The study of the main phenological phases and the compilation of the calendar for the collection of medicinal plants of the Bukhar-Zhyrau district of the Karaganda region

The results of phenological investigation of 39 species of medicinal plants of Bukhar-Zhirau district of Karaganda region mountains are presented. According to botanical-geographical zoning classification, the vegetation of Bukhar-Zhirau district of Karaganda region mountains belongs to Kopalisky area of Central Kazakhstan sub province. Establishment phase collection of raw material medicines plants over several years allowed by experiment to establish the optimal time for the collection of raw materials of medicinal plants Bukhar- Zhirau district of Karaganda region mountains allowing for the local climate. It was revealed that for the preparation of 6 species of medicinal plants (patrini medium, medicinal herb, iris leathery, Dzungarian ferula and others), underground organs are prepared on the territory of Bukhar-Zhyrau district of the Karaganda region. For 1 species, the dogrose is loose, fruit is collected. For 23 witches, such as donut whiteness, donutic dipstick, serpuhus, venous pumpkin, saussurea salsa, ziziphora peach and other, the production of grass is produced. For other species harvest leaves, shoots and flower baskets are harvested. Phonological spectra for 33 species of medicinal plants of Bukhar-Zhyrau district were compiled on the basis of which a calendar was compiled and the frequency of collection of plant raw materials during the growing season was determined. The basic rules for organizing the preparation and drying of medicinal plant raw materials are determined. The data by phonological spectra let us to create the schedule and periods of the gathering of the raw material. The results of the work are the base for the organization of plan exploitation of the natural populations.

The most important aspect in the study of wild medicinal plants and the evaluation of their raw materials is the optimization of the timing of harvesting.

Thus, in the pharmacopeia and in separate pharmacopoeial articles [1–11], the phases of collecting raw materials are determined on the basis of studying the dynamics of the accumulation of biologically active compounds. For different types of plants, raw materials, different terms have been determined, and even the time of harvesting [12]. For example, the collection of grass is carried out from the phase of growing to fruiting, the flowers to the phase of mass flowering, the fruits to the phase of ripening of fruits and seeds, the roots to the phase of growth or death of the above-ground organs, etc.

However, the specific dates for the collection of raw medicinal plants should be determined at the regional (and even district) level, as the climatic conditions vary greatly in the territory of Kazakhstan. The dates of the onset of individual phenological phases by regions and regions of the republic can vary from 1 to 2 months. The length of the growing season varies. So, in the South Kazakhstan the vegetation period lasts from the end of February to the middle of November, in South-Eastern and Western Kazakhstan — from April to the end of October, in Central Kazakhstan — from mid-April to early October, in North and East Kazakhstan — from early May to 1 half of September.

The correct definition of the timing of the collection of any plant species plays an important role in maximizing the accumulation and preservation of valuable components contained therein.

During the observation period 2014–2017 we conducted observations of the phases of development of medicinal plants in the Bukhar-Zhyrau district of the Karaganda region (included in the 3rd and 4th categories), on the basis of which phenological spectra of individual plant species were compiled (Table 1).

The data obtained show that the studied plants differ in the rhythms of growth and development. Through the flowering cycle, all species can be divided into spring, early summer, mid-summer and later- summer.

Spring plants begin to grow from the moment of the snow cover, they bloom in May, fruiting — in June – early July. To this group of plants we include the following: Descurainia sophia, ɪris scariósa Spiraea hypericifolia L., Patrinia intermedia.

Table 1 The dates of the onset of the main phenological phases of the development of medicinal plants in the Bukhar-Zhyrau district of the Karaganda region

Species

Phenological phases (decades and months)

Beginning of vegetation

Mass budding

Beginning of flowering

Mass flowering

Mass fruiting

Mass fruiting

Dying off

Ferula soongarica Pall.

