Influence of the sodium humate of production of JSC «Shubarkol komir» on the accumulation of crude and dry mass of sprouts at cultivation on various substrates in the conditions of hydroponics

Method of hydroponic growing of the plants is currently the most widely implemented for a year-round production of vegetative biomass. It has a number of advantages over traditional methods of growing, especially within the regulation of physiological processes depending on the final quality of the product. This article is devoted to the study of the accumulation of crude and dry bio mass of plants grown in the hydroponics conditions. As the nutrient medium available composition of the macronutrients of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) is used. As the activator and regulator of physiological processes sodium humate production of JSC «Shubarkol komir» was used. The results of growing lettuce, cucumbers, tomatoes, as well as the influence of various substrates on the accumulation of dry and crude bio mass in plants are studied. The results of experiments indicated a positive effect of sodium humate on the accumulation of dry and crude weight of plants in hydroponics conditions. Also there was a close relationship between the type of substrate and the accumulation of raw and crude mass of plants.

Introduction

The use of hydroponic systems for green crops has recently become very widespread [1, 2]. At the same time, many researchers recognized that plants grown in this way have a number of advantages over plants obtained by traditional soil methods. So, T.V. Sedykh, S.V. Pogrebnyak showed that the harvest of cucumbers obtained by the method of small hydroponics is much higher than the harvest obtained by growing cucumbers in standard greenhouse complexes [3].

The advantage of hydroponics is that the plant can be grown on different types of substrates, which in turn affects not only their growth rates, but also the final harvest. So, M. Seregin revealed that the harvest of plants grown on the substrate expanded clay was significantly higher than the harvest of plants grown on coconut fibers [4].

However, the choice and use of the substrate should be based solely on varietal and species preferences grown plants. Bykova's studies have shown that due to the use of vermiculite influenced on nutrient solution, changing its composition and sometimes increasing pH until 11. This was due to the high ion exchange capacity of the substrate [5], which could lead to increased osmotic pressure of medium and plant death. Yu.K. Zemskova with co-authors in studies of salad cultures found that the optimal acidity of the nutrient medium could vary in the range of 2.8–6.1 [6].

The main factor for the successful cultivation of plants in hydroponics is the composition of medium. During optimization of medium composition for the cultivation of tomato revealed that decreased in the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium did not lead to a decreasing intensity of the growth and plant development [1].

At the same time, minor changes in the balance of micro- and macro elements could lead to changes in growth processes, in particular, to the accumulation of crude and dry bio mass. So, comparative study of R. Kuluev with two nutrient solutions (1 % solution of Hogland-Arnon (further HA) medium) showed that the crude mass of the roots was bigger when on MS in 1.8 times. Also, the leaves of plants growing on the MS medium were dark-green, and plants growing on the HA medium were light-green [7].

The ratio of elements in nutrient solutions also has a significant effect. Thus, one of the most important ratios is the content of calcium and potassium ions in the solution. Studies of L.S. Kubareva showed influences of ratio calcium and potassium on harvest of tomato. So, increasing in the ratio 3:1 or a decreasing to

3 led to decreasing of harvest on 12–18 % [8].

Growth promoters are playing an important role in development of seedlings and growing of the plants. Recently, wide using stimulators are humates. They gave multiplicative effects. So, M.Yu. Ishmuratova and D.Yu. Sirman studied influence of humates on seed germination of the flower crops, when increased this parameter on 15–20 % [9]. In this case, the maximum effect is achieved with a minimum seed treatment time. The same effect humates rendered in the hydroponic system [10].

As a result of all the above, the aim of our study was to study the effect of sodium humate on the growth performance of the main salad and vegetable crops in hydroponic conditions.

Methodology

Researches were performed at the laboratory of biotechnology and molecular genetics of Ye.A. Buketov Karaganda State University.

The object of the study was the nutrient media of different composition, prepared on the basis of standard biotechnological MS-media with the addition nutrients for hydroponic systems (Table 1).

