Diagnostics of introduction value of herbs of natural flora in the conditions of Mangystau

At the article the results of assessment of introductive value of herbs of natural flora of Mangyshlak for planting in the Mangyshlak experimental botanical garden are presented. Valued scale included 24 diagnostic signs separated into 4 groups: biological stability (hot-, dry-, winter-stability, resistant to disease and pest, substrate requirement), decorative properties and habitus (general decorative properties, length and esthetic properties of flowering and fructification), reproductive ability (seed or vegetative reproduction), practical- biological and scientific meaning (using as decorative, phytomeliorative, food, medical or technical plant). Indexes of value of herbs varied from «reduced» (V class, 45 balls) till «very high» (IX class, 83 balls). The maximum ball belongs to Tamarix ramisissimum, the minimum — Solanum persicum. The assessment of introduction value of 127 species of herbs of natural flora of Mangystau region is developed. The results are shown that «extremely low» introduction value was diagnosed 1.6 % studied species; «very low» — 3.9 %; «low» — 8.7 %; «reduced» — 15.7 %; «higher» — 22.8 %; «high» — 13.4 % и «very high» — 7.1 %. On the base of diagnostic of introduction value of herbs of natural flora is producing the collection of herbs.

Introduction

The severe climatic conditions of the desert of Mangystau [1, 2] differing in a climate extra-arid, salinity, a low-profile and poverty of soils and tension of the wind mode cause very low introduction selection of plants [3]. Therefore from the very beginning of botanical development of the region, the problem of diagnostics of prospects of plants for an introduction for the purpose of improvement of quality and efficiency of creation of green and phyto meliorative plantings and also reduction of costs of primary tests of introduced species very much is particularly acute. The available developments on the matter are generally intended for forest and forest-steppe natural zones [4–7], and is not suitable for droughty climate and adverse soil and meliorative conditions of the region of researches. The Mangyshlak experimental botanical garden (further MEBG) has set the task of drawing up a regional scale of determination of introduction value of plants which would consider the greatest possible quantity of the factors, properties and features connected with growth, development and application of introduced species by the person in the activity and also reaction of a vegetable organism to features of the desert habitat.

The purpose of the real research was to carry out diagnostics of introduction value of herbs of a natural zone of Mangystau Region on the developed regional scale.

Methodology

Object of a research were the introduced herbs of natural flora of Mangystau. When developing a rating scale on the introduction value of herbs were taken into account to feature of climatic conditions of the desert of Mangystau, experience of introduction researches in the region, results of the analysis of mean annual bioecological properties of collection types and approbation of techniques of determination of viability and prospects of plants, widespread in other botanical centers [8–12]. The rating scale included 24 diagnostic signs broken into 4 groups: biological stability, decorative properties and habitus, reproductive ability, economic and biological and scientific value.

The tolerance of introduced species to conditions of the habitat develops in a scale as their score dry-, salty-, winter-, phytophagy- and gas resistance and insistence to fertility of the soil. At assessment decorative habitus properties growth form, the general decorative effect of a vegetative part, ability to leaf fall, abundance, duration and esthetics of blossoming and fructification is considered. The reproductive ability is diagnosed on the basis of accounting of success of renewal of plants in the conditions of culture by seed and vegetative ways. When determining economic and biological and scientific value the possibility of their use in the greening, phyto meliorative, food, fodder, medicinal and technical purposes is taken into account and also the phyto security status is considered. The scale is 100-mark, ranged on 10 classes (groups) of the value (Table 1).

Table 1

The index of value of herbs defined by a scale varies in rather wide limits — from «reduced» (the V class, 45 points) to «very high» (the IX class, 83 points). However, the majority of species (58.8 %), owing to the high biological stability caused by belonging to local flora and presence of many useful (not only medicinal) qualities, belongs to group with «high» prospects (the VIII class, 71-80 points). They are Artemisia teraaealbae, Salsola richterii, Ephedra distachya and strobilacea, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Halimodendron halodendron, Nitraria schoberi, Maloccocarpus crithmifolius, Calligonum leucocladum and Crataegus ambigua.

The maximum number of points (83) was gained by Tamarix ramosissima due to high biological stability, ability to vegetative reproduction and value for gardening and phytomelioration.

