Study of population structure of Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel in the conditions of Mangystau region

Results of a research of a condition of populations of Ferula foetida (Apiaceae family) in the territory of Mangystau region are given in the article. The composition, structure of populations, polymorphism, and condition of growth and peculiarities of the natural populations of Ferula foetida is studied. The general projective covering in community was from 35 to 80 %. Occurrence of samples of Ferula foetida was 0.1–0.8 pieces/sq.m. In natural populations all age states (from 1 year old to 7 years old individuals) are revealed; in a generative phase 5-6-7 years old individuals are noted. On the various populations 15–55 % of plants are observed in blossoming phase, other plants were in a phase of the radical leaf bascket. The ratio of the main age groups of plants on each described population is defined, the phytocenotic structure and some morphological indicators of elevated bodies is conducted. The received results of phytocenotic descriptions testify to a possibility of practical using of natural population of Ferula foetida.

Introduction

Plants of genus Ferula L. (family Apiaceae — Umbilliferae) are valuable aromatic, medical and food plants [1–6]. Among species of Ferula the wide range of medical activities has Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel raw materials of which are applied for treatment of itch, asthma, syphilis, nervous diseases, dyspepsia, diarrhea, diabete, to healing of wounds, tumors, dermatitis, as antiparasitic and antiseptic remedy [7–12].

The wide range of medicinal properties of Ferula foetida leads to great demand as medicinal raw materials, especially in such countries as Iran, India, Afghanistan and China.

In Kazakhstan this species forms industrial and valuable communities on the Embinsky plateau, in the Western lowland, Aral region, desert Moiynkumy, Balkhash-Alakul, Kyzyl Kum, Turkestan, Chu-Ili mountains [13], in the western part of Kazakhstan this species has distribution on Karatau, the peninsula of Mangyshlak, in northern and southern Ustyurt [14]. If populations in the southern regions of Kazakhstan are studied rather well, then communities of Ferula foetida in the western part demand comprehensive observation and examination.

The purpose of the present research was to study floristic composition and structure of natural populations of Ferula foetida in the territory of Mangystau region.

Methodology

Field inspections carried out by reconnoitring and semiportable methods in 2018 in the following territories: Tuyesu sands, sandy and loamy massifs in the neighborhood of the plateau Tynymbay shoky, sandy massifs in the neighborhood of a wintering Karkol.

In field conditions carried out the description of the revealed populations with participation of Ferula foetida, determined full floristic structure [15, 16] abundance across Drudae [17], assessment of variability of above-graundparts, the analysis of age groups of plants, a ratio of age groups [18] and also sampling of plants for morphological analysis.

Specification of Latin names was conducted accordance of S.K. Czerepanov list [19]; determination of species was spent on Flora of Kazakhstan, vols. 1–9 [13] and to determinant of plants of Mangystau region [14].

Morphological indicators of the blossoming samples of Ferula foetida was estimated [19].

Statistical processing of materials of researches was carried out by G.F. Lakin [20] technique, with the use of a package of the statistical Excell 2010 programs.

Results and their discussion

In natural flora of Mangyshlak 4 species of genus Ferula meet: Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel, F.dubjanskyi Korovinex Pavlov (Dubyansky), F. lehmannii Boiss. (Lehman) and F. nuda Spreng. [17].

The ecological confinedness oFerula foetida to the sandy area allows ranking this species as representatives of psammophytes [4]. The species is drought-resistant and capable to sprout in places with an arid hot climate. The periodic droughts characteristic of deserts and semi-desert territories, do not influence on development of F. foetida as this species possesses a powerful root system.

Density of growth of plants depends also from the edaphic conditions of the region. The species is various by the ecological nature and conditions of location, takes part in various vegetable communities.

On the basis of herbarium material and results of field inspections the point distribution map of populations of Frula foetidaon Mangyshlak with coverage of sands Karynzharyk, Tuyesu, Sam, Akkum, Kyzyl Kum, Bostankum, loamy hills in thneighborhood of plateau Tynymbay shoky, sandy massifs around a wintering Karkol (Fig.) is made.

