILD people should be supported in terms of everything, they must be provided with all necessary resources including personnel. Parents and learners should be reluctant to participate in the above mentioned measures to define how well things are going, how much they are being optimized, and how well actions planned to perform the above mentioned measures meet the deadline, what level of competence teachers have, in case ILD rights violation how to act and so on. It would be better if parents from their side should keep track of everything. More important when teachers who are involved in inclusive teaching, and schools, colleges, universities collaborate together using their power, experience along with ILD’s peers, close people, parents and volunteers. It is clear that teaching staff should meet the requirements and needs of population with limit development, alongside; they should be good at organizing and troubleshooting to achieve high results, success and prosperity. Thus, teaching personnel can come up expectations of their clients. So the reform of social enterprises depends on either technical side or the trust of an individual that forms the society.

Our state ratified the Convention and it needs thorough modification of national education system related to ILD teaching and educating, it is necessary to make an adequate environment for population with limit opportunities for their full good life and for gaining accessible education. Inclusive teaching launch should be 'the point of crystallizing' of all innovative processes in education sphere. In the given Convention there is a legislative article related to neglecting and violation of ILD people's rights, accordingly every state is to choose the best and optimal ways of realizing these rights in terms of their system. Exactly it is possible to adopt laws on equality and the absence of scornful attitude concerning disabled individuals. It leads to improvement in teaching, but the given legislation must be realized in its turn.

Materials and analyses. If we focus on normative legal documents that regulate rights on education of population with limit development, among the mentioned documents the most significant and major one is Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, this constitution says: 'Citizens are guaranteed to get free education at state educational establishments. Secondary school education is compulsory’ [12]. According to KZ legislation the term ‘invalid children’ covers teenagers and children who are till 18. Nowadays the rights on education related to population with limit development of all ages are protected due to ‘On Education’ legislation # 319-III that was adopted on July 27, 2007 by the government of Kazakhstan, according to the given document such kind of things are being carried out: teaching ILD, improving their health and creating situations for their social adaptation with the help of special pedagogical methods. Moreover, it is necessary to provide ILD with all appropriate conditions in different educational institutions and at home as well. Furthermore, in the article 21-3 of the given legislation it is said: «inclusive education integrates ILD teaching process with other types of teaching to make education accessible for people with limit opportunities, also to improve teaching quality there should be made certain amendments, corrections relating pedagogy and social supporting’[13]. According to Kazakhstani legislation that was adopted on 11.07.2002 "Social-medicalpedagogical support to invalid children" № 343, a range of issues were considered:teaching in classes, at home, providing the given category of children with social help, creating supplementary programs, working out rules on presenting certificates according to special programs, protecting invalids, caring about them, making diagnoses, treatment, sanitation and rehabilitation of their health’[14].

In modern life the item that considers special online educational schools, colleges for ILDis actual too.

The reason is increasing year by year number of invalid people in the country.

This table shows the dynamics relating invalids including disabled children in our country. 

Table 1 – Number dynamics related to invalid children in the Republic of Kazakhstan between 2011-2015 



Total population of Kazakhstan

share of invalid children in overall number of population %

share of invalid children in overall number of invalids %



number of invalids

number of invalid children































Note: [15] data were made by the author

As we see from the first table the number of children with limit opportunities are being growing up year by year, alongside their number is being increased relating both the number of overall population and invalids. One of the factors that impact on invalid process is poor ecological situation and environmental pollution in the country, consequences of which lead to a great number of various diseases that is being grown non-stop. The major factors are the pollution of air, water, the lack of drinkable water. In most parts of Kazakhstan it is impossible for people to have safe drinking water, such kind of water is inaccessible. Average drinkable water annual accessity indication is being decreased to 3-5%, in the result population’s health is being worsened. One of the risk factors that influence the number of people with poor health is air pollution.

Environment pollution, first of all leads to illnesses, of course. In the labor market there appears the socalled ‘defect work power’, also it has another name ‘ecological group’. They have not just a poor health, but unwillingness to work because of their mood and the shortage of psychological sanitation.

It is worth noting that society in Kazakhstan has different attitudes to invalid problems, and opinions differ too. According to studies, when carrying out these measures it is necessary not to face obstacles, «environment without barriers» (organizing special road lines, a single-floor buildings, employing full-time surdo interpreters, re-equipping social places etc) should be created. Furthermore, we must overcome wrong attitudes, fight with innovation refusals, also, there are some drawbacks concerning unpreparedness of teachers, schools, even parents for the new reforms.

In the next table, we see what kinds of barriers there exist to integrate invalid children into general educational institutions (Table-2). 

Table 2 What kind of barriers there exist to integrate invalid children into general educational establishments, % (Parents N = 260, teachers N = 276) 


Environment barriers

Finance of educational establishment

Qualification of teachers

Educational syllabi



Social principles in society

Desires of invalid children’s parents

















Note – [16] based on literature

Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development is realizing adopted in 2012-2018 action plans to provide invalids with qualitative and worthy life, and accessible services such as transporting, information, communication. In these laws sanitation issue has been considered more in comparison with social support, in order to carry out healthcare measures there were created new basic ways and methods.

