The educational system in Poland includes nursery schools, primary schools, gymnasiums, post-gymnasium schools, colleges and universities. In Poland, training in schools lasts 10 years. Higher education lasts 5 years, including the specialty "Pharmacy" which includes undergraduate and graduate level. Education in PhD-doctoral lasts 4 years.
At the level of undergraduate specialty "Pharmacy" training lasts 5 years, at the level of scientific and pedagogical magistracy - 2 years, ph-D- doctoral studies - 3 years. The educational process at the Pharmaceutical Faculty, specialty "Pharmacy" is organized in a modular training of vertical type, according to which five areas of training are identified. The university implemented competence-based approach and identified five core competencies.
Recently international cooperation is actively developing. There are priorities for the opening of a new specialty - Clinical Pharmacy, the development of double degrees at all levels of education, academic mobility of students and faculty, programs of visiting professors for scientific and educational process are set before the partner universities of S.D. Asfendiyarov KazNMU and Medical University of Lublin.
According to Article 70 para 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, everyone has the right to education. Education from 6 to 18 years of age is compulsory but only at the level of primary school and gymnasium. Public schools are free of charge. The legal basis for the school education system in force is provided by the Act on the School Education System of the 7th of September 1991, including later amendments. In 1999 a reformed compulsory school structure was implemented. Presently educational system in Poland includes nursery schools, primary schools, gymnasiums, post-gymnasium schools, colleges and universities.
Children aged 3-6 attend preschool, in special occasions as early as 2,5 years of age. Nursery education is compulsory for 5 and 6- year-olds. Apart from preschools, there are also preschool departments in primary schools, preschool clubs and preschool centers. The last two are designed for small groups of children and are created mainly in areas remote from a preschool or a primary school.
Primary education lasts 6 years. It is divided into two 3-year phases. The first phase – grades I-III, includes children aged 7-10. Nowadays, based on parents' (legal custodians') request, 6 year old children may be accepted to primary school. During that stage lessons are not divided into subjects and they are taught by one leading children. However, second language, music, art and IT may be taught by specialized teachers. In this phase lesson duration is flexible and teachers do not need to follow 45-minute lesson division, as it is the case in higher grades. Students can also have religious class or ethics. Apart from compulsory lessons, schools have to provide after school activities to allow students to develop their talents but also to equal opportunities.
In grades IV-VI education process is divided into subjects taught by particular teachers (specialists). One of the teachers teaching a given class is chosen as a leading teacher. In VI grade, students take a national competence test which is the same for all the students. The test is prepared by the Central Examination Commission. The results have no influence on graduation from the primary school or acceptance to a gymnasium at the place of student's registered residence. They are taken into account when accepting a student to a different gymnasium.
The reform of 1999 introduced three-year gymnasium as a new type of school for children aged 13-16. The education in that stage is still general and ends with an examination which usually takes place in April. The exam consists of three parts: humanities, mathematics and science, languages. It is obligatory but there are no minimum points required to pass. The results are taken into account when accepting students to post-gymnasium schools.
In Poland, there are following post-gymnasium types of schools: vocational secondary schools (3 years); high schools (3 years) which end with the maturity examination; technical vocational school (4 years) – graduates are awarded the certificate of completion of education in the technical vocational school and also maturity certificate for those who pass it.; post-secondary schools (up to 2,5 years) – graduates can obtain a certificate of vocational qualifications upon passing an examination; special needs vocational schools providing mentally or physically disabled students with a certificate proving their vocational qualifications.
Minimum requirement for gaining access to higher education is the maturity certificate. Higher education lasts 5 years. Candidates are accepted on the result of their maturity examination. University education ends with MA examination and graduates are awarded the MA title. Achieving that title is the requirement for further education (e.g. doctorate studies – 4 years, work at a university) and obtaining a doctorate degree. The latter is awarded to a person with MA title (in a given area), passed doctorate examinations and completing a doctorate dissertation. Doctorate degree is given by accredited universities. The accreditation is granted based on number of professors on staff (minimum 8).
Doctorate dissertation should include an original solution to a science or artistic problem and should prove general theoretical knowledge of the candidate in a given field, as well as ability to conduct research or artistic activity independently. The dissertation is supervised and corrected by a supervisor appointed by university authorities. Presentation of the dissertation is an open event, the date and place is announced ahead of time and everyone can participate and ask the candidate questions concerning their dissertation. The next educational level is post-doctoral degree, available for people with doctorate title who proved their significant input into the field of science or art. Post-doctorate degree procedure in Poland is regulated by Act of 14th March 2003.
The final stage in the academic carrier is obtaining the title of the professor, awarded by the President of the Republic of Poland.
In Kazakhstan educational system is regulated by the Education Law of 27.07.2007 and the Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 1080 from 23.08.2012 the "state compulsory standards of higher education".
It describes government policy towards education and ensures the constitutional rights of citizens to education. According to this act government guarantees to citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan free primary to secondary education. All educational establishments, whether private or state, should guarantee use and development of Kazakh language as the official language, as well as Russian and one foreign language according to national standards of education on the appropriate level of education.
Educational institutions can be divided into:
- Preschool, specialized, organizations for orphans and children deprived of parental care;
- Education establishments realizing educational programs on a secondary level, vocational primary, vocational secondary, higher vocational, post-graduate vocational and additional vocational
Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan, foreigners and people without citizenship have the right to choose the educational institution and form of education based on the requirement of a given institution. Graduates of different educational units, both private or state owned, have the same rights to entrance exams to various secondary schools or when applying for a job.