The description of the revealed vegetable communities with participation of Ferula foetida and their structural characteristic is given.

Tuyesu sands. They are located in a southwest part of Mangystau region on the outskirts of the settlement of Senek. Massifs are presented by the fixed and semi-fixed sands with small height difference; they are lasting from the southeast on the northeast on 30 km, from the north to the south on 12 km. In Tuyesu sands the following communities with participation of Ferula foetida are noted: saxaul-wormwood, worm- wood-ferula-herba varia, saxaul-wormwood-herba varia.

In communities such species aHaloxylon aphyllum and Haloxylon persicus, Artemisia arenaria, Artemisia terrae-albae, Iris tenuifolia, Tulipa sogdiana, Allium caspicum, Ceratocephala, Agropyron desertorum, Stipa, Astragalus ammodendron and others are presented. The general projective covering in communities fluctuated from 20 to 60 %. The numerous traces of pasturable loading in the surveyed territory are noted.

Saxaul-worwood communities (Artemisia terrae-albae — Haloxylon aphyllum) are noted on slopes with well-the fixed sandy hills. The general projective covering (further GPC) in community made 50–60 %. The dominant species was Haloxylon aphyllum with abundance cop 2 and vitality 4 points, a co-dominant was Artemisia arenaria with abundance cop 1 and vitality 3 points (Table 1).

Table 1

Floristic composition of saxaul-wormwood community with participation of Ferula foetida

Species

Consort

Abudance on Drudae

Vitality, point

Tier

Haloxylon aphyllum

Dominant

cop 2

4

1

Artemisia arenaria

Co-dominant

cop 1

3

2

Artemisia terrae-albae

Component

sp

3

3

Astragalus ammodendron

Component

sol

2-3

2

Menicoccus Iinifolius

Component

sol

3-4

3

Descurainia sophia

Component

sol

3-4

3

Carex physoides

Component

sol-sp

3

3

Allium capsicum

Component

sol

3-4

3

Peganum harmala

Component

sol

3

3

Alyssum dasycarpum

Component

sol

3

3

Ferula foetida

Component

sol

3-4

2

Papaver pavonicum

Component

sol-un

3

3

Iris tenuifolia

Component

sol

2-3

3

Tulipa sogdiana

Component

sol

4-5

3

Ceratocephala testiculata

Component

sol

2-3

3

Atraphaxis replicata

Component

un

2

2

Agropyron desertorum

Component

sol

2-3

3

Calligonum leucladum

Component

un

3

2

Other species in community are carried to components with abundance from sp to un, and vitality 2–4 points. Plants are distributed in 3 vertical tiers. The top, or wood tier (height of 150–200 cm), is presented by individuals of Haloxylon aphyllum; the second tier (height from 50 to 120 cm) consists of bushes and tall herbs as Calligonum leucladum, Ferula foetida, Artemisia arenaria, Astragalus ammodendron. The grassy tier (up to 40 cm high) is presented by other undersized annual and grassy perennial plants. In general the specific structure of community is not rich, about 17–19 species that is explained by droughty conditions and acute shortage of rainfall of the last 2 years in Tuyesu sands.

Examples of Ferula foetidaare in satisfactory condition, blossoming about 20–25 % of individuals whereas the main part is in a vegetative state is noted.

Growth of individuals of Ferula of various age groups is noted: from shoots of the first year to 7-year individuals. A ratio of age groups was rather uniform: from 10 to 25 % (Table 2). Maximum amount was 2–4 year plants. In a blossoming phase in the current 2018 year there are about 10–12 % of individuals at the age of 5–7 years.

