Ecological monitoring of pastures of Kurti rural district of Almaty region

In the article the main indicators of the environmental monitoring system carried out in the territory of Kurti rural district, the main indicators of soil and chemical composition in the territory of Kurti rural district, their hydrological functions, climatic factors, as well as the biotic sequence and interaction of the unified system are studied. Integrated ecological monitoring of soil cover and vegetation features of the special rural district on the basis of dynamic changes in the territory and soil features of the relationship of a number of indicators, including one or more ecosystems. In the conditions of the local territory, agrochemical, ecological, climatic, soil and floristic compositions are studied, as well as productivity of pastures and the results of the number of livestock. Based on possible changes in the future, the relevance of the effective environmental monitoring increases in order to preserve the biodiversity of pasture lands and county territory in the future.

The total area is 188 mln Ha or 70 % of all territory [1]. The pasture area of Kurti territory is 33348 ha net pasture 83205 ha (33.3 %), shrub land 65646 ha (26.2 %), sagebrush and another vegetative cover 434 ha (0.2 %), slightly ribbed and unchecked of Association are 8439 ha [2].

Environmental monitoring is a system covering many branches of research, which allows to determine the intensive load of pastures and to present a scientific concept and the possibility of further use of pastures, implementing them at the local, district, national and global levels, as well as to create conditions for controlling the causes of changes, including the dynamics of plant growth, effective and understandable methods [3-6].

In General, the processes of restoration of any vegetation cover a long time [7]. Quantitative studies obtained from point objects designated in the study area are carried out in order to obtain the characteristics of the soil composition and cover [8].

After analyzing the statistical data on environmental monitoring, the level of soil fertility depends on the productivity of hay fodder and at the same time has a high value of expeditionary research [9-12]. Before processing plants in the study area should be determined by the vegetable coating and feed thickness and Botanical composition of each site [13, 14]. Nutrients contained in the soil have a direct impact on pasture productivity and feed adequacy [15, 16]. The composition of the soil in which it is placed hayfields, approved by order No. 22/14 from 27.03.2020, confirming the suitability to 27.03.2020. Research soil nature protection, chemical, bacteriological, methods of preparation of samples and conclusions for helminthological analyses are carried out on the basis of the state standard 17.4.02-84 [17-23]. The principle of distribution of mobile elements in the General soil composition of Astana was carried out in accordance with the proposed method of Chernenko.

Among the factors affecting the spatial and temporal changes in pastures, the role of the grazing process is particularly relevant due to the fact that the calculation of the grazing index, not covering large areas, conducting studies at a minimized level leads to an effective result [24, 25]. Environmental monitoring determination of the relationship between quantitative and qualitative indicators of climate and soil and plant fertility, since most of the research is a source of nutrition of livestock vegetation cover, will allow in the future to make a qualitative forecast [26-28].

The greatest growth of adraspan, which is a toxic plant with gray wormwood growing in dry and semidry areas of excessive grazing, in the presence of the first signs of the degradation process, allows to conduct research at a minimized level without studying the large areas in which they grow, maximally adapted to the dry environment [29-31].

Materials and methods of the object of study

The relevance of carrying out environmental monitoring of the grasslands areas of the region due to overgrazing in areas in the period of 2015–2018 Kurti rural district has conducted studies of grasslands at the local level.

Due to the the spread of degraded pastures on the area of 145182 hectares, it is recommended to carry out the necessary measures to maintain the grazing regime and the optimal strength of pastures. In the course of the assessment, the study area was previously planned and marked with the help of Google earth-map program, the boundaries of which were numbered, in the laboratory state, indicators of humus and heavy substances in the soil were determined, geobotanical characteristics, density and humidity were established, floristic composition and indicators of the number of livestock belonging to the rural district were identified. Geobotanical characteristics and soil composition of pasture hayfields were determined, complex ecological monitoring studies of pastures were carried out.

In the Kurti rural district of Almaty region with the help of Google earth-map, shown in Figure 1, separated from the territory of the village of Akshi Kurti rural district in Almaty region, the coordinates of the contours and productivity of vegetation, and observed with a fixed territory coordinates: 44.00.00 76.18.56 East, parcel No. 2: 44.00 North East 76.19.28, lot No 3: North East 43.59.45 76.20.10. Environmental monitoring was carried out in expeditionary conditions. The data obtained from each plot in determining the mass of land ownership in the study area, in a 5-fold rate of repeatability of 1 m2 of the established area and in a 5-fold radius of 5 square meters from each other, including hayfields from the rural border.

