The rates of communal hygiene in some regions of Karaganda and positive and negative directions of them to human body

The rates of regional soil, air, water of communal hygiene according to Karaganda region are analyzed, reasons of deviation from allowed concentration in some regions and research methods of them are considered in this article. For example, percentage rates of communal hygiene in Karaganda city and regions are analyzed. Negative factors influencing on human body are researched in laboratories by means of special researches and through special order. We have taken a lot of physical-chemical rates together with sanitary-epidemiological station. The aim of work is the condition of communal hygiene in regions and some information which influence on human body are given. Except the structure of harmful substances in evaluation tendency of alteration of atmospheric air in hygienic point, influence of them to human health, knowing their concentration, defining this or that ingredients are the influence of intensity. The concentration of atmospheric polluters relates to these factors: volume of extraction, length of extraction, distance of extraction, meteorological terms (direction, speed of wind, humidity, atmospheric pressure, temperature pressure, according to solar radiation). Defining the pollution of atmospheric air through laboratory observations was conducted in regional SES according to state order. Analysis was taken from 5101 research objects and regions to research.

The highness of harmful substances from permitted concentration comprises 6.3 %, it has been proved that it is lower than the analysis in 2016 (2016 — 8.1 %).

The weakness of human health and being ill should be considered as negative answer given to negative influences and full non-adaption of organism to environment. According to definition of World Health Organization (WHO), health is not having disease, it is a full physical, psychological and social convenience. According to the calculation of scientists, health condition of human beings 50-52 % relates to life style, 2025 % relates to the factors of inheritance, 18-20 % relates to environment conditions and 7-12 % relates to the level of health protection sphere. Anthropogenic factors were not occurred before, it arises new technogenic diseases. In this case, unified works have been done in communal hygiene spheres influencing on human health after ecology together with the sanitary hygiene centers of Karaganda region. In general, water, soil, air problems are considered widely here [1].

When the rates of harmfulness related to 1 and 2 classes of danger are found while providing with water source, mixture of their amount, relation of their limited rates should not be increased 1. Some demands and examples are put which should be paid attention. Their calculation is conducted according to formula: here Ci, C2-Cp — concentrations of separate chemical substances. Danger of 1 and 2 class: in fact and permitted. MEST 2874 water object is divided into 3 class according to appropriate level spheres of water and treatment before supplying with water as suitable one.

Water cleaning scheme for each concrete water source and technological researches for suitable reagents are affirmed in basic and working experiences. Salted water with definite classes which proves the quality of water from water sources should pass an increase of fluorine, also special methods of sanitary- epidemiological services, technological and hygienic treatment. The capacity of water pipe relates to water volume taken from water sources in local regions and loss of much water. Water source and devices dedicated for taking water should be protected from pollution through sanitary protecting region. It should be appropriate for SPR projects affirmed by the Ministry of Health protection and using of them [2].

This relation is related to polluting substances of atmospheric air to many industrial regions: carbonic oxide about 50 %, sulfuric oxide — 6-8 %, hydrocarbon — 2-5 %. Ammonia, sulfuric oxide, sulfuric carbon, aldehyde, chloroorganic mixtures, fluorides relate to polluting substances.

These terms should be implemented in spreading and changing of the places of mixtures in atmospheric air. For example, state planning measures related to protecting atmospheric air, planning and building of local regions where the citizens are located, development of recreational zones, rational location of houses and industrial offices, making different informative and adequate criteria while evaluating the pollution of atmospheric air, defining pollution level of pollution sources of general atmospheric air pollution in definite region, making calculation map of concentration in different atmospheric pollutions, assuming atmospheric air quality, comprising model system of monitoring to atmospheric air condition, warning negative influence of harmful substances to human health [3].

Except the structure of harmful substances in evaluation tendency of alteration of atmospheric air in hygienic point, influence of them to human health, knowing their concentration, defining this or that ingredients are the influence of intensity. The concentration of atmospheric polluters relates to these factors: volume of extraction, length of extraction, distance of extraction, meteorological terms (direction, speed of wind, humidity, atmospheric pressure, temperature pressure, according to solar radiation).

The volume of harmful substances which enters atmospheric air is different in different regions, measures accepted according to intensive type and shortening of anthropogenic conditions. It is defined according to perennial observation: harmful substances are a lot in air pool while there is much expense.

The next tendencies of struggle against to the pollution of soil can be shown: 1) development of the methods of destroying remnants; 2) development and including of safety of pesticides and fertilizer; 3) organizing and conducting measures directed to the weakness of soil; 4) conducting monitoring to the condition of soil surface; 5) using natural resources in right and accurate way; 6) controlling the conduction of regularity of protecting nature [4].