Table2

Ratio of age groups of Ferula foetida in Tuyesu sands, in the neighborhood of a wintering Karkol and on the plateau Tynymbay shoky

Name of communities with participation of Ferula foetida

Share of age groups from 1 year old to 7 year old, %

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Tuyesu sands

Saxaul-wormwood

10

25

15

15

10

15

10

Wormwood-ferula-herba varia

10

10

10

15

20

20

15

Saxaul-wormwood-herba varia

15

10

10

20

20

15

10

Sandsinthe neighborhood of a wintering Karkol

Cereal-wormwood-ferula

5

10

10

20

15

20

20

Eremopyron-wormwood-herba varia

15

15

25

20

25

-

-

Plateau Tynymbay shoky

Wormwood-ferula-arthrophytum

10

15

15

20

15

15

10

Wormwood-ferula-herba varia community (Herba xerophytica — Ferula foetida — Artemisia arenaria) is described on flat sites of Tuyesu sands with well-fixed soils. GPC is noted at the level of 40–45 %. Artemisia arenaria dominanted in this community with abundance cop 2 and vitality 4 points; co-dominant was Ferula foetida with abundance sp and vitality 3 points (Table 3). Other species are carried to components with abundance of sp-sol-un and vitality 2–4 points.

Table 3 Floristic composition of wormwood-ferula-herba varia communities with participation of Ferula foetida in the Tyuesu sands

Species

Consort

Abudance on Drudae

Vitality, point

Tier

Artemisia arenaria

Dominant

cop 2

4

2 ~

Ferula foetida

Co-dominant

sp

3

2

Atraphaxis replicata

Component

sol

3

2

Astragalus ammodendron

Component

sol

3-4

2

Artemisia terrae-albae

Component

sol

3

3

Agropyron desertorum

Component

sp-sol

2-3

3

Iris tenuifolia

Component

sol

4

3

Carex physoides

Component

sol-sol

3-4

3

Stipa lessingiana

Component

sol

3

3

Astragalus testiculatus

Component

sol-un

3

3

Tulipa sogdiana

Component

sol

4

3

Heliotropium arguzioides

Component

sol

2-3

3

Cousinia alata

Component

un

3

2

Euphorbia seguiriana

Component

sol

3-4

3

Anisantha tectorum

Component

sol

2-3

3

Calligonum leucocladum

Component

un

3-4

1

Meniocus linifolia

Component

sol

3

3

The specific structure of community is also not rich — about 18 taxons which occupy 3 vegetable tiers: top (from 80 to 120 cm), average — a tier of high herbs (45–50 cm) and a tier of low herbs (up to 30– 40 cm). The top tier is presented by single individuals of Calligonum leucocladum and Atraphaxis replicata, the average tier of Cousinia alata, Ferula foetida, Artemisia arenaria; the lower tier is made of Meniocus linifolia, Euphorbia seguiriana, Anisantha tectorum, Artemisia terrae-albae and others. This population differs in the high density of the plants blossoming Ferula foetida — to a half from all attendees of individuals.

The general ratio of age groups of Ferula shows prevalence of 4–7 years individuals (Table 2) and a low share of 1–3 years individuals that, apparently, is connected with a row of droughty years. It is possible to connect with this fact also a circumstance that vitality of species is lowered — from 2 to 3 points.

Saxaul-wormwood-herba varia community (Herba xerophytica — Artemisia arenaria — Haloxylon aphyllum) is described near Besokty's wintering on the high sandy massifs with well developed micro and a mesorelief. In community Haloxylon aphyllum dominated, co-dominant was Artemisia arenaria (Table 4), other species were members with small abundance.

Table 4 Floristic composition of saxaul-wormwood-herba varia community

with participating of Ferula foetida in the Tyuesu sands

Species

Consort

Abudance on Drudae

Vitality, point

Tier

1 ~

2

3

4

5

Haloxylon aphyllum

Dominant

cop 1, 2

4

1

Artemisia arenaria

Co-dominant

cop 1

3

2

Ferula foetida

Component

sp

3

2

Consolida sp.

