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Артериальная гипертензия (АГ) является важнейшей медико-социальной проблемой. У 30% взрослого населения развитых стран мира определяется повышенный уровень артериального давления (АД) и у 12-15 % - наблюдается стойкая артериальная гипертензия

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Целью нашего исследования явилось изучение эффективности и безопасности препарата лазолван 30мг у амбулаторных больных с ХОБЛ.

Деформирующий остеоартроз (ДОА) в настоящее время является наиболее распространенным дегенеративно-дистрофическим заболеванием суставов, которым страдают не менее 20% населения земного шара.

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Нами было проведено клинико-нейропсихологическое обследование 250 больных с ХИСФ (работающих в фосфорном производстве Каратау-Жамбылской биогеохимической провинции)

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New antinuclear initiative of Kazakhstan

Currently there are many points of escalation and conflict in the world. The civil war that started in Syria is a source of instability in the region. Due to the lack of peace and escalating violence, tens of thousands of refugees from Asia and Africa rushed to Europe in order to preserve his own life. The situation remains tense in Ukraine. Mutual sanctions between the leading States are further aggravating the global economic crisis. Again, a conflict broke out in Nagorno-Karabakh. Increased risk of use of nuclear weapons by the countries possessing such kind of weapons, it is also not excluded the risk of falling into the hands of terrorists the materials to make nuclear bombs.

In this regard, on 31 March 2016, at the IV Summit on nuclear security in Washington, the President of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev made his historic speech to the world with the Manifesto: «The World. 21st century». It was published on the pages of the American newspaper “The Hill”.

The emergence of such a global initiative on the part of our country is no coincidence, as Kazakhstan is one of the first closed the world’s largest Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, the first in the world to unilaterally abandoned the powerful nuclear Arsenal. Kazakhstan is pursuing a multi-vector peaceful foreign policy. Holding in our country congresses of leaders of world and traditional religions has become a good sign of the times. In our capital there are ongoing Forums of spiritual harmony. Kazakhstan was the first country in the former Soviet Union, chaired the OSCE and held a Summit in Astana in 2010. On the initiative of our Republic, the UN General Assembly adopted the “Universal Declaration on the establishment of a world free of nuclear weapons” on 7 December 2015.

In short, Kazakhstan has the full moral right to turn to other States on the issue of nuclear disarmament.

In the framework of the nuclear security Summit in Washington was issued a N.A. Nazarbayev Manifesto «The World. The 21st century “. He had a wide public resonance, has been actively discussed, and was warmly received by the people of Kazakhstan and the world community. In the headquarters of the Carnegie endowment hosted a meeting of a Leader with public and political figures of the United States. The President with his usual calmness, courage and objectivity explained the essence of the modern global problem of proliferation of nuclear weapons. In particular, he stressed that currently there is an unlimited number of possibilities for civilization progress and at the same time increasing threats and risks with the development of advanced technologies. But the biggest threat for mankind is the problem of nuclear war.

The essence of the presidential initiative boils down to five important suggestions:

Firstly, the “consecutive movement to the world free of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction”.

Secondly, “in the XXI century it is necessary to form the geography of sustainable peace, consistently rejecting war as a way of life”. In particular, the Head of our state proposed “to intensify international efforts to establish nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East.”

Thirdly, “in 21st century it is necessary to overcome this vestige of militarism, as the existence of military blocs, threatening global security and impediments to broader international cooperation”.

Fourth, “it is important to adapt to new historical conditions of the international disarmament process”, as according to our leader,”short-sighted scrapping the old Treaty limitations on missile systems and conventional weapons have led to the militarization of the political space of Eurasia”.

Fifth, the «world without war is primarily equitable paradigm of the global competition in international Finance, trade and development.”

The Manifesto of the President concludes with an appeal to preserve peace and consent in our common home the Earth, “we should do everything we can to rid the humanity from the threat of deadly war. We have no a more pressing task now and in the foreseeable future.

The international community has supported the appeal of President of Kazakhstan. The UN has identified an official document status of the Manifesto, which is required to study.

From all corners of our country and foreign countries have been received the positive feedback on this document of the planetary scale.

The Deputy of Mazhilis of Parliament of RK Kuanysh Sultanov stressed: “the Official UN document directed to the whole population, the Manifesto of the President of Kazakhstan addressed to the heads of States, countries, and peoples of the world. He urged all them to unite in the fight for a nuclear-free world”.

