Chemotactic activity of fungi of the genus candida, isolated from pregnant women in different trimesters, before and after treatment

Examination of biological properties of microorganisms, such as fungi is important in solving the problems of medical microecology, which studies the interaction between man and organisms, cross-microbes interaction relationship, normal mechanisms of regulation of the host organism and the environment in microbiocenosis. Given that the fungi of the genus Candida are opportunistic microbes and can live normally in the body, in the pathogenesis of Candida infections can play a crucial role not so much the presence and quantification of pathogens and fungi, which play a crucial role in the development of the disease.The article studied the chemotactic sign of Candida fungi isolated from pregnant women before and after treatment in biopsies of experimental animals. It was studied chemotactic sign to a large number of biopsy specimens. It was demonstrated that the number of hemotactical crops increased with increasing gestational age, as well as highlighted the kind that had the greatest ability to chemotaxis (C.kefir). The results indicate the chemotactic activity of fungi that were agents of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Relevance.Chemotaxis is a directional movement of microorganisms or other cells on the concentration gradient of some endogenous and exogenous substances. Chemotactic activity is used to assess the state of the immune system, since the presence and strength of the chemotactic stimulus and the ability of microbes to the active movement and accumulation in the lesion to a greater extent causes the rate of development, the intensity of the inflammatory process and outcome (1, 2, 3). Revealed that Candida species have the ability to adhere to vaginal epitheliocyte with special surface structures. Furthermore, they are capable of generating gliotoxin, which inhibits the viability and functional activity of human leukocytes. Under its influence the geometry of the cells and their functional characteristics change, including chemotactic ability, absorption and digestion of bacteria (4).

Materials and methods. In our studies were defined chemotactic activity fungi of the genus Candida, isolated from pregnant women in different trimesters, as well as before and after treatment to organs and tissues of experimental animals (white mice). Biopsies were taken from animal tissue heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, pancreas, colon, placenta and chorion.

To examine the chemotactic feature were used all isolates of fungi Candida. They are 443 strain, and 319 (72.0%) of the strains from the posterior fornix, cervical and urethra were taken before treatment, 115 (26.0%) - after treatment, 9 (2.0) - after repeated treatments.

Results. Studies have shown that the investigated cultures possessed chemotactic activity (table 1). The degree of chemotactic activity depended on the kind of biopsy, the fungal species and trimester. Most attractive for majority of strains and all trimester were placenta and liver tissue. Fewer fungal strains taxing to the spleen, lungs during all trimesters, the heart tissues in the I and the II trimesters of pregnancy (26.3 and 22.8%, respectively).

When studying the chemotactic activity on each body individually, for heart high rates were obtained from a C.krusei in III (80,0%) and I (76,9%), as well as from a C.kefir in I (57 1%) trimesters of pregnancy . Average percentage of most chemotactic active of fungi for lung tissue were at C.kefir (57.1%) in the I trimester . Chemotaxis of fungi to the liver was the highest at 85.7 % C.kefir and C.glabrata 66.7 %. The highest activity was observed in 55.6 % for spleen by C.glabrata and C.krusei in 46.7 % of cases. Activity of micromycetes relative to the stomach and pancreas was similar, ranging from 11.1% to 85.7 %. The peak of greatest activity was detected in the intestine by C.kefir in I trimester 85.7 %. The high activity of the placenta for C.kefir in I trimester in 71.4% was determined. Interesting is the fact that more than half of the isolates of fungi to the tissues of the liver and placenta had chemotactic activity of over 50 %.

Found that the most attractive biopsy was the renal tissues no matter in which trimester microorganisms were highlighted. Chemotactic activity of Candida species for various organs was as follows: liver - placenta - intestines - kidney - pancreas - stomach - light - Heart - spleen.

Chemotactic activity of fungi exposed to significant fluctuations depending on the treatment, so we decided to conduct a comparative analysis study of fungal species isolated activity before treatment, after treatment, after re-treatment in different trimesters of pregnancy (table 2).

Analyzing the chemotactic activity of the studied cultures of fungi Candida, it should be noted that the percentage of hemotactical cultures proportionally increased with increasing gestational age (figure 2).

As seen in table 2, the ability to chemotaxis of Candida fungi significantly decreased during treatment in all trimesters of gestation. However, activity of most fungi proportionately increased with increasing of gestational age before treatment, effectively decreasing after treatment.

Evaluation of feature by type showed that the number of C.tropicalis above in II trimester compared to other trimesters, and

III trimester conducted after retreatment chemotactic activity was absent. The greatest ability to chemotaxis observed in C.kefir in 64,8 ± 0,07% of cases. Chemotactic activity of selected fungal species before and after treatment in different trimesters is shown in figure 3.

