In this article the author examines the main criteria for the selection of materials for the formation of social competence and analyzes the text as a primary source of information linguocultural character.
Formation of social competence it is nothing like the process of learning a culture. It is only possible to analyze the national cultural basis of the native language, which will be the basis for the initiation of personality to the culture of other people. In this regard, it is impossible to agree with the statement of N.D.Galskova that "the basis of the cognitive component associated with the comprehension of a picture of the world of social culture, knowledge of semantic reference of another lingvoetnosotsium are the knowledge about the culture of the target language country" [4, p. 48]. In the process of the social competence formation, the following materials: literary texts, fairy tales, legends, folk wisdom, proverbs and sayings, videos, social political texts, audio recordings are used.
In the selection of materials for the formation of social competence it is necessary to meet the following requirements:
- exception of support for mother tongue
- the adequacy of cross-cultural realities
Authentic materials must meet the following criteria:
- The adequacy of cross-cultural realities;
- Theme "markedness"
- Information heredity;
- Compliance with the life and experience of the speech of
Depending on the level of training, topical and time one can choose any material. However, the optimal material for learning language and culture is the text which represents the social and cultural background: artistic and informative text, newspaper and magazine articles. It is also quite clearly expressed in the lyrics of the target language, which also possess a special property of motivation. It is a text that focuses on the values, concepts and images of alinguistic community, which are enshrined as a national-specific component of a particular linguistic-cultural community and introduce with the foreign language linguistic culture. The function of texts in culture and communication is to "... ask, listen and read solid set of rules for their sense of perception, or rather, to give a cultural object-product, by which we mean the image of the text, the projection of the text, that is, mental entity called the content of the text. "[7, p.110-111]. The text becomes a means of communication. If the "language as a system actually exists in speech communication in the form of texts," that culture is expressed by linguistic means taking roots and existing in the language. Without culture communication becomes impossible. [6, p.77].
Linguocultural rich text is a motivational personal significance for students. Working with the text, depending on its content and thematic focus, we will intensify following groups of motives:
- intellectual and cognitive;
- professional holistic;
- emotional aesthetic
- moral ethical;
- status position;
Developing the idea of studentactivity approach to learning a foreign language as the basis of academic cooperation, I.J.Zimnyaya pays special
attention to the formation of cognitivecommunicative needs of students. Thus, work with the text involves ensuring maximum total meaningful information on. In this respect, it is particularly important the principle of selection of texts for classroom and independent work in the light of the intercultural orientation of text communication. The texts that meet the communicative and cognitive needs of the students, increase the motivation level of training and enable continuous cross-cultural dialogue. Working with text in addition to traditional aspects involves the conscious development of foreign language culture through text. Working with literary text, designed for the formation of social and cultural skills, can be realized in two ways.
- Allocation of certain cultural phenomena in a given historical period, and then appeal to the art of declamation in the text, which embodies features of the national and world
- Accentuation of linguocultural and images of artistic speech, then introducing with the cultural phenomenon of different levels, followed by an understanding of the national picture of the world
This approach reaffirms the relationship and interaction effects of culture and language as a reflection of this phenomenon. Any text in addition to the realities of regional studies, carries information about the peculiarities of national philosophy, psychology and mentality of the speakers, as well as the peculiarities of perception of the world. The text is an area of intersection and the relationship of the real and the possible, the external and internal worlds of national and universal, because it reflects the author's picture vision of the world. And "the author's view of the world is recreated linguistic and cultural sphere, including the area of material and spiritual culture of the human mind and spirit." And, of course, the human reaction to the text is determined not only by the properties of the text itself, but also the presence of certain conditions, which the recipient must possess in order to adequately perceive and interpret it. This includes knowledge of the language, the presence of certain habits of language standards and stereotypes, and the presence of certain prior knowledge, without which it is impossible to understand what is at stake. That's the premise, without which it is impossible successful linguistic communication is called communicative competence. Communicative competence of each individual has an almost infinite number of components. The first is the knowledge of the language and the ability to use the language according to the language rules, linguistic traditions, and this knowledge is relevant to national culture. [2, p.12] All these external and internal factors, as well as the other realities of the human world are subject to the rules of culture medium which can only be a person, as a representative of a particular ethno-cultural society. Since the language exists, is alive and growing in the public consciousness in the minds of the people who speak it. Therefore, reflection and perception of the facts and events of the real world in different nations has greater variability, the presence of which is associated with the specifics of life of the people, the existence of a certain ethnic stereotypes that influence the processes of perception.When working with the text may be a situation of "culture shock" when the foreign language culture is diametrically opposite in terms of cultural values and norms shared by its carriers, resulting in an even rejection and rejection of others. Either there will be a convergence on certain parameters.
Inter-ethnic differences are observed mainly on 3 levels:
- is purely linguistic or Linguo-ethnical (realities, language patterns, speech aspect, etc.);
- meaningful or non-linguoetnical (consideration of the specific national image of the recipient's speech: individual personal properties of the communication partner and its social characteristics);
- paralinguistic (the kinetics, proxemics). All of these ethno-cultural characteristics have a place in the communicative and cognitive activities of the individual and affect the process of perception, for example:
- Der Blackout einuudsechzig war wie eine Explosion. What kind of a surprise of sixty-one? Of course, a speaker (in this case, the representative of German ethnic culture) would understand what was going on (I mean the closure of the border between East and West Berlin.) As the source (original) is designed to information held by native speakers. And this should be reflected in the perception of the text representative of other ethnic cultures, studying
- Fraulein hort zu von morgens bis abends Geschichten von Regimentsdamen, langst verstorben und vergessen ... Geschichten von blauen Briefen und Beforderangen. The phrase der blaue Brief is a German figurative sustainable value: notice of dismissal from work, service.