In Kazakhstan schooling lasts 11 years (primary school 4 years), in a bachelor degree, depending on the specialties - 4-5 years. Master degree can be profiled (1 and 1.5 years) and scientific- pedagogical (2years). Doctorate degree also divided into profiled and scientific-pedagogical with a training period of 3 years .
Leading university implementing training in the specialty "Pharmacy" is the Kazakh National Medical University. SD Asfendiyarov.
At the level of undergraduate specialty "Pharmacy" training lasts 5 years, at the level of scientific and pedagogical magistracy - 2 years, PhD-doctoral studies - 3 years.
The educational process at the Pharmaceutical Faculty, specialty "Pharmacy" is organized in a modular training of a vertical type, according to which five areas of training are identified - pharmacist-manager, pharmacist-analyst, pharmacist- pharmacognosists, pharmacist-technician, pharmacisttoxicologist.
To implement the educational program there is sufficient training, material resources, human resources, meeting the requirements of modern high school with the appropriate basic education; material resources (computer classes, educational materials lecturers Faculty of Pharmacy and Visiting Professor, teaching materials, including electronic media, the necessary software and software packages, physico-chemical laboratory, the Center of practical skills in a speciality "Pharmacy "); agreement with the bases practices .
The university implemented competence-based approach and identified five key competencies:
- Cognitive component (knowledge), involves the development in the audience and further practical use of theory and concepts, as well as the acquisition of knowledge;
- The operational component (skills) - involves the effective use of the knowledge gained in the workplace, in further education or social activity: the choice of effective forms of organization and management of the enterprise, taking into account their specific conditions and specific activities; use of technical information to improve the medical and pharmaceutical care; the ability to analyze the state of the object under study and to determine priorities; use of domestic and foreign experience;
- Axiological component (communication skills) - requires the ability to work effectively with others, behavioral skills in specific situations, the formation of personal competencies (teamwork, negotiation, etc.) and personal qualities of the expert (discipline, responsibility, creativity, leadership , stress, mobility, social, moral and psychological adaptation, etc.);
- Legal component - provides knowledge of the regulatory framework in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the knowledge of international standards for health care, the quality of medicines in the leading countries of the world and in the Republic of Kazakhstan;
- Continuous learning - Willingness to design and implement their own educational trajectory throughout life, ensuring the success and competitiveness.
Aim and objective professional practices is to consolidate the theoretical knowledge acquired during the training, the acquisition of practical skills and competencies, as well as the development of best practices .
Specialty "Pharmacy" provides practical training at the end of each academic year (1-5 courses).
At the Pharmaceutical Faculty the program trilingual, learning through research, dual training are actively implemented, which conducts guest lectures by leading experts of practical pharmacy, outreach activities on the base of pharmaceutical profile, including on-site training (LLP "Zhayik-As" pharmacy number 56, Ltd "Fitoleum", “National center of examination of medicines, medical devices and medical equipment” and others.)
In recent years international cooperation in the framework of memoranda, agreements and contracts with more than 20 partner universities far, the near abroad and the Republic of Kazakhstan are actively promoted. Academic mobility of students is actively developing in faculty. Members of the faculty passed scientific training under the program "Bolashak" at the Medical University g.Gdansk, Poland, at the National Medical University, Kharkov, Ukraine, St. Petersburg State Chemical-Pharmaceutical Academy, Russia (3 pers.). The students were trained in Russia, Ukraine, the Czech Republic (over 100 people), masters and doctoral students went on a scientific training in the United States, Poland, Czech Republic, China, Ukraine, Russia and others (over 50 people) .
Thus, there are priorities for the opening of a new specialty - Clinical Pharmacy, the development of double degrees at all levels of education, academic mobility of students and faculty, programs of visiting professors for scientific and educational process, the system of credit transfer system ECTS and etc. set before the partner universities.
- Аканов А.А., Абирова М.А., Датхаев У.М., Устенова Г.О., Шопабаева А.Р. Модель фармацевтического образования в КазНМУ им.С.Д.Асфендиярова: современное состояние и перспективы развития. Книга Модель фармацевтического образования в КазНМУ им.С.Д.Асфендиярова. - Алматы: 2011. – 104 с.
- Устенова Г.О., Пичхадзе Г.М., Лезгиева Ф.Л. Разработка Казахстанского общеобязательного стандарта образования по специальности «Фармация» в рамках кредитной системы обучения. //Материалы Всероссийской научно-практической конференции с международным участием «Проблемы преемственности образовательных и профессиональных стандартов в фармации». – М.: Российский университет дружбы народов, 2014. – С.114-116.
- Устенова Г.О. Совершенствование образовательных программ с привлечением социальных партнеров и работодателей на фармацевтическом факультете КазНМУ. Управление качеством высшего профессионального образования в условиях внедрения ФГОС, материалы ІІІ-ей межрегиональной конференции с международным участием. – Екатеринбург: 2013. - С.144148.
- Устенова Г.О., Датхаев У.М., Сакипова З.Б. Основные тенденции развития фармацевтического образования. Вестник КазНМУ им.С.Д.Асфендиярова. – 2013. - №5 (3). - С.6-7.