3 IV

1–3 V

1 VI

2–3 VI

2 VII

2–3 VII

1–2 IX

Seseli buchtormense

3 IV

1–2 VI

3 VI

1–2 VII

1 VIII

2–3 VIII

2 IX

Achillea setacea

2 IV

1–2 VI

3 VI

1–3 VII

1–2 VIII

3 VIII

3 IX

Achillea millefolium

2 IV

1–2 VI

3 VI

1–3 VII

1–2 VIII

3 VIII

3 IX

Achillea nobilis

2 IV

1–2 VI

3 VI

1–3 VII

1–2 VIII

3 VIII

3 IX

Artemisia dracuncMus

2–3 IV

2–3 VII

2 VIII

3 VIII

1 IX

3 IX

1 X

Artemisia nitrosa

2 IV

2–3 VIII

3 VIII

1 IX

2 IX

1–2 X

3 X

Artemisia scoparia

2 IV

2–3 VIII

3 VIII

1 IX

2 IX

1–2 X

3 X

Artemisia austriaca

1–2 IV

2–3 VI

1 VII

2 VII

2 VIII

3 VIII

1 X

Artemisia frigida Wild.

1–2 IV

2–3 VI

1 VII

2 VII

2 VIII

3 VIII

1 X

Helichrysum arenarium

2 IV

1 VI

2 VI

3 VI-1 VII

2 VII

1–2 VIII

2–3 IX

Jurinea multiflora

1–3 IV

2 VI

1 VII

2–3 VII

1 VIII

3 VIII

2–3 IX

Saussurea amara

1–3 IV

2 VI

1 VII

2–3 VII

1 VIII

3 VIII

2–3 IX

Tanacetum vulgare

2 IX

2 VI

1 VII

2–3 VII

1 VIII

3 VIII

1 X

Descurainia sophia

1 IV

3 V

3 V

1 VI

2 VI

2 VI

1–2 VII

Salsolacollina Pall

3 IV-1 V

2–3 VIII

3 VIII

1 IX

2 IX

3 IX

3 IX

Hypericum perforatum

1–2 IV

2 VI

2–3 VI

1 VII

3 VII

2–3 VIII

3 IX

Iris scariosa

1 IV

3 IV-1 V

1 V

2–3 V

1 VI

2–3 VI

1 X

Hyssopus ambiguus

2 IV

2–3 VI

1 VII

2–3 VII

1 VII

3 VIII

1 X

Salvia stepposa Schost

2 IV

2–3 VI

1 VII

2–3 VII

1 VII

3 VIII

1 X

Thymus marschallianus

1–2 IV

3 V-1 VI

1–2 VI

3 VI

2 VII

1 VIII

2–3 IX

Limonium gmelinii

2 IV

2–3 VI

2 VII

1 VIII

3 VIII

2 IX

1 X

Rosa laxa

1–2 IV

1 V

2–3 V

1 VI

3 VI

2–3 VIII

1 X

Sanguisorba officinalis

2–3 IV

2 VI

2 VII

3 VII

1 VIII

2–3 VIII

3 IX

Urtica dioica

3 IV

2 VI

1 VII

3 VII

1 VIII

3 VIII

3 IX

Chartolepis intermedia

2 IV

1 VI

3 VI

2 VII

1 VIII

3 VIII

1 X

Saussurea salsa

2–3 IV

2 VI

1 VII

3 VII

2 VIII

3 VIII

1 X

Serratula coronata

2 IV

1 VI

3 VI

2 VII

2 VIII

3 VIII

3 IX

Melilotus albus

3 IV

1 VI

2–3 VI

2 VII

1 VIII

1 IX

3 IX

Melilotus officinalis

3 IV

1 VI

2–3 VI

2 VII

1 VIII

1 IX

3 IX

Ziziphora clinopodioides

2–3 IV

3 V

2 VI

3 VI-2 VII

3 VII

3 VIII

1 X

Spiraea hypericifolia L.

2 IV

2 V

2 V

3 V

1 VI

3 VI

3 IX

Patrinia intermedia

2–3 IV

1–2 V

3 V

1 VI

2 VI

1 VIII

2 IX

Plants of the early summer flowering cycle begin budding in May, the main flowering is in June, in July seeds begin to be tied. They include Helichrfsum arenɑrium, species Achillea, Chartolepis intermedia and others.

