There are many assumptions about the sacral symbolics of number seven, as well as many of the facts on which it could be argued that seven at one or another nation is sacred. The article deals with the semiotics of the number sevenin the epos «Alpamys».
In recent years, it becomes relevant studies the relationship of language and culture. The interest of scientists to this problem led to the emergence in the late XX century to the cultural linguistics, which studies national and cultural semantics of language units.
Language in cultural linguistics is regarded not only as a means of communication and knowledge, but first of all as a cultural code of ethnos. National language picture of the world is a world view and mentality of ethnos the carrier of the language, as enshrined in the semantics of language units and a part of the conceptual and categorical language. Language picture of the world forms a type of man's relationship to the world. It sets the standards of human behavior in the world, defines its relationship to the world. Each natural language reflects a certain way of perceiving and conceptualization of the world. At the same time any national language displays using special characters the same real world. Universal concepts that underpin the process of knowing the world also form the basis of any semantic language and subject to compulsory linguistic expression. This leads to the selection of thematic groups of identical phraseology, proverbs, riddles, rituals, and describing fragments of picture of the world: "The quality and condition of objects, actions", "Time", "Space", "and Number of. Number" etc.
The concept of number and measure plays an important role in the formation of a language worldview. The conceptual importance of the number notion in a particular worldview in any language due to the fact that it is one of the most ancient of philosophical concepts. Category of ancient times used the knowing subject not only to establish "unit multiple" realities of the world, but also to a broad ideological interpretation of quantitative parameters of the macrocosm and human. Of the various layers of vocabulary, indicating the quantitative parameters of the world objective, it stands out as a special group of names. In the ancient tradition myth poetic number was not only the way of the universe, but also a means of recovery in its periodic cyclical pattern of development. Number is a mystery that has supernatural powers that can bring both good and evil. The names of numbers could indicate a particular orientation in space, which had a sacral symbolism. Sacredness is one of the most important aspects of the overall presentation of the world culture. Sacral numbers greater or lesser extent is present in Kazakh and in the world culture. Particularly important is number "seven" among the Kazakh and the Turkic peoples. The number "seven" a symbol of supreme cosmic principles, the seven "letters supreme", a symbol of intelligence. There are many assumptions about the sacred symbolism of the number "seven", as well as many of the facts on which it can be argued [ 1. 2008; 2.1984; 3.2005; 5.1977]. All those who put forward the theory explaining the sacredness of the number "seven", claiming that seven is a sacred number.
It is interesting, the explanation of Novikov about the nature of the number "seven". T.A. Novichkova believes that the magical character of the number seven appeared as a reflection of the existence of the seven visible light (five planets, the sun and the moon) [2,150].
The Kazakh language number seven express the views of the Kazakh mythological space. According to popular belief, the earth and the sky are composed of seven layers. The concept «at the crossroads of seven roads» is the designation of open countryside, the intersection of several roads, where all sides the wind is blowing. The cross section of seven roads is ethno semantics of dangerous border.
The relevance of the quantitative characteristics of phenomena is manifested in the frequency of oral fixing (in particular in the semantics phraseology, proverbs, riddles), and a variety of associations, motivating quantify value of phraseology, proverbs and etc. The sacredness of numbers very clearly traced in proverbs, sayings, phraseology, ceremonies. It is these genres of folklore are introduced the forms of a quantitative evaluation of the world image. All nations, including Kazakh, recognized a significant role in the life of proverbs, as they represent the accumulated experience of knowing the world. The proverbs, phraseology through word-concepts evident link between language and culture. As you know, in these genres of folklore identified particular style of thinking, manifested the people's mentality, reflected the national character, psychology, culture and life of the people.
E.R.Tenishev writes that the number seven among the Turks formed a wide range of concepts with a stable trend: the designation of religious beliefs of different faiths, in the formation of astronomical terms and concepts, to build plot of folklore, proverbs and sayings [4, 633].
Mythological characters (seven patrons, seven evil spirits), a mythological structure of the world (the seven spheres of heaven, seven floors of the underground world, the seven mountains), timing of action mythical image (seven days, seven nights, seven years) and other concepts passed in epos and fairy tales. We will consider it on an example:
Я семь лет прожила, терпяне человеческие муки страдания, и для меня лучше было бы умереть, чем выходить сегодня замуж (Ilived seven years, sufferinginhumantormentsandsufferings, itwouldbebettertodie, thantomarrytoday).
Гульбаршин знала, что все прошедшие семь лет глаза несчастной материне просыхали от слез (Gulbarshin knew all the past seven years, tears of his mother‘seyes out to dry)
За семью холмами остался дырявый шалаш, в котором родился сын Култая и (Behind seven hills there was a tent full of holes in which the son Kultaya was born)
Семь дней Байбории Аналык жили в святых местах (Seven days Baybori and Analyk lived in the holy sites)
Эта неделя, им показалось, длилась целых семь лет (Thisweek, seemedtothem, lastedthewholesevenyears)
Пока Алпамыс находился в зиндане, прошло семь лет. Победив хана Тайшика, Алпамыс в виде дуана (юродивого) возвращается домой (While Alpamys was in the zindan (prison) paseed seven years. Having won the khan Tayshik, Alpamys in the form of aduan (foolish) comes back home).
The examples show the number seven is connected with sharp changes. The people at once can lose everything, but after a while find a lot of things thanks to a happy occurrence.
As can be seen, many studies in the field of linguistic reconstruction of ways of perceiving and organization of quantitative and valuation characteristics of the objective world man showed that the representation of the number gets its peculiar refraction, not only in every human language in general, but also on its individual levels. The content of the concept is realized in the amount of languages in the semantics of words, phraseology, sentences and texts. Study of quantitative lexic plays an important role in the formation of a quantitative picture of the world.
Список использованной литературы:
- Муратова Р.Т. Сакральное число ете ‗семь‘ в башкирском языке // Искусство и образование. – 2008. – №7.
- Новичкова Т.А. Традиционные числа в былинах // Изв. АН СССР. Сер. лит. и яз. – М., 1984. Т. Вып. 2. Баймурзина Р.Т. Сакральное число ‗сорок‘ в башкирском языке // Урал-Алтай: через века в будущее: Материалы Всероссийской научной конференции. – Уфа: Гилем, 2005.
- Сравнительно-историческая грамматика тюркских языков. Пратюркский язык-основа. Картина мира пратюркского этноса по данным языкам. – М.,
- Сравнительно-историческая грамматика тюркских языков. Лексика / Э. Р.Тенишев. — М.: Наука,