Structural features of spontaneous mammary tumors of laboratory mice and rats

At the modern stage of the medicine development the biological modelling of diseases becomes the most important scientific method. That fact causes the necessity to create such experimental models on laboratory animals that would reflect mechanisms of the origin and development of human deseases and mechanisms of recovery. Organization of the experiments is impossible without profound knowledge of the laboratory animal's biology that remains poorly investigated today. Absence of sufficient information concerned with structural features of the spontaneous tumors arising in laboratory animals decreases possibility of the purposeful modelling. Hence investigation of spontaneous neoplasms in laboratory animals represents an important task. 

Actuality. At the modern stage of the medicine development the biological modelling of diseases becomes the most important scientific method. That fact causes the necessity to create such experimental models on laboratory animals that would reflect mechanisms of the origin and development of human deseases and mechanisms of recovery. Organization of the experiments is impossible without profound knowledge of the laboratory animal's biology that remains poorly investigated today. Absence of sufficient information concerned with structural features of the spontaneous tumors arising in laboratory animals decreases possibility of the purposeful modelling. Hence investigation of spontaneous neoplasms in laboratory animals represents an important task.

Information that is found in the available scientific literature is concerned either with clinical material [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58], or with chemically induced and transplanted experimental tumors [10, 41, 56, 57].

Taking into consideration the above mentioned conditions we tried to investigate morphologic features of spontaneous mammary tumors that arise in the laboratory mice and rats.

Methods. For our investigation we used laboratory mice and rats of different lines that were breeded in the vivarium of Kazakh scientific institute of oncology.

We investigated five animals: two mice and five rats. The animals tumor-carriers were put to sleep with the help of diethyl ether and were dissected. Tissues of the tumors were extracted and fixed in formalin solution. Paraffin sections were stainded with hematoxylin-eosin.

Discussion. In the animal №1 (mouse) the neoplasm is covered by connective tissue capsule. The capsule is made up of thin fibres directed in different directions and of cellular elements containing densely stained nuclei of different shape; the nuclei are 4,13±0,14 micrometers in diameter. In some zones of the neoplasm surface the capsule is characterized by compact arrangement of the connective tissue fibres and by presence of numerous cellular elements. In the other zones the fibres are arranged looser and the cellular elements are less in number; some of such zones are infiltrated by formed elements of blood. In some zones the neoplasm surface is covered by anhistous granular substance.

The capsule gives off numerous vascularized septa that profoundly penetrate into the tumor and divide its parenchyma into lobes. The septal blood vessels are thin walled, they contain formed elements of blood. In some cases within the septa one can find extravascular clusters of the formed elements of blood.

Within the peripheral zones of the tumorous parenchyma there are occasional glandular acini that are 30,12±1,2 micrometers in diameter. Their lumen (its diameter is 16,96±0,54 micrometers) contains densely stainable secretion. The glandular acini are lined by simple epithelium the height of which is 5,65±0,16 micrometers. Hyperchromatic nuclei of the epithelial cells are different in shape, their average diameter is 3,95 ±0,11 micrometers.

The bulk of tumorous parenchyma is made up of large lobules of hyperplastic glandular tissue that consists of numerous densely packed cells. Some of the cells show mitotic figures. Boundaries of the cells are inconspicuous. Their rounded and oval nuclei (diameter of which is 5,7±0,22 micrometers) have clearly defined karyolemma, distinct nucleoli and masses of chromatin.

Numerous glandular acini of some lobules contain densely stainable secretion.

Central zones of many of the lobules are destroyed entirely, they represent eosiniphilic anhistous mass within which the nuclear fragments are irregularly scattered.

Some of the lobules have cavities that are characterized by even contours (such cavities may be filled by formed elements of blood) other lobules resemble fissures. Within lobules there are also small zones that consist either of vacuolates cells the nuclei of which have indistinct boundaries.

In the animal №1 metastases in lungs were found as well. Pulonary tissue located between metastases is destroyed and is infiltrated by formed elements of blood. Many of bronchioles are intact. But in some of the bronchioles the epithelium is collapsed. Parenchyma of the metastases is made up of lobules of hyperplastic glandular tissue, the lobules are separated by connective tissue bundles. The bundles are composed of densely arranged fibres and of cellular elements containing elongated hyperchromic nuclei. The bundles are pierced by numerous small vessels, containing formed elements of blood.

Lobules of metastases represent dense clusters of numerous cells, among which there are those at different stages of mitosis. Boundaries of the cells are indistinct. Rounded and oval nuclei of the cells may either be hyperchromatic or have conspicuous karyolemma, nucleoli, and masses of chromatin. Average diameter of the nuclei is 5,03±0,15 micrometers.

Within the lobules one can frequently find some zones that are made up of anucleate cells, of vacuolated cells, of the cells the nuclei of which have indistinct boundaries, of cytoplasmic scraps and irregularly scattered fragments of nuclei.

Many of the metastases contain cavities some of which are characterized by even contours and the other metastases resemble fissures. Those cavities may contain clusters of blood cells.