Middle-summer plants differ in that the period of mass flowering is in July — early August, fruiting — in July — August. Among them are the Melilotus officinalis, Melilotus albus, Serratula coronata L., Urtica di<'>ica. Ziziphora clinopodioides, Sanguisorba off^c^^alis and others.

To the plants of the autumn flowering cycle, the species are bloomed, which bloom at the end of Au- gus^September; these are Salsolacollina Pall., Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia nitrosa, Artemisia scoparia.

According to the results of the analysis of phenological indices and analysis, which plant organs and in what phase are harvested, the frequency of collection in each time interval of the growing season was determined and it was determined which parts of the plants should be collected (Table 2).

Table 2

Periodicity of collection of medicinal plants of Bukhar-Zhyrau district of Karaganda region during the vegetation period

Species

Procured organ

Vegetation phase

Timing of collection

Ferula soongarica

Roots and rhizomes

Beginning of vegetation, death of aerial organs

3 decades of April,

1–2 decades of September

Grass

The beginning of flowering

1 decade of June

Seseli buchtormense

Grass

The beginning of flowering

3 decades of June

Roots and rhizomes

End of vegetation

1 decade of September

Achillea setacea

Grass

Bloom

3 decades of June — beginning of July

Achillea millefolium

Grass

Bloom

3 decades of June — beginning of July

Achillea nobilis

Grass

Bloom

3 decades of June — beginning of July

Artemísia dracuncMus

Young shoots with leaves

Beginning of budding

3 decades of June

Artemisia nitrosa

Grass

The beginning of flowering

2–3 decades of August

Artemísia scoparia

Grass

The beginning of flowering

2–3 decades of August

Artemisia austriaca

Grass

The beginning of flowering

2–3 decades of July

Artemisia frigida Wild.

Grass

The beginning of flowering

2–3 decades of July

Helichrvsum arenarium

Flowering baskets

Butonization —

The beginning of flowering

Mid-July

Jurinea multiflora

Grass

Butonization —

The beginning of flowering

2nd decade of June

Saussurea amara

Grass

The beginning of flowering

1 decade of August

Tanacetumyulgare

Flowering shoots with baskets

The beginning of flowering

1 decade of July

Descurainia sophia

Grass

Butonization — flowering

1 decade of June

Salsolacollina Pall

Grass

Fruiting

1–2 decades of September

Hypericum perforatum

Grass

Bloom

2nd decade of June

Iris scariosa

Roots and rhizomes

End of vegetation

2 decades of September

Hyssopus ambiguus

Grass

Bloom

2–3 decades of July

Salvia stepposa Schost

Grass

Bloom

2–3 decades of July

Thymus marschallianus

Grass

Bloom

1–2 decade of June

Limonium gmelinii

Roots and rhizomes

End of vegetation

2 decades of September

Rosa laxa

Fruits

Mass maturation

3 decades of August

Sanguisorba officinalis

Roots and rhizomes

End of vegetation

1–2 decades of September

Urtica dioica

Leaves

The beginning of Butonization

2nd decade of June

Chartolepis intermedia

Grass

Butonization — flowering

Mid-July

Saussurea salsa

Grass

Butonization — flowering

1 decade of August

Serratula coronata

Grass

Butonization — flowering

Mid-July

Melilotus albus

Grass

Butonization — flowering

Mid-July

Melilotus officinalis

Grass

Butonization — flowering

Mid-July

Ziziphora clinopodioides

Grass

Butonization — flowering

2–3 decades of June — 1decades of July

Spiraea hypericifolia L

Sprigs

Bloom

3 decades of May

Patrinia intermedia

Roots and rhizomes

End of vegetation

1–2 decades of September

Thus, for 6 species of medicinal plants (Patrinia intermedia, Sanguis0rba officinalis, Iris scari0sa, Ferula soongarica and others) harvesting of underground organs. Fruit is collected for R0sa laxa. For 23 species, such as Melilotus albus, Melilotus officinalis, Serratula coronata, Saussurea salsa, Ziziphora clinopodioides and others harvesting of grass. Leaves, shoots and flower baskets are prepared for other species. As a set of data, we compiled a calendar of harvesting medicinal plants during the vegetation period (Table 3).