The Chairman of the Committee for socio-cultural development and science of Senate of the Parliament of Kazakhstan A. Bizhanov identifies the following key thesis of the Manifesto: “the Beginning of the XXI century was marked by the complication of relations between States and religions. Policy document of the President has become an effective response to modern challenges and threats”.

Well-known scientist and public figure, Professor of Al-Farabi KazNU L. Akhmetov stressed: “by studying wars of the past, we more clearly understand that it is impossible to prevent wars in the future. Therefore, the appeal of the Manifesto “The World. The 21st century “, must be properly understood and unconditionally accepted by all people in all countries of the world.”

Representatives of the expert communities in foreign countries gave feedback. So, A. Fischer, member of the German Bundestag from the CDU, Chairman of the European people’s party (EPP) in the Council of Europe notes: “the Welcome and support of Kazakhstan’s anti-nuclear initiatives of the last 10 years. The leadership of Kazakhstan made an important contribution to the process of leveling the dynamics of the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation posed by some countries seeking to acquire weapons of mass destruction... Kazakhstan’s Efforts help to reduce the risk of escalation of nuclear powers. The activity of Kazakhstan on the conclusion of new agreements on disarmament, arms control, the establishment of nuclear-free zones and the reduction of nuclear arsenals is an example for other countries.”

Gregory Gleason, Professor at the University of New Mexico (USA) also gives a positive assessment of the actions of the Kazakh leader: “Kazakhstan has established itself as one of the world leaders in promoting the benefits of nuclear science while demonstrating to the entire planet commitment to a world free of nuclear weapons. All countries, large and small, young and old, rich and poor, should follow the example of Kazakhstan.”

Rudolph Wieder, Vice-President of the Swiss society for foreign policy high evaluated the Kazakhstan’s initiative: “with great pleasure I familiarized with the Manifesto “The World. The 21st century “, which is an extremely important message to the world community. A warning that humanity is neither more nor less, a threat to the planet’s destruction and the destruction of civilization, cannot be ignored. I congratulate you on a powerful and timely initiative of the President Nursultan Nazarbayev”.

Dieter Boden, former permanent representative of Germany to the OSCE, a prominent political analyst writes: “the Core of this message is the need to ensure sustainable peace. Thus the Kazakhstan Head of state points to the unstable situation in the field of security, expressed in the constantly emerging new areas of tension and military confrontation. He called for further steps on disarmament and non-proliferation. In this sphere Kazakhstan is a model of excellence, which was earned on this basis, a good worldwide reputation, particularly through his numerous initiatives aimed to global disarmament and non-proliferation. This fact makes the published Manifesto of authority and trust.”

At the summit, over one hundred and fifty countries ratified the Convention on fight against nuclear attack – a key document that will provide additional tools for nuclear security. The Treaty will enter into force in the coming weeks. The parties will continue to work on how to effectively develop a defense against attack and any risk. After all, the situation in the world against the terrorist groups was very disturbing. The world needs decisive and consistent action for the immediate destruction of the virus of war and conflict.

Thus, the Manifesto is a timely and vital. That is why this received overwhelming support and understanding in Kazakhstan and the world.

The new peace initiative of N.A.Nazarbayev concerns the interests of all mankind. This crucial important document dictated by the President’s concern for the fate of future generations who must live in a world without war, for the future of all mankind. This document is a warning to all countries of the dangers posed by conflicts with use of modern types of weapons, particularly nuclear weapons, calling for peaceful solutions to international disputes. The publication of the Manifesto considerably raised the prestige of Kazakhstan on the world stage. The Republic once again demonstrated to the world their peaceful foreign policy.

The Leader of the Nation expresses the interest of all citizens of Kazakhstan and we must therefore make every effort to maintain peace in the country and beyond.


List of used literature:

  1. Nazarbayev N.A. The Manifesto: The The 21st century /http://www.akorda.kz/ru
  2. Nazarbayev N.A. Omir otкеldery. – Astana,
  3. Nazarbayev A. Creating the future: the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan on key reforms in economy and management (1997-2013). – Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya Literatura, 2013.
  4. Ayagan, A. Auanasova. Nursultan Nazarbayev and Kazakhstan’s model of state-building (historical aspect). Almaty: Litera – M.,

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International relations

International relations



Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection between textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[

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Technical science