Component

sol

4

3

Anisantha tectorum

Component

sol

3

3

Eremopyrum orientale

Component

sol

2-3

3

Heiotrichon arguzioides

Component

sol-sp

3

3

Continuation of Table 4

1

2

3

4

5

Alhagi pseudoahagi

Component

sol

3-4

3

Descurainia Sophia

Component

sol

2-3

3

Agropyron desertorum

Component

sol

4

3

Salsola austrais

Component

sol

3

3

Lappula sinaica

Component

sol

3-4

3

Cousinia astracanica

Component

un

4

2

Alyssum turkestanicum

Component

sol

2-3

3

Centaurea adpressa

Component

sol

2-3

3

Ceratocaphala testiculata

Component

sol

3

3

Iris tenuifolia

Component

sol

3-4

3

Poa bulbosa

Component

sol

3

3

Carex physoides

Component

sol-sp

3

3

GPC in community turned out low — about 25–30 % that it is connected with an active pasture of a livestock, soil destruction after cover and a long drought.

Dominant in community was Haloxylon aphyllum with abundance cop 1, 2 and vitality 4 points, codominant was Artemisia arenaria with abundance sor 1 and vitality 3 points. The general specific structure of community made 19 components with abundance of un-sol-sp and vitality from 2 to 4 points.

As well as in the previous described communities the vegetable cover is created in three tiers: top wood (height of 100–200 cm) consists of individuals of Haloxylon aphyllum; the average tier — tall herbs (height of 40–80 cm) is presented by Artemisia arenariaFerula foetidaCousinia astracanica; the third grassy tier (up to 40 cm high) is composed by all other species of this community.

Occurrence of individuals of Ferula foetida was 0.3–0.4 pieces/sq.m. All age states are revealed; in a generative phase 5-6-7 years individuals are noted. Total number of the blossoming individuals did not exceed 15 %.

The analysis of a ratio of uneven-age plants of Ferula foetida showed that individuals of 4–7 years age prevail, whereas subgrowth (1–3 years plants) is presented in a considerable share less (Table 2). Possibly, it can be explained with droughty conditions of several last years that it led to smaller number of shoots in Tuyesu sands.

Sands in the neighborhood of wintering Karkol. This place is located in a northeast part of the Mangystau region, near border with the Atyrau region. Sands represent the extensive sandy massifs places, which are weak-fixed; certain sites are good-fixed. Ferula meets on sands sporadically, forming small sites of communities. The microrelief is well developed.

Traces of pasturable loading in the surveyed territory are noted. Occurrence of individuals of Ferula foetida was 0.3–0.8 pieces/sq.m. All age states are revealed; in a generative phase are noted 5-6-7 years individuals. About 20–25 % of individuals were blossoming; the main part was in a phase of the radical leaf basket. Ferula populations in the current year were in depression that connected with droughty conditions — high summer temperatures and lack of rainfall. On sands it is described cereal-wormwood-ferula and eremopyron-wormwood-herba varia communities.

Cereal-wormwood-ferula community (Ferula foetida — Artemisia terrae-albae — Poa bulbosa) is dated for flat sites with small height difference. Dominant in community was Poa bulbosa which performed with abundance cop 2 and vitality 4 points, co-dominants were Artemisia terrae-albae with abundance cop 1 and Ferula foetida with abundance cop-sp (Table 5).

Table 5

Floristic composition of cereal-wormwood-ferula communities with participation of Ferula foetida