Table 3 Calendar of collection of various species of raw materials of medicinal plants in the Osakarovsky district of the Karaganda region

Timing of procurement

Months

Decades

Number of harvested species, pcs.

Early Spring

April

III

1

Later Spring

May

III

1

Early Summer

June

I

3

II

5

Mid-summer

III

7

July

I

4

II

9

III

5

August

I

1

Later Summer

II

2

III

3

Autumn

September

I

5

II

5

From the data obtained it is clear that in April it is possible to collect 1 name of medicinal raw materials, in May — 1 name, in June — 12 names, in July — 15 names, in August — 5 names, in September — 5 names.

Thus, phenological spectra for 33 species of medicinal plants of the Bukhar-Zhyrau region were compiled, on the basis of which a calendar was compiled and was determined the frequency of collection of plant raw materials during the vegetation period. The main rules for the organization of harvesting and drying medicinal plant raw materials.

The above-ground parts of plants — leaves, grass, flowers and inflorescences — must be collected in dry weather, after drying of the morning dew, it is easy to lay them in piles and, after 1–2 hours of collection, [13]. Dustily polluted or polluted plants should not be collected. Grass is usually harvested during flowering.

It is cut at the base, at the level of the lower leaves, in order to avoid getting thick coarse leaves. Should not to pull out plants with a root. Some plants (Hyssopus, Artemisia, Hypericum) cut the upper flowering parts of plants 10–20 cm long or side shoots.

The leaves are harvested in the period of their full development, more often during the flowering period. For biennial plants — before the flowering period, for example, in the phase of rosettes of leaves. Tear off the leaves with or without the petiole. The collection is subject only to well-developed lower or middle green leaves. Eaten by insects, afflicted with fungal diseases, yellowed and faded leaves are not suitable for collecting raw materials. Flowers and inflorescences are recommended to be collected during the flowering period, after which they can withstand drying well without losing their commercial qualities. Tear off the flowers by hand with minimal remains of pedicels.

Fruits are removed only in dry weather, as rules, during their full maturation. Peduncles are removed, damaged fruit is not collected.

Roots and rhizomes are excavated mainly during the resting period of plants, that is, either in the early spring before the onset of regrowth, or in the fall — after the death of the aerial organs. The roots and rhizomes collected in autumn are usually larger and richer with active substances. Excavated underground organs shake off the ground, thick parts are cut into 2–4 parts, washed in cold running water.

Freshly picked vegetable raw materials contain a significant amount of moisture: roots — up to 45 %, overground organs — up to 85 %. Therefore, after collecting the raw materials must be quickly and correctly dried. Otherwise, under the influence of enzymes present in plants, and the temperature resulting from selfheating, raw materials quickly deteriorate, losing marketable appearance and valuable biological components. Drying in most cases is carried out at temperatures up to 30 °C, although sometimes a higher temperature (fruits of R0sa and Crataegus).

To preserve the natural color of the aerial organs, drying is carried out in dry, sheltered from the sun, as the sun's rays destroy chlorophyll, leading to yellowing or discoloration. In addition, some biological substances (terpenoids) can be destroyed by direct sunlight. Roots, bark, seeds and berries can be dried in the light.

For drying it is recommended to arrange well-ventilated rooms with an iron roof, equipped with special racks with stretched cloths and (or) metal grids.

Raw materials should be laid out in a thin layer, not more than 1–2 cm, and, as they dry up, turn over. For raw materials to be harvested in the autumn period, drying rooms must be equipped with a heating system, an extractor, and also special dryers.

In addition to these general rules, for each type of medicinal plant and its individual organs, special rules for collection and drying are established in accordance with the biologically active compounds accumulated in them. So, the collection of poisonous plants is carried out in the early morning hours until 11.00 am. After their collection, the hands are thoroughly washed. It is better to assemble etheric oil plants in the morning.

