About the research of Akzhan Mashanov in the ancient history of Kazakhstan

President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev in his Message to the people of Kazakhstan Strategy «Kazakhstan-2050» recognizes the role of the national intelligentsia in the development of the state and said that «we need to show and create new heroes of our time those whom should our young people will be guided on» [1 ]. One of the brightest figures of the Kazakh scientific intellectuals of our time is Akzhan Zhaksybekovich Mashanov (al-Mashani).

The outstanding Kazakh scientist, geologist, one of the founders of the Kazakh National Academy of Sciences, one of the first scientists who studied works and life of the great medieval Turkic thinker Abu Nasr al-Farabi in Kazakhstan.

Akzhan Zhaksybekovich Mashanov was not only Farabi study, scientists on invesnigation of the mining business, but also paid great attention to historical geography, history. One of the proof of academic activity are the book «Secrets of the Earth». «The Structure of the Earth» «Heritage of stone and Bronze Age of Kazakhstan» and «Таста түйілген тарих», published in 1969 .. Life and the mode of life of ancient people, recording and thoughts about the historical and cultural monuments left by them is highlited in these works .

During geological exploration a scientist paid special attention to the real historical data, studied monuments of sedentary culture, architecture. Especially A.Zh Mashanova was interested in petroglyphs, ancient monuments. Scientists tried to learn their secrets.

It is necessary to note, that the archaeological remains found during geological expeditions Akzhan Mashanov delivered to Academician Alkei Khakanovich Margulan. Certificate of creative collaboration of two scientists is the autograph of A.Zh Margulan in the book devoted to the culture of Central Kazakhstan, «Dear Akzhan! In order for you to see the unique samples of culture. From the writer. Alkei Margulan. 02.04.1980 »[3, p.215].

As the doctor of historical sciences Gulbanu Zhugenbaeva, Akzhan Mashanov introduced an important part of the information relating to the history of the Kazakhs, material and real data of boundless steppe into science [2, p.108].

It should be noted that being a specialist of geological direction Akzhan Zhaksybekovich paid special attention to the study and development of historical science. So, the scientist said in the work «Al-Farabi and Abay»: «When there is no written language, oral history is ephemeral. Therefore, the history of the Kazakhs has not gone far from the era of Chingiz Khan « [4, p.125]

Аl-Mashani made valuable conclusions about the way of life, trade of well adapted ancient people to the natural environment who lived in the Kazakh steppe in a joint work with the scientist geologist T.A. Akishev «Heritage of Stone Bronze Age of Kazakhstan», based on the information of the Chinese, Oriental and Russian scholars.

The scientist gives a detailed description of the social life of ancient clans and tribes, «... later Scythian tribes entered the arena of history. Tribes Zhun and Sune roamed from the Yenisei to Central Asia in 7-8 centuries B.C. and 2700-2400 years ago, fought with his chinese enemies. Their leaders were strong people. «[3, p.184].

«Cattle, crops (millet) is their main fishery. Starting from the leaders, each grazed his own cattle. The work on someone wasn’t approved. The main food was meat, kumyz. The clothes were woven from wool. Zhunz lived in yurts, the doors of which looked to the east. The yurt , the door of which were opened to the south-east, has survived up to this day «concludes Akzhan Mashanov [3, p.184].

Considering the socio-political structure of the Huns A. Mashanov notes, that leaders of the the tribe are very strong, brave batyrs. One Konys subordinated to the head of Kosh. From hundred and thousands of houses were called tribes.The opinions of older women were taken into account in the decision of important questions. The problems of war were considered complex, they were decided by leaders of kosh together. Higher management of Huns treated to to the lower rank leaders with the care, they, in turn, responded devotedly and honestly. The author cites the following arguments: Some cities had been named after the Hun-Saka tribes on the surrounding lands of the present territory of Mongolia and China, such as Rong-Boelen (Zhunn), Guan Gong (Hun), Sinbin (Sianbi), Hong-Chun (HunnChunn), Dun-Hua (Donghu) «[3, p.185].