Table1

The composition of nutrients used in the solution

The mineral substance

Content in the solution, g/l

KNO3

0.8

CaCl2^2H2O

0.22

KH2PO4

0.17

MnSO4-4H2O

0.11

NaMoO4

0.025

MgSO4-TH2O

0.37

For the production of an alternative nutrition medium was used the solution of mineral concentrate produced by «General Hydroponics» (France, series Floragro) in a concentration of 2 ml/l.

We planted some seeds of salad and vegetable crops: arugula sort «Gourmet», arugula sort «Sicily», tomato sort «Novichok», cucumber sort «Herman».

Pre-sowing treatment of seeds was carried out by soaking during one day at temperature +24 °C.

In researches several types of substrates are used: perlite, mineral wool for hydroponic systems, burner (product of self-combustion of oxidized coal of JSC «Shubarkol komir». So, 15 different combinations of substrate and nutrient medium were studied (Table 2).

Table 2 Variations of a combination of substrates and nutrient media

No. variant

Substrate

Nutrition medium

No. variant

Substrate

Nutrition medium

1 variation

Pearlite

½ MS+HUMATE AO SHK

9 variation

Mineral wool

Floragro + HUMATE

2 variation

Pearlite

½ MS

10 variation (control)

Mineral wool

Distillate water

3 variation

Pearlite

½ MS

11 variation

Burner

½ MS + HUMATE

4 variation

Pearlite

Floragro + HUMATE

12 variation

Burner

½ MS

5 variation (control)

Pearlite

Distillate water

13 variation

Burner

½ MS

6 variation

Mineral wool

½ MS+HUMATE

14 variation

Burner

Floragro + HUMATE

7 variation

Mineral wool

½ MS

15 variation (control)

Burner

Distillate water

8 variation

Mineral wool

½ MS

 

After the soaking seeds were planted in trays filled with substrate. The effectiveness of the influence of nutrition medium was determined by the following indicators: A) accumulation of crude mass; B) accumulation of dry mass.

Results of experiments are calculated by comparison of using table of N. Plohinskii. Statistical processing of the results was performed using the Microsoft Excel 2007 application package.

Results and their discussion

The primary analysis of crude and dry mass showed the relationship between the type of substrate and the mass of crude mass, especially for plants grown on the substrate — perlite.

So, largest mass of arugula sort «Gourmet» was recorded on the substrate perlite in variant 5 (Table 3).

Table 3 Crude and dry bio mass of arugula sort «Gourmet»

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.) (M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.) (M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.)

(M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

1

0.31

0.022

7.10

6

0.12

0.013

10.83

11

0.32

0.029

9.06

±0.04

±0.003

±0.01

±0.001

±0.06

±0.002

2

0.46

0.037

8.04

7

0.18

0.041

22.78

12

0.27

0.024

8.89

±0.11

±0.001

±0.04

±0.001

±0.02

±0.001

3

0.33

0.028

8.48

8

0.25

0.040

16.00

13

0.39

0.039

10.00

±0.05

±0.002

±0.06

±0.004

±0.01

±0.001

4

0.35

0.026

7.43

9

0.31

0.030

10.00

14

0.41

0.044

10.73

±0.04

±0.001

±0.01

±0.001

±0.04

±0.002

5

0.56

0.039

6.96

10

0.16

0.023

14.38

15

0.31

0.033

10.65

±0.08

±0.002

±0.18

±0.003

±0.03

±0.003

This result was higher on 44.6 % comparing to control data. The highest dry biomass was noted for plants grown on the substrate in variant 14 — burner and nutrient solutions. Plants, grown on this variant of nutrient solutions, are characterized by high dry bio mass. The reliability of the results of experimental variants varied from 0.05 till 0.001.

Comparison of the results of the accumulation of crude weight of plants arugula sort «Sicily» revealed that the greatest accumulation of bio mass was observed on the substrate perlite in variant 4 (Table 4).

Table 4 Crude and dry bio mass of arugula sort «Sicily»

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.)

(M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.)