Drying and storage is carried out in the form of a single raw material in order to preserve as many essential oils as possible, grinding is carried out immediately before processing.

Roots and rhizomes containing phenolic compounds, alkaloids are first collected in piles, wilted, and then dried at elevated temperature. The oil-oil raw material is also first recommended to wither for 1–2 hours to seal the oil-oil containers and avoid the loss of oils, and then lay out a thin layer for final drying.

Flowers and inflorescences are dried, scattering them with a very thin layer, so as not to mix and avoid scattering flowers. Herbs are often dried as hay, laying a layer on a strong draft or hanging under a roof in bundles. Small leaves (Arctostáphylos, Vaccinium vítis-idaéa, Vaccinium myrtHlus, Fragaria) are laid out in a thin layer, and large (Tussilago, Ribes, Plantago) — one by one.

Drying is considered complete, if the leaves and flowers are easily triturated in their hands, the stems break with a characteristic crackle; roots break, but do not bend, berries crumble without lumps and do not make your hands dirty.

Before packing, the raw material is ground and sorted; its pharmacopeial indices are determined. Medicinal plants should have certain sizes, color, smell, taste, contain a certain amount of moisture, ashes of general, inorganic impurities and impurities of other plants, browned and yellowed parts.

The obtained data can be used for organization of systematic harvesting of plant raw materials and development of environmental measures.

Based on the results of the work carried out, we made the following conclusions:

  1. On the territory of Bukhar-Zhyrau district of the Karaganda region it was revealed that for 6 species of medicinal plants (Patrinia intermedia, Sanguisórba off^c-^-ntil-is, Iris scariδsa, Ferula soongarica and others), the harvesting of underground organs. Fruit is collected for Rósa laxa. For 23 species, such as Melilδtus δlbus, Melilδtus σffic'^'^bis, Serratula coronata, Saussurea salsa, Ziziphora clinopodioides and others harvesting of grass. Leaves, shoots and flower baskets are prepared for other species.
  2. Phenological spectra for 33 species of medicinal plants of the Bukhar-Zhyrau region were compiled, on the basis of which a calendar was compiled and was determined the frequency of collection of plant raw materials during the vegetation period.
  3. The main rules for the organization of harvesting and drying medicinal plant raw materials.

 

References

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  3. VFS RK 42-218-00. Trava polyni hladkoi [Grass of Artemisia nudus] [in Russian].
  4. VFS RK 42-207-99. Koren solodki uralskoi [Root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis] [in Russian].
  5. VFS RK 42–206–99. Trava tysiachelistnika blahorodnoho [Grass of AchilKa Mbilis] [in Russian].
  6. VFS RK 42–635–2002. Plody shipovnika rykhloho [Fruits of Rósa laxa] [in Russian].
  7. VFS RK 42–450–2001. Trava zizifory pakhuchkovidnoi [Grass of Ziziphora clinopodioides] [in Russian].
  8. VFS RK 42–268–99. Trava solianki kholmovoi [Grass of Salsolacollina Pall] [in Russian].
  9. VFS RK 42–451–01. Korni patrinii srednei [Root of Patrinia intermedia] [in Russian].
  10. VFS RK 42–1198–04. Trava sossiurei solonchakovoi [Grass of Saussurea salsa] [in Russian].
  11. VFS RK 42–1265–06. Trava serpukhi ventsenosnoi [Grass of Serratula coronata] [in Russian].
  12. (1985). Pravila sbora i sushki lekarstvennykh rastenii (sbornik instruktsii) [Rules for the collection and drying of medicinal plants (a collection of instructions)]. Moscow: Meditsina [in Russian].
  13. Dzhanalieva, K.M., Budnikova, T.I., & Viselov, I.N. et al. (1998) Fizicheskaia heohrafiia Respubliki Kazakhstan [Physical geography of the Republic of Kazakhstan]. Almaty: Qazaq universiteti [in Russian].
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Biology