To the question on terms

Terms are the necessary link to enable communication and they combine langue, parole and the referential world and thereby allow communication, as the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure declared.

As it is known terms are the compounds that are necessary to link the different elements with each other. Without terms no understanding, let alone communication, would be possible. Only the existence of terms allows the development of terminology work from mental constructs to pieces of information that due to communication can be used to improve the knowledge in a specific domain or subject field.

Let us have overview on this problem in concepts of some scholars.

The concept-term relationship as defined by the traditional theory starts with the concept and aims at the strict delineation of each concept. Each concept should be designed by only one term and one term should only refer to one concept. One of the linguists Felber [Felber1984] in his study of conceptssays that the concept exists independently of the term, the meaning of which it is.

A term is assigned deliberately to a concept after due consideration whether this term corresponds to the concept in question. The assignment precedes an evaluation of the linguistic symbol to be assigned. This symbol can be an existing term or a term to be created from the characteristics being integral constituents of the concept in question. While in semantics meaning and word are regarded as a unit, in terminology concept and designation (= term, symbol, abbreviation) are separated. They form together a terminological unit.

It is known, that every field of business - accounting, computer science, engineering, linguistics - has its technical language.

Besides, every field of Sciences has its own way of representing some words used frequently be shortened. As you work in your chosen field, you will learn its technical words and acronyms. In time you will use these terms freely in communicating with people in your field. This is as it should be, for such terms are useful. Frequently, one such word will communicate a concept that would otherwise take dozens of words to describe.

So, it is actual that today language and terminology planning have become complementary activities and reflect many criteria, including the political context and the historical genesis of language use, the socio-economic situation, geo-linguistic aspects, anddemographic, cultural and psychological factors, all of which play a role when analyzing societal stake-holders (including institutions) and their relations to each other.

Concerning the question of language planning Gadelii [Gadelii1999] justifies that a society is developing and language has to adjust to reality.

Many foreign linguists consider language planning today as something that entails much more than simply coining words and terms.

It includes multiple socio-linguistic factors.

As they say language planning covers a mixture of different methods and approaches. At the same time they emphasize that in contrast to language planning, which may start at a level of language development where no written language exists and where no actual linguistic norms exist yet, terminology planning relies on the existence of linguistic norms and a certain grammatical and orthographical stability in the written language. On this basis, terminology planning consciously and systematically develops special language according to the needs and requirements of domain communication, where a vast number of new technical terms are created every day in hundreds of languages all over the world. These terms form terminologies, which comprise sets of terms with their specialized meanings (concepts). On the one hand, terminology development is a natural, unavoidable phenomenon, but on the other hand it can be a goal-driven initiative as part of language development. Besides being central to the process of understanding, terms (and the concepts to which they refer) are also indispensable for a variety of purposes.

This means parallel to the developing of science every field gets more and more new terms.

The following can be found in many reasonable sources.

For example, in Communication: how do I, in my capacity as student, teacher, environmental expert, etc. to a legislator or citizen, receive or transmit the information and knowledge in the above text? ,in Education: how can highly professional subjects be tau ght to pupils, students, apprentices, experts etc.? and so on. Thus terminology planning may be geared to many applications, and carried out in contexts where most of the other strands of terminological activity are also taking place or are required. Consequently, the need for a systematic approach and for coordination cannot be overemphasized

If to take into consideration the fact (mentioned by famous scientists) that terms may consist of simple words or of complex phrases (i.e. multiword terms) with specific morpho- syntactic and morpho-semantic features that may at times be unknown in general language but that can be specific to certain domains it must be distinguished different types of designations, not just terms. Besides, according to their views, it is always difficult to distinguish words from terms, terms from nonterms, or names from terms. We hold their point of view that term formation depends on the functional role in domain communication.

Current problems and challenges in term formation also include discrepancies with respect to general linguistic models in morphology, diversity and inconsistency of rules in different domains (in particular for natural sciences with specific nomenclatures), lack of detail in the description of many languages, and the need for full codification of these languages (e.g. through language planning) in order to have reliable rules for terminology development, in particular concerning orthography, spelling, pronunciation, and grammar. For HLT applications, there is a need for automated models for term creation in the languages to be processed.

The above mentioned conclusion is made by researchers in the field of linguistics.

And it is true. We should take into account this fact namely in term planning on basis of recourses of a definite language.

In accordance with the Vienna school, the general theory addresses the relation between concepts and terms, starting from concepts and focusing on the present state of the conceptual structure and its representation. As mentioned before, the concept-term relation is characterized by a natural precedence of concepts over terms. This basic characteristic of the traditional terminology theory has lately come under question. A growing number of linguists is convincedof the fact that the basic principles of the theory are in need for re-evaluation [Cabre 1999; Temmerman 2000; Kageura 2002; Rey 1995; et al.].

As for Kazakh A.Baitursynov was the first who made reform in the sphere of terminology [1].

Summarizing we would like to explore a concept of Wüster mentioned by Rondeau [Rondeau 1983]“He (Ŵüśţег - our remark) considered terminology a tool that should be used as effectively as possible to eliminate ambiguity from scientific and technical communication”.

A very important thing is to succeed in communication. For this it must be remembered that any kind of communication aims at the transfer of information and based on the words that are spoken, or, in terminology, on terms.

And a speaker's position is to choose those words and terms that are appropriate for a situation and time.



1. Baitursynuly A. Language lessons. - Almaty: Ana tili, 1992. - 445 p. [Baitursynuly A. Tiltagylymy. - Almaty: Ana tili. 1992. - 445 b.]

Year: 2018
City: Kostanay
Category: Economy