(M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.)

(M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

1

0.42

0.035

7.10

6

0.28

0.011

3.93

11

0.44

0.043

9.06

±0.06

±0.003

±0.01

±0.003

±0.06

±0.003

2

0.48

0.036

8.04

7

0.23

0.040

17.39

12

0.37

0.037

8.89

±0.08

±0.003

±0.06

±0.003

±0.09

±0.002

3

0.38

0.029

8.48

8

0.23

0.044±0.

19.13

13

0.52

0.043

10.00

±0.02

±0.002

±0.01

002

±0.04

±0.002

4

0.56

0.041

7.43

9

0.42

0.045±0.

11.25

14

0.46

0.045

10.73

±0.04

±0.003

±0.05

002

±0.04

±0.001

5

0.54

0.037

6.96

10

0.24

0.029±0.

12.08

15

0.29

0.039

10.65

±0.06

±0.002

±0.04

003

±0.01

±0.003

The analysis of dry bio mass showed that the highest results were recorded on the basalt wool in variant 9 and on burner in variant 14. It is noted that the accumulation of dry bio mass for arugula «Sicily» was higher than for sort «Gourmet». So, for arugula sort «Gourmet» was only 3 variant of dry bio mass over 0.040 grams. For arugula sort «Sicily» weight of dry bio mass over 0.040 grams was recorded in 7 variants.

The analysis of the absolute data of dry bio mass showed that the highest results were recorded on basalt wool in variant 9 and on burner substrate in variant 14.

On the substrate perlite there were no significant differences between the 4th and 5th variants. In variant 1 there was a significant variation of crude bio mass in relation to the control at the level of p < 0.01. The greatest reliability (p < 0.001) was observed between the 3rd and 5th variants. On the substrate basalt wool, the significant difference between variant 9 and control was p < 0.001.

The maximum bio mass of tomato plants sort «Novichok» on the substrate perlite was recorded for variant 4. It was more on 84.4 % than the maximum crude bio mass received on basalt wool (variant 6), and on 73.1 % more than the maximum bio mass on substrate burner (variant 15). Also on the substrate perlite relative difference between variant 4 and control variant was 73.1 %. Data of crude bio mass on basalt wool (variant 6) exceeded control variant on 40 %. The maximum of dry bio mass was fixed in control variant (Table 5).

Table 5 Crude and dry bio mass of tomato sort «Novichok»

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.) (M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.) (M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.)

(M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

1

0.83

0.070

8.43

6

0.77

0.061

7.92

11

0.46

0.045

9.78

±0.05

±0.002

±0.05

±0.001

±0.04

±0.006

2

0.67

0.053

7.91

7

0.59

0.058

9.83

12

0.68

0.059

8.68

±0.08

±0.003

±0.08

±0.003

±0.08

±0.004

3

0.43

0.031

7.21

8

0.74

0.063

8.51

13

0.73

0.061

8.36

±0.06

±0.003

±0.11

±0.003

±0.04

±0.002

4

1.42

0.112

7.89

9

0.47

0.053

11.28

14

0.71

0.066

9.30

±0.07

±0.004

±0.06

±0.002

±0.07

±0.003

5

0.82

0.061

7.44

10

0.55

0.045

8.18

15

0.82

0.065

7.93

±0.04

±0.003

±0.04

±0.002

±0.09

±0.006

Variant of nutrition media 4 recorded the highest dry bio mass among all studied variants; the best result for dry mass was shown substrate basal wool (variant 9).

Analysis of the reliability of tomato bio mass on different media revealed that on the substrate burner only one variant (variant 11) there was a significant deviation in comparison with control (variation 10).

For substrate basalt wool all variations had significant differences of crude weight comparison with control (variant 7 — p < 0,05; variants 6, 8, 9 p < 0.001).

On perlite substrate in 3 experimental variants weight of crude bio mass had a significant difference p < 0.001 in comparison with control (variant 5). At the same time, in variants 2 and 3 plant bio mass were significantly lower than for control data; but bio mass in variant 4 was significantly higher than in control.

