Results of the morphological analysis of Scabiosa ochroleuca and Scabiosa isetensis raw materials are given in article. The following diagnostic signs of raw materials of both species are marked out: for a stalk — extent of branching and structure of a surface, extent of omission, color of stalks; for leaves — a form and the size of a sheet plate, section degree, degree of expressiveness of the main vein, color and omission; for inflorescences — a form and the size of an inflorescence; for leaflets of a wrapper — a form, color and degree of an omission; for a flower — a form and the size of a flower, color of a nimbus, length of a spathe and degree of omission.
Studying of new herbs and their introduction in pharmaceutical and medical practice is an important applied task of development of the industry of Kazakhstan [1–3].
The Flora of Kazakhstan contains 5500 plant species or so [4, 5], from which about 115 species are used as herbs. Although in folk medicine are used more then 1000 species .
Species of Dipsacaceae family have practical interest as the sources of medical preparation with antioxidant, hepato-protective, antipyretic aactivity; against illnesses of a bladder, kidneys and urinary tract, as a part of difficult prescriptions at heart troubles, a sepsis, at stomach diseases, a gastroenteritis, gastroenterocolites, pneumonia; an angina, a diarrhea, a pulmonary tuberculosis, respiratory infections, liver diseases, hepatitis, pneumonia [7–10].
In Kazakhstan there are big raw material resources of Scabiosa isetensis L. and S. ochroleuca L. For preparation of pharmacopiean article for these species it is nessesary to study morphological structure of both plants and find the diagnostic signs for future identification of whole and crushed raw materials.
The purpose of the present researching is comparative study of morphological structure of aboveground organs of Scabiosa ochroleuca and S.isetensis and definion of macroscope signs of raw materials.
Object of a research were aboveground parts (leaves, stalks and flowers) of Scabiosa isetensis and S. ochroleuca. Raw material was collected in 2nd decade of August, 2017 in phenological stage — flowering, in the territory of the Buyratau Mountains (Osakarov rayon of Karaganda region).
Raw material was collected by cutting by heitgh of 7–10 cm from soil's surface. Gathered raw materials were dried in closed room protected from sunshine insolation and at temperature 25 °C during 3–5 days. Drying raw material was packed in paper container.
Samples of drying raw materials of Scabiosa isetensis and S.ochroleuca were analyzed according to standard methods of the morphological analysis [11, 12] using a binocular magnifying glass with increasing 2×14 and 4×14. On samples of plants analyzed a form and a structure of stalks, leaves, sepals and nimbuses of a flower. In case of the description of diagnostic signs paid attention to structure of a surface, availability of stalks, extent of omission and availability of trichomes.
Micropreparations were photographed by camera Sony Cyber Short DSC-WX60, figures were carried out in Paint program, version 10.5.
Results and discussion
The morphological analysis of two species of Scabiosa has shown that plants have the characteristic signs distinguishing plants among themselves. Species in nature of the Central Kazakhstan occupy different ecological niches. So, Scabiosa ochroleuca grows on meadow thickets, meadow steppes, is dated for interhills decreases and shrubby thickets. Scabiosa isetensis prefers drier and stony sites.
Both species differ in a form of a stalk and a leaf, opushennost degree, color of separate elements (Table 1).
Table 1 Comparative morphological characteristics of Scabiosa isetensis and S. ochroleuca
Stalk on a cross cut is roundish at both species; at Scabiosa isetensis branches from the middle whereas at Scabiosa ochroleuca — doesn't branch. A surface of the first species is small — rough, with the dense bulged hairs; at the second species has a surface almost naked, places — curly and fluffy.
Leaves of Scabiosa isetensis are plumose and separate, whereas at Scabiosa ochroleuca are lira-shaped- cutted or plumose-cutted. Degree an omision of a surface of a sheet plate of Scabiosa isetensis is higher, than at Scabiosa ochroleuca. Color of the first species varies from flavovirent to silvery-green; at the second — light-green.
The form of inflorescences varies from spherical at Scabiosa isetensis to heady and larger by the size — at Scabiosa ochroleuca. Leaflets of wrappers of an inflorescence of Scabiosa isetensis are oblong and ovoid; there is less than diameter of inflorescence; whereas at Scabiosa ochroleuca are linear and longer. Extent of their omission at the first species is higher, than at the second species.
Flowers of Scabiosa isetensis are larger by the size of flowers of Scabiosa ochroleuca, more trimmed. Color of a nimbus of a flower of the first species is yellow-white or pinkish-white, at the second is pale yellow.
Thus, the analysis of morphological indicators of elevated bodies of 2 species of Scabiosa has shown some differences in a structure of vegetative and generative bodies.
The following diagnostic signs of raw materials of Scabiosa isetensis and S.ochroleuca are marked out:
- for a stalk — extent of branching and structure of a surface, extent of omission, color of stalks;
- for leaves — a form and the size of a sheet plate, section degree, degree of expressiveness of the main vein, color and omission;
- for inflorescences — a form and the size of an inflorescence;
- for leaflets of a wrapper — a form, color and degree of an omission;
- for a flower — a form and the size of a flower, color of a nimbus, length of a spathe and degree of omission.
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