Table 1 - Chemotactic activity of different species of fungi of the genus Candida depending trimester before and after treatment (M±m, %)

Table 2 - Chemotactic activity of fungi of the genus Candida, isolated from pregnant women before and after treatment in different trimesters of pregnancy (M±m, %)

Type of fun∣∣∣i Тſ⅛¢ĩИгł

 

I

Il

 

Ве¯'оге treatment

After treatτ∣e∏t

After re-treatment

Ве·¯оге treatment

After treatment

After re∙treatmert

Before treatment

A⅝er treatment

After re∙treatmeπt

Clropcalis

∣n=260∣

<5,7

13,1

7,4

51,5

17,2

-

49,8

26,5

 

C.albica∏i

∣n≈107∣

444

щ

īīī

544

99

Ī7

594

291

 

Ciru⅝i (∏s4¾∣

50.0

93

-

39,5

14,8

-

57,4

18,5

 

Ciefir {n=24∣

64,8

44,4

38,5

27,8

 

-

   

C ;!łɔ~аţа ¦п=9ı

   

-

½ 5

 

¯

   

-

Total (n≡443∣

4бī

īГб

6,7

48,8

īбŌ

3,7

54Д

267

О

Chemotactic activity of cultures, isolated from different epitopes in different trimesters of pregnancy вас studied (Figure 4). It was established that the highest capacity for chemotaxis possessed strains isolated from the posterior vaginal vault in the III trimester of

51.8%, and the lowest activity was observed in strains of the urethra in I trimester in 35.2% of cases. Determination of the chemotaxis strains of fungi in different trimesters showed a significant increase in the activity of all strains with increasing gestation.

 

Chemotactic activity of Candida is presented in Figure 5.

Conclusions. Thus, we studied strains of fungi are mostly to have activity in chemotaxis, rising with increasing trimester. Among all isolates of different epitopes manifested the highest activity in strains of the posterior vaginal fornix. Treatment has chemotactic activity for a negative impact as strains seeded repeatedly, as a rule, decreased activity, sometimes reaching up to the minimum.

To summarize, it should be emphasized that the fungi of the genus Candida, isolated from genital pregnant women under certain conditions, for example by lowering the protective microflora or deterioration nonspecific resistance factors can become agents of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Рамазанова Б.А. Состояние микрофлоры неспецифической резистентности половых путей женщин, используящих контрацептивы и возможности коррекции нарушений : дисс. ... док. мед. - Алматы: 2002. - 381 с.
  2. Кафарская Л.И., Коршунова О.В., Ефимов Б.А., Володин Н.Н., Коршунов В.М. Микробная экология влагалища // Журнал микробиологии. - 2002 . - № 6. - С. 91-99.
  3. Foxaman B., Barlow R., D'Arey H., Gillespie B., Sobel J.D. Candida vaginitis: Self-reported incidence and associated cost // Sex. Transm. Dis. - 2000. - Vol. 27. - № 4. - P. 230-235.
  4. Сергеев А.Ю., Иванов О.Л., Караулов А.В., Маликов В.Е., Сергеев Ю.В., Жариков Н.Е. Вагинальный кандидоз: этиология, эпидемиология, патогенез / /Иммунопатология, аллергология и инфектология. - 2000. - № 2. - С. 99-106.
  5. Kontoyiannis D.P., Lewis E.R. Antifungal drug resistense of pathogenic fungi // The Lancet. - 2002. - Vol. 359. - № 30. - P. 1135-1144.
  6. Аравийский Р.А., Климко Н.Н., Васильева Н.В. Диагностика микозов . - СПб.: Издательский дом СПбМАПО, 2004. - С. 186.
  7. Котова А.Л., Божко А.В. Современные методы идентификации грибов рода кандида и определения их патогенности // Методические рекомендации. - Алма-Ата: 1990. - С. 19.
  8. Саттон Д., Фотергилл А., Ринальди М. Определитель патогенных и условно-патогенных грибов . - М.: Издательство «Мир», 2001. - С.486.
  9. Hoog G.S., Guarro J. Atlas of Clinical fungi // Spain: 2000. - P. 720.
  10. Меньшиков В.В. Клиническая лабораторная аналитика в пяти томах. - Том IV. - М.: Агат-Мед, 2003. - С. 816.
  11. Савичева А.М., Соколовский Е.В., Домейка М. Краткое руководство по микроскопической диагностике инфекций, передаваемых половым путем . - СПб.: ООО «Издательство Фолиант», 2004. - С. 128.
Year: 2014
City: Almaty
Category: Medicine