Evaluating effectiveness of the trainingof civil servants

The most difficult question in the civil servants' training system is to evaluate its effectiveness. Until recently, the responsibility for the quality of education in traditional education systems has been imposed on educational organizations and teachers. Still, the number of trained people, the amount of educational programs implemented or the speed of implementing new programs are being considered as a measure of the effectiveness of the training.The author considers such indicators can not provide any description of the quality of the program. In contemporary education models, educational organizations act as facilitators as providers of education services, and based on learning outcomes, responsibilities are distributed equally between customer - government agencies, beneficiaries — civil servants and educators.One of the main prerequisites for the effective learning system to meet the needs of stakeholders is evaluation of learning outcomes. Until recent times, education has been viewed as a formal form of public service and has been of a very academic nature, and today it has changed dramatically, focusing on the rational use of learning outcomes, relevance of programs, and prior to the management of learning processes, the main focus. Therefore, the structure of civil servants' training is fully modified.One of the main prerequisites for the effective learning system to meet the needs of stakeholders is evaluation of learning outcomes. Until recent times, education has been viewed as a formal form of public service and has been of a very academic nature, and today it has changed dramatically, focusing on the rational use of learning outcomes, relevance of programs, and prior to the management of learning processes, the main focus. Therefore, the structure of civil servants' training is fully modified.

Until recently the tendency of involvement of talented professionals has led to development and development of talents as one of the main features of current trends in the systems of a world class and their deduction.

Examples of results of training, their efficiency and their influence on activity of the organization widely extend abroad. Diagnostics of efficiency is well developed in the system of corporate training.

Phillips says that in the United States of America training of personnel makes 164 billion dollars Expenses in US dollars prove as far as it is important, and it is authorized to heads of the organization to make investments in training programs, but training is considered as idle time in use, but not the strategic tool [1].

In the system of training of civil servants, the authors of the results of evaluation and evaluation of effectiveness have different estimates, but there are no stabilized complex models that establish specific indicators. This is due primarily to the fact that the effectiveness of public service can't be characterized by specific indicators, such as growth or decline in private sector production. Civil service researchers associate their effectiveness with the overall national economy, its macroeconomic indicators, including gross domestic product. However, the calculation of the effectiveness of the system of training civil servants and the results achieved is indirectly and comprehensively characteristic. Of course, it would be most likely that the overall assessment of the impact of education on public decision-making will be most appropriate (for example, by adopting a number of regulatory legal acts). However, there is no data on the quality of managerial decisions in departmental and official state statistics, so it is impossible to determine such effectiveness by quantitative calculations. Therefore, in our opinion, the method of comparing the results of learning with the results of an actual civil servant reaches the most obvious results.In the system of training of civil servants, the authors of the results of evaluation and evaluation of effectiveness have different estimates, but there are no stabilized complex models that establish specific indicators. This is due primarily to the fact that the effectiveness of public service can't be characterized by specific indicators, such as growth or decline in private sector production. Civil service researchers associate their effectiveness with the overall national economy, its macroeconomic indicators, including gross domestic product. However, the calculation of the effectiveness of the system of training civil servants and the results achieved is indirectly and comprehensively characteristic. Of course, it would be most likely that the overall assessment of the impact of education on public decision-making will be most appropriate (for example, by adopting a number of regulatory legal acts). However, there is no data on the quality of managerial decisions in departmental and official state statistics, so it is impossible to determine such effectiveness by quantitative calculations. Therefore, in our opinion, the method of comparing the results of learninwith the results of an actual civil servant reaches the most obvious results.

Approach of introduction of system of payment of the salary to the public servant with indicators of efficiency of the individual plan of work and also assessment of results of work with the decision on payment and training of bonuses was one of the main achievements of institutional reforms in Kazakhstan. The employee of the Corps «В» is directed to a course of professional development within three months after his/her activity which is recognized as unsatisfactory according to results of annual assessment [2]. Of course, these innovations increase demand for quality of educational programs from the point of view of requirements to an education system and concrete areas. However the quality of the offered education doesn't influence quality of production. achieves the most obvious results.

Whether a joint venture is required to evaluate the program, whether individual programs should be evaluated by interested parties, whether products offered on the market can meet their needs, whether the level of audience satisfaction can ban objective indicator of the quality of the program, its effectiveness and the formation of a comprehensive, systematic, subject system response to the extent to which such an impact can be eliminated.Whether a joint venture is required to evaluate the program, whether individual programs should be evaluated by interested parties, whether products offered on the market can meet their needs, whether the level of audience satisfaction can be an objective indicator of the quality of the program, its effectiveness and the formation of a comprehensive, systematic, subject system response to the extent to which such an impact can be eliminated.

First of all, it is important to define interested parties of system of assessment (Fig. 1).

One of the main prerequisites for the effective system of training for satisfaction of requirements of interested parties is assessment of results of training. Until recently education was considered as a formal form of public service and had very academic character, and today it has sharply changed, having concentrated attention on rational use of results of training, relevance of programs and before management of training processes, the main attention. Thus, thstructure of training of public servants is completely modified.