In the animal №2 (mouse) the tumor is surrounded by connective tissue capsule that is pierced by numerous thin-walled vessels filled with blood. The capsule is made up of fibres running along the neoplasm surface and of cellular elements containing elongated lightly stainable nuclei. Within the capsule one can find glandular acini that contain secretion. The capsule gives off septa which penetrate deeply into the timorous tissue. The septa are well vascularized.

Tumorous tissue is made up of numerous loosely arranged cells. Boundaries of the cells are not distinct. In some zones of the tumor the rounded and oval nuclei of the cells are characterized by presence of clearly defined karyolemma and distinct nucleoli and masses of chromatin. Diameter of the nuclei is 4,37±0,15 micrometers. In the other zones the nuclei (3,51±0,1 in diameter) are rounded, oval, and angular in shape and are densely stained. There are also some zones within which neoplastic cells are mixed up with the formed elements of blood.

One can find different-sized necrotized zones that consist of eosiniphilic granular masses and of irregularly scattered fragments of nuclei.

In the animal №3 (rat) the tumor is composed of connective tissue. In some zones the connective tissue contains wavy fibres and cellular elements. The rounded and oval nuclei of the cells are characterized by presence of clearly defined karyolemma and well seen nucleoli. Diameter of the nuclei is 5,85±0,22 micrometers. Those tumorous zones are pierced by numerous thin-walled vessels which contain formed elements of blood.

In other zones there are homogenized connective tissue fibres. Numerous cellular elements contain large lightly stained elongated nuclei the diameter of which is 12,28±0,59 micrometers.

Some vast zones represent lightly stained anhistous substance containing small cavities and destroyed cells.

In the animal №4 (rat) the neoplasm is covered by connective tissue capsule (23,13±0,9 micrometers in thickness), it gives off septa which deeply penetrates into the timorous tissue. The capsule is made up of thin fibres running along the surface of the tumor, and of numerous cellular elements the elongated nuclei of which are lightly stainable. The capsule is pierced by vessels engorged with blood.

Within the tumor one can determine two types of zones which structurally differ from each other. Some of the zones are made up of numerous glandular acini (30,61±1,21 micrometers in diameter ), that are arranged in the form of islets separated by connective tissue

bundles. The bundles are pierced by thin-walled vessels engorged with blood. Many of the vessels are considerable in size. Some of the glandular acini are characterized by normal structure. They are lined by simple cuboidal epithelium the average height of which is 6,11±0,2 micrometers. Densely stained nuclei of the epithelial cells (4,21±0,13 micrometers in diameter) are rounded and oval in shape. The lumen of the glandular acini (13,88±0,3 micrometers in diameter) contains homogeneous secretion. Many of the epithelial cells are considerably vacuolated. In some cases the epithelium is cast-off, but well preserved nuclei situated in the glandular lumens are either hyperchromatic or have clearly defined karyolemma and prominent nucleoli. In some glandular lumens the large droplets of secretion are surrounded by collapsing epithelial cells.

The other zones of the tumor the connective tissue predominate. Within the connective tissue the glands singly scattered. The glandular acini and excretory ducts are lined by epithelial cells the boundaries of which are indistinct. Diameter of the glandular acini is 19,11±0,65 micrometers, and diameter of the excretory ducts is 12,09±0,5 micrometers. Rounded and oval nuclei of the epithelial cells have distinct karyolemma and well visible nucleoli and masses of chromatin. Diameter of the nuclei is 4,52±0,2 micrometers. Surrounding connective tissue is made up of thin wavy fibres and of numerous cellular elements containing oval and elongated lightly stained nuclei; diameter of the nuclei is 5,15±0,2 micrometers. Within those zones of the tumor one can find vessels engorged with blood.

In the animal №5 (rat) the tumor is surrounded by connective tissue capsule that is 102,83±3,86 micrometers in thickness. The capsule is made up of thin wavy fibres (running along the surface of the neoplasm) and of irregularly scattered cellular elements containing rounded and oval lightly stained nuclei; diameter of the nuclei is 7,21±0,23 micrometers. The capsule gives off wide connective tissue septa that deeply penetrate into the tumorous tissue. The septa divides the neoplastic tissue into lobules. The lobules contain a considerable amount of connective tissue.

Parenchyma of tumor is made up of numerous glandular acini (46,19±2,01 micrometers in diameter) the inner surface of which is lined by epithelium. ^e epithelial cells are 5,97±0,17 micrometers in height. Rounded and oval nuclei of the epithelial cells (5,15±0,13 micrometers in diameter) are characterized by presence of distinct karyolemma and by well visible nucleoli and masses of chromatin.

The most of the glandular acini are collapsed. In some cases the epithelial cells are vacuolated and their nuclei are pyknotic. In other cases the acinar lumens are filled with fragments of the epithelial cells. In some glandular acini the epithelial cells are entirely cast-off. Many of the destroyed epithelial cells contain well preserved nuclei.

Many vast zones of the tumorous tissue are made up of connective tissue. Some of them contain small islets of the glandular acini. Outer surface of those timorous zones is lined by simple epithelium containing oval and hyperchromatic nuclei. The height of the epithelial cells is 8,19±0,21 micrometers, аnd diameter of their nuclei is 4,45±0,17 micrometers.

 

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Year: 2017
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