To obtain a qualitative chemical analysis of soils obtained in our territory, a number of special state standards were established. In particular, via special methods, elements of 100 g/dm3 50 g separately with the addition of nitric acid in a flask with a capacity of 500 cm3 are planned in a pre-prepared solution of the CV brand. Most of the elements come to the analysis as a grain.

When determining the content of lead in the soil, 0,01 % of the mass is taken, and for cadmium and iron samples this figure should be obtained below 0,005 % of the ointment, only for copper this figure should not be below 0,001 % of the mass, while the measuring weight used in the additional calculation should be equal to 2500 g. For other withdrawn samples, the mass of 1000 g is taken into account under the conditions established. In some cases, it is recommended to use other solutions for accurate analysis. Zinc is heated in a ratio of 30 cm3 nitric acid (1:3) provided that when weighed with a special heat-resistant solution of 2.5 cmwith an acidic solution is 2500 g or 15 cm3. Evaporating the wet salt, nitric acid is poured in a ratio (1:3), heated to dissolve the salt and cooled to 50 cm3 flask. For analysis and results from spent reagents simultaneously for each measurement, including iron (Fe), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and other elements 1000 and 2500 g. samples are taken in duplicate. As an example, solutions made on the basis of zinc, and sometimes on the basis of water, are used. When using atomic absorption spectrometers, results can be obtained automatically by special programs without operator assistance in the determination and measurement of the elements.

The second stage of our study was carried out using geobotanical methods, in particular, they cover three stages: 1. preparation, 2. departure to the field, and 3. office period.

Preparatory stage. At the preparatory stage, the purpose of the work and the scale of research is planned; the terms of work are planned and determined; planning and cartographic materials are collected, the boundaries of the territory on which the research is carried out are clarified and approved; the full literature about the object is acquainted with, information about the vegetation cover, natural and climatic conditions, the soil layer is summarized; cartographic materials of works on geobotanical and soil survey conducted in the previous stages are collected for analysis; selected topographic map, the photographic maps, drawings.

Field period. During this period, reconnaissance (preliminary studies) studies of the territory, geobotanical mapping of pastures, description of vegetation cover and soil, description of the cultural and technical condition of natural pastures, determination of measures for their effective use and improvement, determination of feed productivity and quality of feed, sampling of plants for chemical analysis and processing of collected materials in the field period.

The composition of the soil on the mobile compound of zinc, lead, cadmium, antimony, iron and copper, etc. were determined by atomic absorption and complex method Krupsky and Alexandrova listed in Tables 3–7.

Office period. Materials collected during the field period are processed. At finishing works the flora structure of the investigated territory is specified; the typological structure is formed, the classification of types of natural pastures is made; productivity of hayfields and pastures (on terms) is calculated; the geobotanical map of natural pastures is made, the offers on a cultural and technical condition and rational use is made.

Research tools and results

Table 1

Name of equipment

Serial number

Research certificate no.

Date of the study

Suitability of research analyses

1

Specord 210 PLUS

223F1426/1199

BA—11—19—430

22.05.2017

22.05.2018

27.03.2020

2

Ionomers laboratory type AND-160 MI

0451

BA—09—19—1514

22.05.2017

22.05.2018

27.03.2020

3

Photometer

Type FLAPHO-4

779792/b/n

BA—11—19—433

22.05.2017.

22.05.2018

27.03.2020

4

Scales, electronic AR 2140

1227250240

BA—02—02—31112

17.07.2017

17.07.2018

27.03.2020

5

Scales, electronic Scout Pro SPS202 F

7132211951

BA—02—02—31116

17.07.2017

17.07.2018

27.03.2020

Table 2

According to the results of the study and analyzes are purely individual Qualitative chemical analysis of soil (form) selection № 1

Indicators

Unit of measurement mg/kg

Necessary methodological documents for the study

Zinc

1.2

State standard R 50686—94

Iron (Fe)

34.0

State standard R 23957.1—2003

Copper(Cu)

1.5

State standard R 50683—94

Lead (Pb)

0.5

Cadmium (Cd)

0.5

PNDF 16.1.9.—98

N⅛kel (Ni)

3.8

Cobalt (Co)

4.1

State standard R 50683—94

Cobalt (Co)

31.0

State standard 50685—94

Table3

Indicators

Unit of measurement mg/kg

Necessary methodological documents for the study

Zinc

1.8

State standard R 50686-94

Iron (Fe)

40.0

State standard R 23957.1-2003

Copper (Cu)

1.9

State standard R 50683-94

Lead (Pb)

0.7

Cadmium (Cd)

0.8

PNDF 16.1.9.-98

Nickel (Ni)

4.7

Cobalt (Co)

5.8

State standard Р 50683-94

Cobalt (Co)