Only 5 % of global companiecan link learning outcomes to business resultand improve the effectiveness of teaching methods, and 59 % have difficulty in determining the relationship between learning outcomes and business outcomes [3]. Of course, the main indicator in the corporate sector is that investment in education is higher than the cost othe business efficiency scheme, that is, the cosof the training program for business efficiency.

At assessment of results of training in the world there are main, widely used models. As a result of the researches conducted by the famous researcher and the consultant of CEB/Gartner in the field of development of medicines in 1954, D. Kirkpatrick's example (Fig. 2).

Kirkpatrick's model also provides an assessment of the impact of learning outcomes on the organization [5], whereas only those elements that were considered before the Kirkpatrick model were considered only during the educational process. The most recent version is 2016. It was initially used for corporate training and was later introduced into the system of evaluating civil servants in many developed countries (Fig. 3).

That is, at the first level, the degree of participant's satisfaction with educational programs is determined, as well as the obligation to actively participate in it; The knowledge, skills, attitudes, reliability and reliability of the participant are evaluated at the second level; a third-level student uses his knowledge when returning to work; Fourth, the impact of training activities on the achievement of the organization's goals is determined.

Now «Kirkpatrick Partners» provides the certified courses on formation of system of training for the world organizations which also actively participate in the state organizations as consumers. D. Kirkpatrick considers that it is better to use a sample at the level of 4 as training has to begin with the expected results what behavior is necessary for their achievement, and then the relations, knowledge and behavior which have necessary behavior are defined, and finally Participants have to not only supplement the knowledge, but also satisfy to the program. The most important that the expected results for all participants to understand the training purpose, have to be concrete measurable, and only then them can be used effectively. Use of the

Kirkpatrick model after development of the program complicates training value assessment therefore it is necessary to consider all four levels of development, productivities and estimates of the program.

Return of expectations (ROE): as a rule, when new programs, the organizations offering training are necessary begin to develop samples of the appropriate new programs. According to Kirkpatrick, it is much more effective to estimate requirements, without disturbing new ways and also to predict results of their training at a basis of dialogue with interested parties. Subsequently these results will be presented at the fourth level. Researches have shown that 90 % of educational resources are used for development, preparation and holding training events, and only 15 % work at a workplace [7]. Actions which follow training process are crucial for the high level of teaching.

The template includes tools for measuring each level: at the first level they are evaluated (questionnaires, opinion polls), interviews, focus groups; Tests on the second level of prepared materials, inspections, action plans, training others (coaching, coaching, etc.); Behavioral sheets at the third level, behavior overview, workplace employee surveys, post-program reviews, post-training surveys, performance monitoring, focus groups and fourth-level indicators, and the achievement of the necessary individual and organizational results. Short-term observations and criteria that determine the directional orientation of managers , the level of satisfaction of managers, the level of customer satisfaction and the satisfaction of other employees. Round, frame shift, as a means of rational use of time.

As an example, applying additional training programs to public servants in Academies of public administration, some elements of assessment model offered here now are used rationally. The cycle of training is characterized by 4 levels: definition of needs for training, development of the training program; ensuring training; learning efficiency assessment.

The Academy uses three levels of performance evaluation: trainee training - where initial control and final control, design work is used; the opinions of the participants are established in the form of a communication, quantitative estimates are established; Improvement of the curriculum. Teachers who develop the procedure for approving the curriculum are guided by the results of the programs on the basis of their feedback and feedback from participants, choosing optional questionnaires during post-monitoring with the Academy to determine the level of knowledge acquired during the academic period. In addition, the Academy is submitted every two years through surveys of state bodies. Then determine the impact of training activities. Graduates of the Academy are divided into three groups: participants of retraining courses, participants of seminars and masters of professional growth, doctors. The results of the survey showed the level of customer satisfaction with the curriculum. At the same time, the author of the state bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan «Center for assessing the effectiveness of retraining and refresher courses for civil servants, civil servants do not meet the needs and goals of the government» between the Academy and the results of the assessment of the center due to the conclusions of the contradiction, only 10 % of The total number of studies is covered by the Academy, and many tools and methods of evaluation [8] are explained.

The Academic system of assessment of results of training has been at first sight created, and her realization is organized properly. However it is possible to see that at all stages of educational process and at all evaluation stages public authorities don't play a key role as clients, and the main, but only respond Academies to the requests and survey only in the form of the answer. The author isn't enough time for public institutions and public servants, etc. the organizational reasons. It is one more example of insufficient care of public authorities concerning training of employees and their inability to understand importance of it as additional function. Even in this case it is impossible to mention the subsequent measures. Though the regulatory base for training is identified as a part of the cycle HR, all this still is a serious obstacle for providing that training hasn't been properly developed.

At the same time from the general education system of Academy it is clear that the main resources are spent for process of training. As the world practice shows, only 15 % of results of the training program are used only in a workplace. When forming a national education system it is necessary to pay more attention to increase in this indicator.

Level 1 and 2 of Kirkpatrick can be partially used, the level 3 and level 4 it is possible to avoid, having studied experience of Academy as key supplier in the market of training in civil service (other suppliers of civil services have to consider experience of Academy as an example) It is possible to tell once again that all estimated events are held only by Academy. And, actually, for the government the most important is use of knowledge and skills received during activity and development of public administration. Then there is a question who and how to estimate the last two levels. Definition of degree of satisfaction with results of training of public authorities can be carried out spontaneously.