Invalid people’s opportunities are limited when they face barriers; therefore, the program has a major and target aim to liquidate such obstacles. Communication hurdles are considered much more important as compared with physical, information and organizational ones.

Creating tolerant communication of population with limit development, also creating for them convenience while their being integrated into society and community is a great problem too. Teaching at inclusive educational establishments assists educating tolerant communication. Inclusive teaching highlights two trends: firstly the society learns how to equally treat invalids, secondly people with limit development adapt to life of full value and live as other citizens.

Taking into consideration the established education system of every region, the strategy related to teaching improvement should eventually be launched. The government of the Republic of Kazakhstan is planning to start an active work on inclusive education development in the given field. All the indicators will increase several times. In connection with this Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan has worked out the educational strategy for 2014-2018. The mentioned program pays enough attention to inclusive teaching development. The share of children that is covered by inclusive teaching will be growing year by year, thus, by the end of 2018 this indicator will comprise 40% of total number relating the given special category [17]. Many issues are to be solved in order to carry out this plan into life. 

Conclusions and recommendations

These are the conclusions that appeared in the result of inclusive teaching launch:

  • For inclusive teaching there are no normative controlling levers;
  • In particular, modified versions, that can help organize education process due to which population with limit opportunities are to be included into inclusive teaching, are not confirmed by any legal rules. The given issue concerns those invalids who have psycological, uncontrolled emotional states and also people who have heavy illnesses which are defied cure;
  • Inclusive teaching process is in the stage of methodological support development and approbation, in the result the realization of inclusive teaching technologies process faces difficulties;
  • Administrative employees do not have any professional training in educational establishments, as for pedagogical personnel, who are involved in educational inclusive teaching sphere, are lack of qualification;
  • There is a shortage of diagnostic technologies to identify the needs of those who are in charge of teaching process;
  • For those disabled individuals, whose invalidness has not been officially registered, special conditions should be created, however during this action process certain hurdles appear again;
  • The number of arguments and disputable questions are increasing because-of parents’ disagreement with the decisions of psychological-medical and pedagogical committees;
  • Financial levers are not available in order to realize into life inclusive practice;
  • The sudden increase of the number of educational establishments carrying out inclusive practice will lead to a bad quality, that is ‘false, spurious’ inclusion should not exist, educational organizations should not permit the mentioned above inclusion.

Therefore, these are the suggestions that are to be carried out to manage and bring about inclusive teaching project:

  • It is necessary to create organizational and legislative space due to which educational issues will effectively be The given education should be accessible, equal for all, qualitative and at the same time not permitting any kind of scornful attitudes and any neglecting forms towards invalids;
  • Complex system that will consider continuous teaching is obligatory – caring, supporting and performing the functions related to primary school, secondary school and special education, also disabled teenagers’ entering higher educational establishmnets as well;
  • It is necessary to work out and realize the policy that had been prepared for a long time; the given policy is devoted to solve teaching problems of Kazakhstani children with limit development and invalid individuals too;
  • Inclusive teaching principles should be adopted as a law or political declaration; for that changes and amendments should made in certain educational laws including professional teaching legislation;
  • Regulatorylegislative documents that regulate the functions and finance of educational establishments of inclusive type should be worked out and adopted;
  • In the level of State there should be launched the so-called ‘inclusive type establishment’; it will be a new type of teaching that functions according to regulatory-legislative rules;
  • It is urgent and actual to establish regional cooperation between medical rehabilitation organizations and Medical-Social Expert commission to solve items related to population with limit opportunities in teaching, social protection and healthcare systems.;
  • –In order to provide invalid children and all ILD with qualitative education accessibility it is needed to effectively plan for creating all conditions; to carry out the mentioned measures, monitoring of the number of disabled children and registering system should be organized. In connection with it to achieve the aim there should be made certain corrections and amendments in legislation and rules of national statistical organs;
  • To teach disabled children and ILD according to their opportunities it is mandatory to expand the net of existing special professional schools and colleges;
  • To improve distance teaching technologies that are being already applied in practice relating invalid children and ILD, it is necessary to adapt to inclusive teaching conditions just the best
  • Specialized information portal should be created in order to organize effective communication and collaboration between target individuals and organizations who deal with inclusive teaching development, in the result a range of issues like provision with technical, information and didactic materials etc will be solved;
  • The most major and significant goals of resultative inclusive teaching realization is training specialists for its different Also, one of the most actual things in inclusive teaching sphere is training, retraining of specialists and their qualification raise;
  • The main principles, new and modern standards sould be adopted taking into account disabled populations’s development peculiarities. Accordingly, during teaching process there should be created special conditions for the given category of people, furthermore, they are to be supported by complex psychologicalmedical-pedagogical rehabilitation as well.



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