- Er uberfuhr alle Verkehrszeichen; er ktimmerte sich nicht um die heransturzenden Schupos. [8, p.78] die Schupo short for "die Schutzpolizei".
- Er hatte die Schrebergarten hinter sich und kam auf die Landstrasse. [8, p.78] der Schrebergarten a small garden with a summer house, named afterthe doctor Shrebera (D. Schraber 1808-1861).
- Ich sah mit einem Blick, dass weder Rum noch Wodka darinwar; es war Fruchtsaft, Zitrone,Tomateunmark und vielleicht noch ein Tropfen Angostura (Ebenda) der Angostura liquor "Angostura", named for the place of production city of Angostura in
Thus, we see that the absence of the necessary preliminary information leads to well-known to all of us of the situation, when the words are clear, but do not understand the essence of what was said. Differences in preinformation between native speakers and learning a foreign languge havee Linguo-ethnical character and relate to the field of cultural and historical knowledge that is necessary to learn German for successful communicative and cognitive activity. One can deal with this problem very often when working with newspaper authentic texts, i.e they are characterized by the fact that theinformation in them is designed for native speakers, as bearers of a particular ethnic culture. Many news stories are based on actual preinformation of topical issues, since they deal with a very topical "hot" and the events. all mentioned in the article, the reality is well known to the reader a native speaker.
For example, give a few titles of articles from the magazine "Stern" [5, №. 48,22,11]
- 'Will Rau zweite Amtsze
- "Der grime General macht mobil
- "Grime, danke, ihr wart wunderbar"
- "Mario Lupp Deutschlands nette Null im Ring»>
- "Lasst die Arzte Pleite sehen" Authors reasonably believe that the readers up to date with all the events. However, the foreign reader’s other interests and excites him at all other events.
It is necessary to take into account the stock premessenger recipient texts and for "anti-aliasing" to use an additional comment. Therefore, in the case of crosscultural communication through text, you should take into account not only adequate means of thinking in a foreign language, cross-language matching and transformation, but consider non-cultural mentality. Knowing all the features and connotative subtleties of moral, legal, ethical and other rules of that particular society is one of the most important conditions for the perception of authentic texts, and therefore the implementation of speech and achieve success during speech acts.
Thus, for the adequate understanding of authentic texts should be aware of the national psychology addressee, his attitude, customs, prejudices and stereotypes of national thinking, needs in short, all that is called national way of the addressee or ethno-cultural characteristics. An integral part of the cultural competence is knowledge about the aspects of the system and culture. In this case, situational conditional acts s a realization of the socio-cultural context. Belonging to a particular society as a socially interactive entry into it refers to the separation of moral, religious, ideological, political views that exist in it, as well as fixed within a given society defined role relationships. In this regard, N.L.Galeeva proposes to introduce the term "cultural locus" of the text, which means that the space occupied by the text in the culture. All text created within a particular culture, form a lattice text of the crop for which they are unique and textforming [3, p.87]. The basis of the text of the lattice are texts that are familiar or potentially familiar to all holders of the language and the culture. For training text communication in the first place it is necessary to use texts with national universal cultural significance. It is important that the text inside the grid could be traced thematic connection. For example, in the historical novels of I.Esenberlin, I.Kalashnikov, M.Auezov one can learn about the specifics of the life and culture of the nomadic tribes and in works of G.Heine are described the life of workers of medieval Germany. Today students prefer reading Internet technologies considering the main advantage of time savings, as well as the solution to many problematic issues that cause difficulty and require creativity. In order to properly organize the work with text, you first need to conduct a survey:
That's one of the sample profiles:
- Do you love to read?
- What kind of books do you prefer?
- Who is your favorite author?
- What attracts you to his works?
- How often do you read in a foreign language?
- What are the goals you pursue, reading in a foreign language? (Homework, aesthetic enjoyment, broaden their horizons, enrich your vocabulary)
- What are the difficulties in reading?
- What do you think is the cause of trouble?
- What forms of work with the text you use in the classroom?
- Which ones are the most productive for you personally?
Exploring the results of the survey, you can focus the text, adjust the direction of the text, the number of jobs and their level of difficulty. To make the text has become a real and productive foundation of learning all kinds of speech activity, it is important to teach students a variety of operations with the materials of the text, a variety of manipulations with diverse musical ones offer transphrastique unity, subtexts and the text with the genre and stylistic features of a particular class source (model) text, skills and abilities of differentiation, remodeling, construction and transformation of language units in solving specific learning task (eg, retelling the text, its use in communicative facing an oral statement monologue, dialogue, written communication, etc.). In this regard, it is appropriate to learning different techniques of operating with the text on praetext and endtext. Knowledge of these techniques provides students with the skills and abilities to work independently with the text and the preparation of various types of speech utterances. [1, p.18] Development of multicultural student-centered approach to learning a foreign language is provided by the intensity of work with texts, culturally important from the point of view of their former status in the source culture, relevance, cultural and educational value. Of great importance for the formation of social competence skills is properly organized extracurricular work. If the student is still in the classroom may experience some psychological stress and have low self esteem, during extracurricular activities, he is not afraid to make a mistake, act in accordance with the situation and vocabulary. Extracurricular activities can be confined to the traditional holidays:«Weihnacht», «Ostern», «ABC Tag», it may be literary evenings, the round table, play activities, in the image of steady TV talk show.
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- Common European Framework of teaching foreign languages. Strasbourg, 2004.
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- Journal «Stern», 2001
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- Tarasov E.F. Language and culture: methodological problems // LanguageCulture-ethnicity. Nauka, Moscow, 2004
- EM Remarque "Three Comrades", Leipzig, 1998.