Species

Consort

Abudance on Drudae

Vitality, point

Tier

1

2

3

4 ~

5

Poa bulbosa

Dominant

cop 2

4

2

Artemisia terrae-albae

Co-dominant

cop 1

3-4

2

Ferula foetida

Co-dominant

cop-sp

4

1

Ceratocephala testiculata

Component

sol

2-3

2

Alyssum desertorum

Component

sol

3

2

Continuation of Table 5

1

2

3

4

5

Ceratocarpus arenarius

Component

sol

3

2

Ferula nuda

Component

sol

3-4

1

Carex physoides

Component

sp

3

2

Eremopyrum orientale

Component

sol

3

2

Astragalus testiculatus

Component

un

4

2

Allium capsicum

Component

sol

4

2

Kochia prostrata

Component

sol

3

2

Arnebia decumbens

Component

sol-un

3

2

Trigonella arcuata

Component

sol-un

3

2

Agropyron desertorum

Component

sol

3-4

2

Papaver pavonicum

Component

un

4

2

Astragalus arbusculiformis

Component

sol

3

1

The vegetable cover is put by two grassy tiers: top (height of 40–100 cm) which consists of Ferula foetida, Ferula nuda and Astragalus arbusculiformis; lower (up to 35 cm high) is formed by other grassy plants and semi-low shrubs.

The specific structure of community is estimated at 18–19 species with abundance from un to sp and vitality 2–4 points. GPC made about 50 %. Among the described individuals are noted plants aged from 1 up to 7 years. In generative state individuals are noted 5–7 years age plants that made up to 25 % of the total number of plants of Ferula foetida.

The ratio of age groups of plants showed prevalence of individuals of 4–7 years age whereas young plants (aged from 1 up to 3 years) occupied only 25 %.

Eremopyron-wormwood-herba varia community (Herba xerophytica — Artemisia terrae-albae — Eremopyron orientale) is located in the western part of the sandy massif. GPC was 70–80 %. The sandy soils which are well fixed; the territory represented the plain with the developed microrelief.

To dominants in community was Eremopyrum orientale with abundance cop 2 and vitality 4 points; codominants were Artemisia terrae-albae with abundance cop 1 and vitality 3 points and Ferula foetida with abundance of sp-cop and vitality 4 points (Table 6).

Table 6 Floristic composition of eremopyron-worwood-ferula community

Species

Consort

Abudance on Drudae

Vitality, point

Tier

Eremopyrum orientale

Dominant

cop 2

4

2 ~

Artemisia terrae-albae

Co-dominant

cop 1

3

2

Ferula foetida

Co-dominant

sp-cop

4

1

Anabasis aphylla

Component

sol

2-3

1

Poa bulbosa

Component

sol

4

2

Alyssum desertorum

Component

sol

3

2

Peganum harmala

Component

sol

3-4

2

Carex physoides

Component

sol-sp

4

2

Ceratocarpus arenarius

Component

sol

3-5

2

Ceratocephala testiculata

Component

sol

3

2

Astragaus sp.

Component

sol-un

4

2

Agropyron desertorum

Component

sp-sol

3

2

Kochia prostrata

Component

sol

3

2

Senecio noneanus

Component

sol

3

2

Arabidopsis thaliana

Component

sol

3

2

Tragopogon ruber

Component

sol

3-4

2

Megacarpaea melanocarpa

Component

sol

4

2

Papaver pavonicum

Component

un

4

2

Artemisia arenaria

Component

sol

3

2

Ferula nuda

Component

sol

3

2

Alhagi pseudoalhagi

Component

sol

4

2

Gypsophila paniculata

Component

sol

4

2

The floristic structure of this community is formed by 21–22 species with abundance of un-sol-sp and vitality 2–5 points. As well as in the previous community, species are placed in 2 vertical tiers. The top tier is formed by individuals of Ferula foetida and Anabasis aphylla; the second tier — undersized grassy plants and semi-low shrubs — Tragopogon ruber, Kochia prostrata, Artemisia arenaria, Gypsophila paniculata, Senecio noneanus and others.

GPC in community made 70–80 %, individuals of Ferula aged from 1 up to 5 years are presented. In a phase of blossoming there were 5-year plants.

Plateau Tynymbay shoky. On this point it is described wormwood-ferula-arthrophytum community (Arthrophytum lehmannianum — Ferula foetida — Artemisia terrae-albae). GPC was 60–65 %, specific structure included from 30 to 33 species (Table 7).