Elaeagnus oxycarpa has the greatest number of points of stability among other plants, but considerably loses to Tamarix ramosissima by decorative effect and opportunities of practical application (only 76). Malacocarpus crithmifolius concedes to Elaeagnus oxycarpa by score (75) because of smaller stability a little though its practical and scientific value as an endemic of Mangystau is very high. Thanks to the greening and phytosecurity importance the considerable number of points gathers Crataegus ambigua, included in the Red List of Kazakhstan (73, the VIII class). The number of points, almost identical with its, estimates prospects of Nitraria sibirica (73) and Halimodendron halodendron (72). On the sum of estimated points come very close to them Artemisia terrae-albae (72) and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (70), generally due to very high stability and fodder value. Widespread green plantings of the region is Salix alba, which has high tolerance to a local environment and for green construction in arid regions, loses points mainly because of not really high esthetics of a habitus (61, the VII class, «higher»).

The low estimates prospects of an annual grassy plant of Solanum persicum (the V class, 45) of which low points of indicators of biological stability are characteristic. Other species, despite the increased tolerance to desert conditions, considerably lose points because of low general decorative effect, economic- biological and scientific value and therefore get into group of the «higher» introduction value: Nitraria schoberi, Peganum harmala and Polygonum aviculare.

On materials of statistical processing of materials of researches, the score, average for all types, is 70.4, that is estimated «high» (the VIII class). On it, obviously, also their belonging to group of officinal introduced species is reflected in a certain measure on what the regional scale provides addition from 2 to 7 points. In selection the greatest variation is noted for score on group of signs «Decorative habitus peculiari- ties» (31.3 %). In the others the group coefficient of a variation makes 16.9–22.0 %. It is interesting that at the general assessment of group of indicators kind of repay in the sum variability of estimated points to

  1. % (Table 3).

Table 3 The main statisticians of scores on groups of signs for herbs of Mangystau, in points

Groups of signs

X

S

Cv, %

p, %

X

min

X

max

Rv

Biological stability

38.8

6.5

16.9

1.6

4.1

25

48

23

Decorative peculiarities and habitus

9.6

3.0

31.3

0.7

7.6

4

17

13

Reproductive ability

6.4

1.3

20.8

0.3

5.0

4

9

5

Practical-biological and scientific importance

15.9

3.5

22.0

0.9

5.3

10

20

10

General assessment

70.4

8.8

12.5

2.1

3.0

45

83

38

After working off and approbation of the program of a regional scale diagnostics of introduction value of 127 herbs of natural flora of Mangyshlak is performed (Table 4).

Table 4 Assessment of diagnostic value of herbs of the natural flora of Mangyshlak

Latin name

Assessment

Latin name

Assessment

1

2

3

4

Acanthophyllum borszczowii

Valuable

Acanthophyllum pungens

Valuable

Alhagi persarum

Valuable

Alhagi pseudoalhagi

Valuable

Anabasis aphylla

Invaluable

Anabasis bracteolate

Invaluable

Anabasis salsa

Valuable

Andrachne rotundifolia

Invaluable

Argusia sibirica

Valuable

Artemisia lessingiana

Valuable

Artemisia austriaca

Valuable

Artemisia lercheana

Valuable

Artemisia santolina

Valuable

Artemisia scoparia

Valuable

Artemisia terrae-albae

Valuable

Asperuga procumbens

Valuable

Astragalus filicaulis

Valuable

Astragalus flexus

Valuable

Astragalus onobrychis

Valuable

Atriplex tatarica

Valuable

Bienertia cycloptera

Invaluable

Camelina microcarpa

Valuable

Camphorosma lessingii

Valuable

Capparis herbaceae

Valuable

Cardaria draba

Valuable

Centarium pulchellum

Valuable

Continuation of Table 4

1

2

3

4

Ceratocarpus arenarius

Invaluable

Ceratocarpus utriculosus

Invaluable

Ceratocephala falcata

Valuable

Chenopodium album

Invaluable

Chenopodium botrys

Valuable

Chondrilla juncea

Valuable

Chrozophora gracilis

Valuable

Cichorium intybus

Invaluable

Cirsium vulgare

Valuable

Cistanche salsa

Very valuable

Clematis orientalis

Invaluable

Convolvulus arvensis

Valuable

Cystopteris fragilis

Valuable

Descurainia sophia

Valuable

Diarthron vesiculosum

Invaluable

Dodartia orientalis

Invaluable

Dryopteris filix-mas

Invaluable

Echinops ritro

Invaluable

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Valuable

Elaeagnus oxycarpa

Valuable

Ephedra distachya

Valuable

Equisetum ramosissimum

Valuable

Euphorbia seguieriana

Invaluable

Euphorbia turczaninovii

Invaluable

Euphorbia falcata

Invaluable

Ferula foetida

Valuable

Fumaria parvflora

Invaluable

Fumaria vaillantii

Valuable

Galium aparine L.