The planned sanitary-technical measures were organized with the aim of keeping health in local regions. Collecting hard and liquid remnants, temporary keeping, disinfection works were conducted.

Methods and objects of research

We have taken some rates of communal hygiene of Karaganda region considering above given principles. Laboratory is located in special supplied building. Also, laboratory is provided with high calculation equipments of sanitary-epidemiological service union, it was affirmed with the order of state RK No. 11 from 24.01.2011 by sanitarian head doctor. Used equipments are checked in time and daily. After some checking based on special affirmed acts with affirmed equipments related to OStRK, researches are conducted according to normative law acts. While calculating communal waters, allowed concentrates are given with basic rates in Tables 1, 2 given below [5, 6].

Table 1

The rates of water source quality providing water are given in the table

Names of the rates

The rates of water source quality according to class

1

2

3

Sources under water. Filthiness, mg/dm3 which is not increased

1.5

1.5

10.0

Colour, degree, which is not increased

20

2

50

Rate of hydrogen (рН)

6-9

6-9

6-9

Ferrum, (Fe) mg/dm3, which is not increased

0.3

10

20

Manganese (mg) which is not increased

0.1

1

2

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) mg/dm3 which is not increased

-

3

10

Permanganate oxidation, mg/ dm3

2 ~

5

1.5

General number of intestine microbes (BRIS) which is not increased 1dm3

3

100

1000

Sources of phytoplankton. Filthiness mg/dm3

20

1500

10000

Colour, degree, which is not increased mg/dm3

35

120

200

Smell from 20 which is not increased 60 °C

2

3

4

Rate of hydrogen (РН)

6.5-8.5

6.5-8.5

6.5-8.5

Ferrum, (Fe) mg/dm3, which is not increased

1

3

5

Manganese (mg) mg/dm3 which is not increased

0.1

1.0

2.0

Phytoplankton, mg/dm3 which is , not increased kl-sm3

1

5

50

Permanganate oxidation, mg/dm3 which is not increased

7

15

20

Full BLC mg/O2/dm3 which is not increased

3

5

7

Number of sticks as lactose (LLC) 1dm3 which is not increased

1000

10000

50000

According to standard scale it should not be increased 1.5 ml/l (related to kaolin). The methods of defining transparency are used, it was used before, but it is not used now in sanitary control.

Table 2

The rates of defining transparency of communal waters

Smell (score)

Evaluated according to the scale of 6-score

0 ~~

It is not acceptable

1

Very weak

2

Weak — does not pay attention, but this one can be noticed

3

Visible -easy found

4

Concretely visible, negative, non-drinkable

5

Very strong (it is not impossible to drink water)

The works which have been done together with SES gave its basic rates related to Karaganda region. We have taken the results of implemented and planned work 97.1 % (2017 — 74.2 %). We analyzed the results of the plan of Bukhar-Zhyrau and Osakarovka regions in regional level. According to general region, while researching 91.6 % (2017 — 89.9 %) 101052 of water, soil, separate qualities of disinfected drinkable water, soil researches — 0.8 % (2017 — 0.85), the rates of researches of disinfected structures — 2.5 % (2017 — 2.0 %), atmospheric air analysis — 5.1 % (2017 — 7.4 %) were defined and analyzed.

Researched regional nomenclatures showed 97.5 % (2017 — 93.1 %), below water structures were not checked according to 28 rates. Waters in swimming pools (14), centers providing with drinkable water which are not centralized (water wells which do not have electric source, wells, captures, rills — (10) and others (4). Because of far distance of regional regions some nomenclatures which must be researched have been still considering. Because, the analytical rates of these regions to percentage level in summer conducted researches according to Aktogai region — 71.4 % (2017 — 71.6 %), Karazhal city — 86.8 % (2017 — 100 %), Satpaev city — 88.1 % (2017 — 100 %).

Analytical work and result

While researching percentage rates of using modern equipments showed 54.9 %, that is it comprises 55.4 % in comparison with 2017, the usage of modern methods in the research is conducted in the lowest level from regional level in Karazhal city — 41.8 % (2017-49.4 %), Pryozersk city — 34.2 % (2017 — 42.2 %), Ulytau region — 28.6 % (2017 — 52.0 %). The analysis was conducted traditionally because of non-sufficient equipments at present in the centers of these cities and regions. But, the traditional results made the best analytical evaluating conclusion. The analysis showed the positive result even the work was conducted for a long time. The basic table of these rates are proposed below. The allowed higher or lower concentration can be noticed (ELC).