Table 7 Floristic composition of wormwood-ferula-arthrophytum community

with participation of Ferula foetida

Species

Consort

Abudance on

Drudae

Vitality, point

Tier

Artemisia terrae-albae

Dominant

cop 1, 2

4

1 ~

Ferula foetida

Co-dominant

cop 1

4-5

1

Arthrophytum Iehmannianum

Co-dominant

cop 1-sp

5

1

Agropyron desertorum

Component

sol

4

2

Alhagi kirghisorum

Component

sol

4

2

Allium caspium

Component

sol

4

2

Allium sabulosum

Component

sol

4

2

Artemisia arenaria

Component

sp

4-5

2

Artemisia lercheana

Component

sol

4

2

Astragalus ammodendron

Component

sol

3

2

Astragalus erioceras

Component

sol

4

2

Calligonum dubjanskyi

Component

sol

3-4

1

Ceratocarpus arenarius

Component

sol

4

2

Climacoptera brachiata

Component

sol

4

2

Consolida divaricata

Component

sol

4-5

2

Cousinia alata

Component

sol

4

2

Echinops ritro

Component

sol

4

2

Eremopyrum buonapartis

Component

sol

4

2

Haplophyllum obtusifolium

Component

sol

4-5

2

Heliotropium arguzioides

Component

sol

4

2

Heliotropium dasycarpum

Component

sol

4

2

Heliotropium ellipticum

Component

sol

4

2

Iris tenuifolia

Component

sol

4

2

Kochia iranica

Component

sol

4

2

Kochia prostrata

Component

sol

5

2

Orobanche sp.

Component

un

3

2

Poa bulbosa

Component

sol

4-5

2

Rhinopetalum karelinii

Component

un

4

2

Salsola arbuscula

Component

sol-sp

3-4

2

Salsola dendroides

Component

sol

3-4

1

Scandix stellata

Component

sol

4

2

Stipa lessengiana

Component

sp

5

2

Zygophyllum turcomanicum

Component

sol-un

4

2

Artemisia terrae-albae dominated in community with abundance cop 1, 2 and vitality 4 points, codominants are Ferula foetida with abundance cop 1 and vitality 4–5 points, and Arthrophytum lehmannianum with abundance of cop-sp and vitality 5 points. Other species in community are components having abundance of un-sol-sp and vitality from 3 to 5 points.

Vital forms in community are presented by bushes, low shrubs, semi-low shrubs and grassy forms. The ratio of age groups showed prevalence of 4 years individuals — 20 % (Table 2) whereas the share of other made groups 10-15 %.

Distribution of plants on vertical structure happens in 2 tiers. Two vertical tiers are allocated: a shrubby tier (height of 120-180 cm) and grassy with subtiers high (height of 40-55 cm) and low herbs (up to 25 cm high).

The top tier forms Calligonum dubjanskyi and Astragalus ammodendron; the top grassy subtier — Agropyron desertorum, Alhagi kirghisorum, Stipa lessengiana; the lower subtier is formed Ceratocarpus arenarius, Zygophyllum turcomanicum, Allium caspium, Salsola paulsenii, Iris tenuifolia, Rhinopetalum karelinii, Consolida divaricata, Allium sabulosum, Artemisia terrae-albae, Heliotropium ellipticum and others. Ferula foetida can borrow both the top and lower subtier, depending on a vegetation phase.

We carried out the assessment of some morphological indicators of above-graundparts of the blossoming individuals of Ferula foetida (Table 8).