Valuable

Galium ruthenicum

Valuable

Galium humifusum

Valuable

Galium spurium

Invaluable

Galium verum

Valuable

Glauciuin corniculatum

Valuable

Glycyrrhiza korshinskyi

Valuable

Glycyrrhiza aspera

Valuable

Glycyrrhiza glabra

Valuable

Gypsophila perfoliata

Valuable

Halimodendron halodendron

Invaluable

Haplophyllum versicolor

Valuable

Hyoscyamus albus

Valuable

Hyoscyamus niger

Valuable

Hypecoum parviflorum

Valuable

Ixiolirion tataricum

Valuable

Kochia prostrata

Valuable

Lepidium latifolium

Valuable

Lepidium ruderale

Valuable

Limonium caspium

Invaluable

Lycium ruthenicum

Valuable

Malva neglecta

Invaluable

Malva pusilla

Valuable

Marrubium vulgare

Valuable

Medicago sativa

Valuable

Melilotus albus

Valuable

Melilotus officinalis

Valuable

Mentha longifolia

Valuable

Microcephala lamellata

Invaluable

Morus alba

Valuable

Nanophyton erinaceum

Valuable

Nepeta cataria

Valuable

Nitraria schoberi

Valuable

Nitraria sibirica

Valuable

Papaver pavonium

Invaluable

Peganum harmala

Valuable

Plantago lanceolata

Valuable

Polygonum minus

Valuable

Potentilla supina

Invaluable

Ranunculus sceleratus

Valuable

Rheum tataricum

Valuable

Roemeria hybrida

Valuable

Roemeria refracta

Valuable

Rosa laxa

Invaluable

Rubus caesius

Valuable

Rumex crispus

Valuable

Salicornia europaea

Valuable

Salix alba

Valuable

Salsola richteri

Valuable

Sisymbrium loeselii

Valuable

Solanum persicum

Valuable

Spergularia maritima

Valuable

Spergularia rubra

Valuable

Spergularia segetalis

Valuable

Stellaria media

Valuable

Suaeda physophora

Invaluable

Syrenia siluculosa

Valuable

Tamarix ramosissima

Valuable

Tamarix meyeri

Invaluable

Tamarix laxa

Invaluable

Teucrium polium

Invaluable

Thalictrum isopyroides

Very valuable

Tribulus terrestris

Valuable

Trifolium fragiferum

Valuable

Verbascum blattaria

Valuable

Verbascum lychnitis

Invaluable

Verbascum phoeniceum

Invaluable

Verbascum songaricum

Valuable

Verbascum thapsus

Invaluable

Veronica anagallis-aquatica

Valuable

Veronica persica

Valuable

Ziziphora tenuior

Valuable

Apparently according to Table 5, distribution of taxons on classes looks almost symmetrically rather «average» index of which 26.8 % of examinees of plants are the share. «Extremely low» it is diagnosed for 1.6 % of the considered species; «very low» — 3.9 %; «low» — 8.7 %; «reduced» — 15.7 %; «higher» — 22.8 %; «high» — 13.4 % and «very high» — 7.1 %.

Table 5 Distribution of herbs on classes and indexes of introduction value

Class and indexes of value and estimated scores

Total

Piece

%

I — not being value (0-10)

0

0.0

II — extremely low (11-20)

2

1.6

III — very low (21-30)

5

3.9

IV — low (31-40)

11

8.7

V — lower (41-50)

20

15.7

VI — average (51-60)

34

26.8

VII — higher (61-70)

29

22.8

VIII — high (71-80)

17

13.4

IX — very low (81-90)

9

7.1

X — maximum high (etalon) (91-100)

0

0.0

Total:

127

100.0

Thus, the complex scale of diagnostics of introduction value developed in MEBG allows to conduct systematically researches on creation of a collection of herbs of local flora, selecting mainly views with high and very high biological stability.

Researches are executed within program and target financing «Development of scientific and practical and computer and information bases of creation of landscape and collection and landscape gardening plantings in the desert zone of Mangystau for preservation and rational use of a biodiversity of plants».

 

 

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Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Biology