Table 3

The results of laboratory researches

Name of the territories

2016

2017

Implemented researches

Higher ELC

%

Implemented researches

Higher ELC

%

1 ~

2

3

4

5

6

7

F RSE on the REJ «NCE» on KR

18522

319

1.7

19492

260

1.3

Abai

4384

2

 

5275

6

0.1

Aktogai

2289

2

 

1446

11

0.8

Balkhash

5888

14

0.2 ¯

9368

21

0.2

Bukhar-Zhyrau

1671

12

0.7

3598

37

1.1

Zhana-Λrka

2610

9

0.3

4160

51

1.2

Zhezkazgan

9527

666

7.0

9667

296

3.1

Karazhal

3110

234

7.5

1903

131

6.9

Karkaralinskiy

2221

19

0.9

2530

18

0.7

Nurinskiy

4819

26

0.5

4212

26

0.6

Osakarovskiy

1412

9

0.6

2932

40

1.4

Priozersk

3957

0

0

4057

1

 

Saran

4288

2

 

5100

0

0 ¯

Satpaev

3822

0

0 ^

4502

0

0

Temirtau

14498

423

2.9

14350

290

2.0

Continuation of Table 3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Ulytau

1225

1

 

636

0

0

Shakhtinsk

6688

116

1.7 ¯

5169

107

2.1

Shet

3419

0

0

2655

0

0

Total

94350

1854

2.0

101052

1295

1.3

The Table 3 was comprised by relying on the analysis of definitions and researches of communal hygiene in some regions and cities related to Karaganda city in the summer of 2016–2017. The basic aim of the work was to define the deviation of communal hygiene from allowed limit according to region.

Conclusion

The rate of research result related to region is 1.3 % (2017 — 2.0 %), and there is no basic result or non right result in separate Shet, Ulytau regions and Satpaev, Priozersk, Saran cities. We conducted the analysis of defining positive rates of researches at highest level from region level in Karazhal, Zhezkazgan, Temirtau, Schakhtinsk cities. Organoleptic and physical-chemical rates of water, that is taste, colour, general insipidity, the rates of chlorides, sulfides and dry remnants of ferrum.

Defining the pollution of atmospheric air through laboratory observations was conducted in regional SES according to state order. Analysis was taken from 5101 research objects and regions to research. The highness of harmful substances from permitted concentration comprises 6.3 %, it has been proved that it is lower than the analysis in 2016 (2016 — 8.1 %). Decrease of share weight comprised 2.7 % because of carbon oxide, it happened because there are no laboratories to observe the gasification of auto magistracy. Especially it was observed harmful air level of Temirtau was decreased than the last year. These rates are defining it: ammonia rate in air is decreased from 26.3 % to 9.8 % in 2017. It is defined that planned substances were decreased from 21.1 % to 19.2 % and phenol comprises 23.5 %. The basic reason of this is the continuous work of LP «TEMK» enterprise.

 

References

  1. МHzaev, V.T, Gimadeev, М.М., KGrolev, А.А., & Gilepnina, TG. (2006). Kommunalnaia hihiena [Communal hygiene]. Woscow: GEOTAƙ-мedia [in Russian].
  2. Nemenko, B.A., & Kenesariev, U.I. (2003). Kommunalnaia hihiena [Communal hygiene]. Almaty: Gylymi basylym [in Russian].
  3. Sevastianov, V.N. (2004). Problema radonobezopasnosti v Kazakhstane [The problem of radon safety in Kazakhstan]. Almaty: KazgosINTI [in Russian].
  4. Mazaeva, V.T., Ilnitskii, A.P., & Shlepnina, T.G. (2008). Rukovodstvo po hihiene vody i pitevoho vodosnabzheniia [Guidance on water hygiene and drinkable water supply]. Мoscow: Meditsinskoe informatsionnoe ahentstvo [in Russian].
  5. Akanov, A.A., Deviatko, V.N., & Akhmetov, V.I., et al. (2006). Bolnichnoe delo v Kazakhstane: sostoianie, problemy i podkhody k novoi modeli [Sick affair in Kazakhstan: condition, problems and approaches to new model]. Astana [in Russian].
  6. Rukovodstvo k laboratornym zaniatiiam po obshchei hihiene [Guidance to laboratory lessons on general hygiene]. (2009). Moscow: Meditsina [in Russian].
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Medicine