Table 8

Morphometric indicators of elevated bodies of the blossoming individuals of Ferula foetida

in places of natural growth

Location

Communities with participation of

Ferula foetida

Height of plants, em

Diameter of radical leaf basket, em

Diameter of blossom, сш

М±Ш min-max

Cv

М±ш min-max

Cv

М±ш min-max

Cv

Sands in the

Cereal-wormwood-ferula

98.5±5.4

5.5

88.4±5.9

6.7

56.7±5.8

10.3

neighborhood of

74-128

68-110

28-90

a wintering

Eremopyron-Wormwood-

100.5±3.6

3.6

93.4±9.6

10.3

55.9±6.3

11.3

Karkol

herba varia

80-115

60-144

30-81

 

Saxaul-wormwood

110.2±2.9

2.7

70.4±4.4

6.2

53.7±4.8

8.9

 

97-129

50-90

42-84

Tuyesu sands

Wormwood-ferula-herba

110.4±4.6

4.2

81.0±3.3

4.1

58.9±2.8

4.8

varia

88-131

55-98

29-87

 

Saxaul-wormwood-herba

98.0±3.8

3.9

78.5±5.2

6.6

56.1±5.0

8.9

 

varia

75-122

45-112

29-90

Plateau

Wormwood-ferula-

106.7±6.1

5.7

88.0±5.2

5.9

54.9±4.0

7.3

Tynymbay shoky

arthrophytum

79-135

46-95

36-88

Results showed that in all surveyed points indicators of morphology of Ferula foetida differed not considerably. So, the maximum values of height of the blossoming individuals are revealed in Tuyesu sands in a wormwood-ferula-harba varia community, minimum — also in Tuyesu sands in saxaul-wormwood-herba varia community.

The largest size of the radical leaf basket is revealed on sands in the neighborhood of a wintering Karkol in eremopyrom-wormwood-herba varia community. The smallest of diameter of the radical leaf basket are recorded in Tuyesu sands in saxaul-wormwood-herba varia community.

The sizes of diameter of inflorescences changed from 28 to 90 cm. The minimum sizes are revealed at the individuals growing in saxaul-wormwood-herba community in Tuyesu sands, whereas maximum size was noted in a wormwood ferula-herba varia community, also in Tuyesu sands.

Conclusion

Six natural populations of Ferula foetida with the analysis of geobotanical indicators, structures of populations, morphological indicators are studied. It is shown that communities with participation of Ferula foetida can successfully growing on various types of soils — from sandy to loamy and stony. The following types of communities are described: saxaul-wormwood communities (Artemisia terrae-albae — Haloxylon aphyllum), wormwood-ferula-herba varia community (Herba xerophytica — Ferula foetida — Artemisia arenaria), saxaul-wormwood-herba varia community (Herba xerophytica — Artemisia arenaria — Haloxylon aphyllum), cereal-wormwood-ferula community (Ferula foetida — Artemisia terrae-albae — Poa bulbosa), eremopyron-wormwood-herba varia community (Herba xerophytica — Artemisia terrae-albae —Eremopyron orientale), wormwood-ferula- arthrophytum community (Arthrophytum lehmannianum — Ferula foetida — Artemisia terrae-albae).

It is revealed that in all studied communities Ferula foetida carries out a role a dominant or the sodominant with abundance from sp to cop 2, has good vitality from 4 to 5 points. In structure of a coenopopulation ferula can enter as in lower grassy vertical (the virgin age period), so average shrubby and grassy tier (during generative period).

The point distribution map of populations of Ferula foetida on Mangyshlak with coverage of sands Karynzharyk, Tuyesu, Sam, Akkum, Kyzyl Kum, Bostankum, loamy hills in the neighborhood of plateau Tynymbay shoky, sandy massifs around a wintering Karkol is made.

The assessment of some morphological indicators of elevated bodies of Ferula foetida is carried out. Assessment of coefficient of variability showed that the studied morphological parameters vary at a low level variability that testifies to sign stability.

The received results of phytocenotic descriptions, structures of the revealed populations and morphological assessment testify to a possibility of practical using of the natural communities of Ferula foetida.

Researches are executed within the grant project of Science Committee of Ministry Education and Science of Kazakhstan «Studying of pharmacological and ecological-biological features of a ferula of smelly (Ferula foetida) in natural populations of the peninsula of Mangyshlak and development of recommendations about its use in the medicinal purposes».

 

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Year: 2019
City: Karaganda
Category: Biology