38.0

State standard 50685-94

Table 4 According to the results of the study and analyzes are purely individual

Qualitative chemical analysis of soil (form) selection № 3

Indicators

Unit of measurement mg/kg

Necessary methodological documents for the study

Zinc

1.6

State standard R 50686-94

Iron (Fe)

36.0

State standard R 23957.1-2003

Copper(Cu)

1.6

State standard R 50683-94

Lead (Pb)

0.9

Cadmium (Cd)

0.9

PNDF 16.1.9.-98

Nickel (Ni)

5.5

Cobalt (Co)

6.2

State standard R 50683-94

Cobalt (Co)

49.9

Table 5 According to the results of the study and analyzes are purely individual

Qualitative chemical analysis of soil (form) indicators for the allocation № 3

Indicators,

Unit of measurement

Site

Necessary methodological documents for the study

1

2

3

ph

5.3

6.2

7.8

State standard 26423-85

The rest density, %

0.2

0.03

0.04

State standard 2826889

Humus, %

0.30

0.36

0.33

Method of I.V. Tyurin

Humidity, %

4.7

6.8

7.1

State standard 28268-89

According to the results of the study and analyzes are purely individual Qualitative chemical analysis of soil (form) plot № 2

The results and means of studying the mobile elements identified in the composition of the soil are obtained on the basis of a set of methods specified in Table 1, for example: a high view of zinc on the plot No. 2 — 1.8 mg/kg, the lowest rate on site No. 1 — 1.2 mg/kg, also noted high levels of iron from the same sample.

But if the rate of copper at station No. 3 above 1.9 mg/kg at station No. 2 observed the similarities between these two indicators, the rate of lead above sample No. 3 — 0.9 mg/kg, the minimum rate of cadmium from sample No. 1 — 0.5 mg/kg, the high rate of cadmium from the site of No. 3 — 0.9 mg/kg, The lowest figure, plot No. 1 — 0.5 mg/kg. the Rate of Nickel at station No. 3 was 5.5 mg/kg, and its average was 4.7 mg/kg from site No. 2, minimum level of received 3.8 mg/kg from sample No. 1. The cobalt index is 6.2 mg/kg higher than the sample No. 3. When determining the manganese content in the soil above the sample No. 3 by 49.9 mg/kg, the low width index is determined from the sample No. 1 — 31.0 mg/kg.

The soil is sandy-clayey, light gray, humus content of 0.36 mg/kg showed that the humus content in the soil is low, in the presence of a neutral soil acidity index of 7.8, the solid soil residue was 0.04 % theresult of the study showed no salinity level. Analyzing in accordance with the rules of distribution of mobile elements in the total soil composition, the study area is extremely low soil fertility.

Semi-annual indicators of three-year weather observations received from Kurti station had a direct impact on the results of the data of this territory. For example, in Table 2, plant growth rates in Kurti rural district in different years indicate that vegetative propagation of plants affects the aridity of the climate. In wet years, a large number of cereals and ephemeral herbs. In dry years, the ephemeris is not well developed. The results of studies conducted in the period from 2015–2017 years, had a normal effect on the vegetative state of the plants, as during the study period the temperature was warm in autumn, winter was mild. The spring month was warm and humid. Compared to other years with hot summers, rainfall was significantly lower.

Table 6

Vegetation growth rates in Kurti rural district for different years

Years

Months

the average t

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

2015

-11.2

-6.4

+4.6

+10.5

+16.3

+21.7

+25.4

+22.6

+16.1

+7.6

-0.7

-3.8

8.6

2016

-6.9

-5.9

+1.9

+10.0

+17.4

+21.7

+26.3

+22.0

+16.8

+6.6

-0.7

-3.8

8.7

2017

-8.1

-2.8

+2.7

+8.6

+11.6

+25.8

+32.0

+27.9

+22.8

+9.7

+2.2

-4.2

10.7

 

Years

Months

rainfall (R)

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

2015

29

41

53

34

34

27

36

20

17

21

108

55

475

2016

24

41

37

80

114

86

68

28

20

20

19

43

580

2017

35

32

49

34

78

104

64

32

41

22

29

37

557

Table 7

Data on pasture areas Kurti rural district

Number of cattle grazing, pieces

Four types of livestock, pets

2015 y.

2016 y.

2017 y.