The scientist gives a lot of information about metal-fishing of ancient Hunz. So, the leaders of the Hun tribes, entrusted them the search for metal from the earth, creating a small group of craftsmen and blacksmiths. Hunz blacksmiths found large reserves of ore oxidized copper.The author notes In «Secrets of the earth. The structure of the land. Heritage stone and Bronze Age of Kazakhstan, that, «The» Huns blacksmiths were looking for a blue, green, blue-green, brown-brown mineral copper. They were found in the amount from 10 till 15-kilograms. For example, in those days, for 500-600 years B.C. Zhezkazgan mine produced up to 10 tons of oxide minerals of copper. Open space excavated have been preserved to our days. At the end of the twentieth century the British, and later Russian intelligence agents, on the direction of local Kazakhs found Zhezkazgan ore in the places of excavations of Hun’s tribes and then put on the map. In 1927-1929 years the great Kazakh scientist geologist K.I. Satpayev called the places of Hun’s excavation of « workings of wonder time» or «Wonder workings.» It means «excavations of wild men « [3, p.186]. This characteristic indicates that the tribes of the Huns were not only looking for ways of getting metal out of the stones, but also set the goal before themselves to find metal in the bowels of the earth, the proof of this facts the scientist gives in his work, «the ancients people mined metal in the bowels of the earth on the depth of 1525 meters. Archaeologists had found stone, bone, wood, copper, bronze objects of labor, sacks of ore, human bones in these places. Finds of human bones suggest that the collapses took place here, it was hard to escape death in such circumstances « [3, p.191]. A.Zh Mashanov said in his notes, that Hun’s tribes, having mastered iron metallurgy, mined pure metal, 2000 years BC, they mined copper, bronze, tin, lead, zinc, nickel. They used smelting furnaces perfectly .

Mashanov writes about that in detail: « At first they crushed ore by means of stone tools, small enriched part was collected separately. All of this can be seen in the fields of Konyrat Sayak, Kumadyr, Zhezkazgan. Though our ancestors could not determine exactly how much metal was there in powders, but with the help of simple tools determined the composition of copper, it was from 10 till 20 percent, and zinc from 2 up till 4, iron from 40 till 50, lead from 5-10, tin from 1-5 percent.

Chalcopyrite, bornite, covellite, chalcocite, galena, sphalerite, magnetite and other minerals were found quickly and well distinguished from other stones by Hun’s blacksmiths. Primarily oxidized ore, malachite, azurite, hrizokola, cuprite, and others was melted. Also, the metal was obtained from copper, lead, iron ore. To do this, they were crushed, and after adding wood or coal, were melted in the furnace shafts of yellow sand. Side blower were used to raise the temperature [3, p.189].

Low-ash, coal, which was mined in the south-east of Bayanaul in Kyzyltau area was used for production of metal [3, p.194].

In Akzhan Zhaksybekov’s opinion, ancient metallurgists could bring heating temperature up to 1600 ° C. in order to produce copper. Good property of copper is that it provides an alloy of other metals. These qualities ofcopper Hun’s smiths used skillfully. For example, bronze was obtained from an alloy of copper and zinc. The author also writes in his writings that the ancestors obtained pure copper by means of generation, heating [3, p.190-191].

Thus, despite the fact, that scientists Akzhan Zhaksybekovich was a scientist of another sphere, he made a great contribution into the study of the ancient history of Kazakhstan. His work on the history of the area and population of the ancient era can also be included in the number of scientific papers on the study of historical geography, archeology of Central and Eastern Kazakhstan.

 

References

  1. Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Leader of the Nation N.A. Nazarbayev to people of Kazakhstan, Astana, 14 December 2012
  2. Material of the scientific-practical seminar «The historical value of the scientific heritage of the scientist Akzhan Zhaksybekovich Mashani in the context of national idea» .Astana: Institute of History of the State, 2014. p. 224.
  3. Mashanov A.Zh «Secrets of the earth. The structure of the land. Heritage of stone and Bronze Age of Kazakhstan. « Almaty «Alatau» Publisher, -p.288
  4. Mashanov Zh «Al Farabi and Abay». Almaty. Publisher «Alatau», 2005.p.296.
Magazine: NO
Year: 2016
City: Astana
Category: History