The result of the reliability of indicators differences of crude weight showed the highest values of this parameter in different media. So, on substrate perlite (variant 4) and basalt wool (variant 6) significant differences were p < 0.001; variation between variants 4 and 15 was at the level of p < 0.01.

Comparison of the results of the accumulation of crude mass of cucumber sort «Herman» on different substrates revealed that the greatest weight had plants obtained on the substrate perlite variant 4 (Table 6).

Table 6 Crude and dry bio mass of cucumber sort «Herman»

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.)

(M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.)

(M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

No.

variant

Crude weight (g.)

(M±m)

Dry mass (g) (M±m)

% of dry

mass

1

4,31

0,362

8,42

6

4,74

0,404

8,52

11

4,2

0,314

7,48

±0,43

±0,03

±0,49

±0,023

±0,11

±0,02

2

3,85

0,327

8,49

7

3,14

0,197

6,27

12

3,9

0,279

7,15

±0,12

±0,04

±0,06

±0,005

±0,35

±0,03

3

3,93

0,335

8,59

8

3,70

0,252

6,81

13

5,0

0,282

5,64

±0,17

±0,02

±0,61

±0,003

±0,27

±0,01

4

7,55

0,590

7,81

9

2,91

0,272

9,31

14

4,1

0,338

8,24

±0,26

±0,04

±0,14

±0,022

±0,33

±0,03

5

6,07

0,415

6,84

10

2,43

0,176

7,24

15

4,8

0,284

5,92

±0,11

±0,03

±0,23

±0,001

±0,26

±0,01

On a substrate of basalt wool, the highest weight of plants was observed for variant 6. The bio mass of this variant was lower than for similar data on substrate perlite (variant 4).

The maximum bio mass of plants was fixed on Firestone medium in variant 13. The crude bio mass of this variant was on 33.8 % lower than the crude bio mass on perlite substrate (variant 4).

The highest rate of dry bio mass was in variation 4 on the perlite substrate. At the same time, it was found that the highest % of dry bio mass observed in variant 9 on basalt wool.

For cucumber sort «Herman» on the substrate perlite all four variants shew significantly different with control indicators (p < 0.001). At the same time, variants 1, 2 and 3 on substrate perlite had results significantly lower than the control data, and in variant 4 the results were significantly higher than in control.

On substrate basalt wool, all four variants also had significant differences for crude bio mass compared with control. However, on this substrate all experimental variants had shown parameters significantly higher than in the control variant. The results obtained in variant 6 with maximum crude bio mass were recorded on this substrate, that were significantly lower (p < 0.001), in relation to the results obtained in variant 4 on the perlite substrate.

Comparing the results of accumulation crude bio mass, we can conclude that the biggest influence on this criterion had mineral medium Floragro with addition humate (Shubarkol komir). Additional of humates activate growth of metabolic processes that can be explain with increasing of concentration of sodium ions and increasing of nutrition of vegetative cells.

The overall effect of sodium humate on the accumulation of crude bio mass is noted. The best results of bio mass were in variants with sodium humate. In seven cases from eight indicators of crude biomass was significantly higher than in control variant.

Analysis of the results of accumulation of dry weight showed that in eight variants from twelve the maximum data were observed on mineral media Floragro with the addition of humate. Thus, the vast majority of greatest dry bio mass was observed in variant containing humate.

As was earlier mentioned, the indicator of dry bio mass was not a criterion that characterizes the influence of factor on the development of plants in the initial stages. It can be concluded that sodium humate is an effective stimulant of absorption of the main mineral components.

The comparison of the results of accumulation of dry bio mass on different substrates revealed that the arugula sort «Hermann», tomato sort «Novichok» and cucumber sort «German» had the greatest accumulation of dry weight on the substrate — basalt wool. The arugula sort «Sicily» had the highest dry bio mass on the substrate basalt wool.

 

Reference

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Year: 2019
City: Karaganda
Category: Biology