Apply the knowledge gained by the method of PBL for resolving the problems, including the generation of hypotheses and differential diagnosis, and the necessary skills to interpret and use data from medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests in respiratory diseases. Evaluate the impact of communication, legal, ethnic characteristics for the process of care in obtaining the knowledge.
Introduction. In today's high school a lot of attention paid to the introduction of innovative teaching methods in the educational process. The right combination of traditional and innovative methods of training helps develop cognitive interests and creative abilities of students, preparing them for practical work. Competing with each passing day becomes more and more strong, the lack of practical experience and skills in students can be a serious and significant obstacle to their employment and career growth. In this connection, it has become increasingly popular modern teaching methods, aimed at developing the students' specific skills. Using new techniques greatly improves the process of development of material, teaches students to think and to really apply the knowledge gained in the lectures. PBL method (Problem-Based Learning) is considered as a successful innovative teaching methods, aimed at students' independent work. In this method, the focus shifts from teacher training to the student, because now the student takes a more active role in trying to solve a practical problem. Howard Burrows, who took part in the development of the method of PBL at McMaster University in Canada, provides a definition of the method of PBL as a student-oriented, organization of the learning process around the issue and focus on the work in small groups, where the teacher acts as an intermediary.  Savin-Baden defines 5 types of PBL perception of knowledge and learning, existence of a problem, the role of teachers, students and evaluation . Some sources shared by three levels of training method based on the problem of the theory, model and practice.  Students are encouraged to a certain problem (the problem) is often selected from the real world and offers a "tool kit" to solve it. The course can be built in such a way that among the "tools" to solve the problems described in the lecture material will not be the most necessary. That is, given a certain direction, "look there" and students are encouraged to fill in the blanks by themselves. In some sciences, the presence of methods and techniques may not even be reported. Thus, students will be able to come to some conclusions logically and methods. This is very different from the traditional construction of the educational process, where students first proposed the theory of a kind, then the proofs and explanations. The backward movement of the problem to the theory, often used in the methods of PBL, brings students from the state of passive acceptance and understanding of the information, enabling them to make their way, "according to the invention a bicycle" on their own.
The purpose of introducing the method of learning is dictated by training in KazNMU, according to global trends of medical education, the Bologna process and mechanisms for harmonization of educational programs in the world focused on the end result: the release of a competent competitive specialists with a high level of theoretical knowledge, thinking to solve professional problems in further action .
The aim of PBL.
- Learn how to apply knowledge from different areas of basic sciences for the solution of clinical problems
- To develop skills of discussion, critical thinking and problem solving, teamwork, professional behavior, work with information resources, self-analysis and self-assessment
- To develop skills define your own boundaries of knowledge, determine the necessary information sources and independently acquire knowledge to solve specific problems
PBL - problem based learning. PBL - teaching method in which students are trained in the course of independent work on the problem - the clinical task
This method encourages independent learning and enables students to practice solving practical situations and defining their own frontiers of knowledge
The advantage of PBL.
- To stress not on fact but on the meaning
- To develop as an independent education
- Increase the level of assimilation, development of practical skills
- Development of interpersonal relationships and teamwork
- Motivation for education
The methodology of the activity -1 clinical case - 3 sessions
- lesson: Introduction . Presentation of a clinical case. Discussion in a group. Determination of questions for self-study. Feedback (formative evaluation)
- lession: Continued discussion of the case on the basis of new knowledge. Determination of questions to explore. Feedback (formative evaluation)
- lession: Continued discussion of the case on the basis of new knowledge. Solution. Conclusion. Discussion. Feedback. Evaluation (summative).
Criteria for evaluation of the student.
Preparation to the studies:
Examine the information and the event focused on issues of concern, using various sources, supports the approval of relevant links.
Group skills and professional attitude:
Demonstrates excellent attendance, reliability and responsibility. Takes the initiative, actively involved in the discussions, assist to groupmates, take the job by own initiative
Active listening, behaves emotionally and respectively to the situation, is sensitive to non-verbal and emotional cues, showing respect and correctness in relation to others, assist to resolve misunderstandings and conflicts.
Skills of feedback:
Demonstrates a high level of self-reflection, critical about themselves and colleagues, provides a constructive and objective feedback in a friendly manner, accept feedback without opposition
Critical thinking skills and effective learning:
Effectively participates in generating hypotheses and formulating problem issues, give examples from life in a relevant results , skillfully applied to the case of knowledge of PBL, critically assesses the information to draw conclusions, explains and justifies approval, draws diagrams and drawings, demonstrating continued interest in the studied material
Presentation of the case. The complaints, medical history, personal history, physical examination data, physical data, the results of laboratory and instrumental examination
Evaluating the effectiveness of this method of training was evaluated by students at the end of the third session.
Feedback at the end of the third class
List the main advantages of this learning method (What helps you learn?). Give detailsclarification or give an example to every dignity
- List the changes that could be made to improve the learning. Give detailed advice on how to do it.
- interesting facts that I learned today:
- - the idea that I can use tomorrow
- - a statement with which I disagree
1 - an ambiguity
The review of students thoughts to obtain information about their impressions of this method of learning
- Structured - questionnaire- profile.
- Group discussion
- Answer - Vision Group as a whole
- Assessment of the role of the teacher - the analysis and interpretation of response
- Assessment of the effect of the freedom for the comments to resolve problems
- Ideas for improving the program
- Structured group interviews.
- Method of PBL aims to restructure and improve the educational process and preparation for professional work of students;
- PBL creates conditions for the formation and consolidation of professional knowledge and skills of students;
- Create conditions for the development of abilities to think independently navigate the situation, find solutions, to make contact with the team;
- Improves the process of learning, motivating learning, promotes the development of creative abilities of students, of speech, the ability to form and express their views;
- Enables logical thinking to overcome stereotypes in education;
- Barrows H.S. Problem-based Learning: An approach to medical education // Springer series on Medical Education. - New York .: 1980. – Р. 20-31.
- Savin-Baden M. Problem-Based Learning in Higher Education // Untold Stories, SRHE and Open University Press. – Buckingham: 2000. – Р. 50-55.
- Graaff E., Kolmos A. Characteristics of Problem-Based Learning // Int .J. Engng Ed. – 2003. - Vol. 19, - №5. – Р. 657-662.