Average index

Cattle

8811

8810

9518

9045

Sheep and goats

54188

56500

58450

56379

Horse

1990

2216

2840

2349

Camel

5313

5130

5570

5337

Type of bird

9200

8700

5800

5300

Total

79502

81356

85178

78410

The Botanical composition, number, m2

Name of plants

№ 1 site control

№ 2 site control

№ 3 site control

Average index

Wormwood pale (Artemesia terra-albae)

22

25

17

21.3

Bell (Poa bulbosa)

18

22

20

20

Cornea (Eurotia ceratoides)

25

27

30

27.3

Ears to bottles (Alyssum desertorum)

23

25

21

23

Soran (Salsola)

15

17

24

18.6

Tea wormwood (Artemisia arenaria)

19

21

23

20

Sand stage (Ceratocarpus arenarius)

11

13

18

21

Airspan (Peganum harmala)

31

28

30

29.6

Total

164

178

183

175

At the first stage of the study of plant resources in natural pastures was carried out counting the number of plants placed in a specially square cell. During the three-year control there were changes in the dynamics of plant composition. In this case, it is explained by the presence of all representatives of the four species of livestock falling in the area. On the territory of the study it was found that the number of sheep twice as much as in other species. The revealed results of quantitative growth and percentage of IDA vegetation over the last 3 years can be seen in Figures 2, 3.

Conclusion

The results of ecological monitoring of pastures of the village of Akshi of Kurti rural district for 2015-2017 are brought to the following data:

  1. General provisions the Minimum soil content was determined at 0.5 mg/kg of lead in boiler No. 1, the maximum manganese content was set at site No. 3 at 49.9 mg/kg, humus % at all sites indicators with a similar difference of 0.30-0.36 these indicators led to different growth of vegetation in place, respectively.
  2. The results of studies conducted in the period from 2015-2017 had a moderate impact on the vegetation state of the plants, as during the study period the weather during the warm autumn was wet, winter is mild, spring is warm and humid. Compared to other years, the hot summer, somewhere low, was the cause of different distribution of some plant species.
  3. On the territory of the village of Akshi of Kurti rural district, the number of sheep is 58450 thousand heads, which is in 2017 at the site No. 3 85178 thousand heads, as well as at the site No. 3, it was revealed that sheep, especially damaging the surface of the vegetation cover, and its hooves negatively affect the reproduction of plants.
  4. It was estimated that the predominant amount of adraspan (Peganum harmala) in the covered layer of forage grass in the studied pasture is 28-31 %, which is directly related to the production of livestock of this plant species.
  5. The availability of livestock productive mass and large botanical composition in pastures directly depends on the amount and temperature index of soil fertility and precipitation, the type and number of animals falling on them.

In order to ensure that the results of environmental monitoring were qualitative, we concluded that it is mandatory to investigate the plant resource and soil composition in areas minimized at the local level, and not in large areas of the research area.

Kurti rural district from early historical periods is recognized as an area with developed animal husbandry and occupies a leading position in the agricultural sector in Almaty region, due to the fact that the district is actively developing the farm, in order to optimize the degradation and efficient use of pastures, preserving biodiversity, proposes to carry out the following activities.

Due to the continuous year-round use of rangelands, some rangelands of the territory are observed processes of deradation, in turn, caused by soil deflation. In the solution of the arisen problems there was a need of cultivation of long-term cultural pastures and pasture species of plants.

In particular, the number of reclamation forage, trees and shrubs, performing protective functions of rangelands: saxaul in the protection of rangeland has high utility. In the district known black and white type of saxaul (Haloxylon persicum Bge), Haloxylon aphyllum (Minkw.) of Elgin.) saxaul is a xerophytic plant. Anticonvulsant resistance is due to the strength of the root system and the specific anatomical structure of the assimilation organs. In the case of its absence the growth of saxaulnik living 10–12 years, increases to 3.0– 3.5 meters. For landscaping and reclamation of feed recommended planting saxaul, isenovic, Tereshkovich plant communities.

Perennial plant, its dry weight is 10–15 ts/ha. It is suitable for eating in the early summer and winter months. The type of solid soil is followed by stone, and the type of loamy soils are in the form of loamy soils (Kochia prostrata (L.) Shrad. usage is submitted. For example, 100 kg of dry feed consists of 40–60 units of feed. Seeds of izena can be used as a concentrate feed, its yield is 1.0 to 1.5 kg/ha. Period of its economic use 10–12 years.

For the farmer, an indispensable useful crop, including when planting traces on an area of 150–200 hectares, it is able to give up to 15–20 tons of high quality feed in a timely manner. Teresken (Eurotia ceratoides (L.) C.A. Mey.) perennial plants suitable for use in autumn and winter.

On the territory of Kurti rural district in connection with the fact that rangelands are not in uneven use, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive certification of the territory of the rural district with the aim of improving the ecological status of plant species, to review the current status and activities to the seasonal use of feed.

 

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Year: 2019
City: Karaganda
Category: Biology