As a result of a survey conducted among 47 workers of HR departments of government agencies in September-October 2017, 41,2 % of respondents indicated that they did not change their learning outcomes and continued to workas before. And 73,3 %of them indicate that the effectiveness of training is likely to be used in the service. In addition, the respondents were asked: «What form of reporting, the results of training will be used after your training in the state body?» (Fig. 4) and «Is the level of knowledge and the level of employment that you acquired during training estimated after a certain period of time (for example, 3-6 months later?» (Fig. 5).

As we saw, the lack of systematic methodology of results of training results in ignorance and even ignores results of training.

As a rule, the impressive and positive correlation between degree of satisfaction of participants of the training program and knowledge, skills and abilities of participants is observed. That is, if the participant is

satisfied with the educational program, he will be able to make it in current state. Ithe same way there is a positive correlation between the third and fourth levels - as the participant of the program uses knowledge gained during work as a result of overall effectiveness of public authority. There ino correlation between the level of use of the skills and skills used by public servants during their work. The first two levels are implemented by educational organizations, and the last two levels are a part of public institutions, including human resources. Therefore partnership between interested parties has to be not onlunilateral in the current practice, but also on the same party, as in modern practice. For increase in efficiency and efficiency of programs it is necessary to intensify additional and preformal preparation before formal education. Carefully developed plan of realization of the third level has to be developed for achievement of desirable result. Prior to training educational organizationhave to be in close contact with heads of publiauthorities, HR departments, and consulting and supervising procedures have to continue after completion of a research.For providing that all these elements were comprehensive, the author considers that use of public servants has to include the following levels of assessment (Fig. 6).

The cycle of vocational training is closed which should be estimated at all levels, from the analysis of needs for training and definition of influence of results of training on the general public service. Each level has the critical criteria and methodof assessment.The key question of preliminarpreparation of the program consists in reduction of a gap between productivity and productivity by definition of needs for training and change of the market of traininfor the solution of practical questions in daily work of the public servant.

Curricula and materials can be developed correctly only when the learning objectives and expected results are clearly defined. This can be determined by a special advisory body of the educational organization. The search for supporfrom the consumer-public body is a characteristic of his participation in the development of the curriculum. To determine the need for public service in foreign countries, legislative sanctions came into force special structural units and procedures. The methods usecan vary depending on the content and the contingent. In many countries, the definition of needs depends on each ministry or department. In some countries, the demand for training is formalized not only foone year, but even for many years. This led to an assessment of the need for training and individual development plans for staff [9].

Coordination of training activities in Kazakhstan is limited only by providing information on the number of trainees and personnel plans of the presidential decree. Training mechanisms do not fully comply with the law. Each institution determines its evaluation mechanisms, for example, on the Academy's own initiative and, if necessary, determines the needs of state institutions and civil servants. However, there is no legal rule that these bodies and officials are obliged to participate in such a survey. Therefore, it would be desirable to provide individual needs, which are assessed by training centers with promotion of civil

servants, with individual development plans, unless the persons responsible for training can raise it to the appropriate competent authority. An individual plan for professional development of a civil servant is the only means of determining his educational needs. The rationale for introducing it as a rational human resources technology will be discussed in the next section.

Thus, each of assessment procedures of effective requirements has to be based on information provided by public authority and the public servant and it includes constantly happening actions, such as:

  • identification of stakeholdersof education;
  • diagnostics of demand for training;
  • to analyze the obtained data, thereby defining the expected results;
  • planning and definition of priorities of training events (together with the organization for training of public authorities).

According to us, the mechanism of selection of thematic offers on creation of the advanced content of training has to consist of two blocks:

  1. Requirements and requests of state bodies. The procedure described above is considered sufficient to determine the needs of the authorities.
  2. Requirements and requirements of civil servants:
  3. Studying the results of strategic planning, assessing the performance of staff, researching work functions, interviews, interviews with directors, direct observation, focus groups, performance evaluation results, analysis of reports, competency profile and performance evaluation;
  4. an information base or a system for monitoring the quality of education, as well as information and analytical monitoring of routes should be created and that it will ensure centralized, systematic unity and control all internal processes.

The international practice has shown that such analyses and opportunities have been raised to the level of the government [10], in State department of the United States of America [11] and on government websites in United Kingdom, public servants have an opportunity to be registered and hold own consultations on 25 professional networks [12].

After assessment of needs for training the design, formatting, realization and assessment of programs take root. Participants have concrete methods of assessment of education levels which they have got, and satisfactions of the offered educational products.

Their volume, depth, level of knowledge, compliance to qualifications and qualifications of skills and qualification, the number of the studied programs, the nature of knowledge, level of knowledge and skills can be key indicators of level of knowledge acquired by participants. The Scrum technology can be used at this level of training, that is at the beginning of the program participants form backlog and measure the level of access to the program at the end.

In case of formation assessment of satisfaction of public servants with results of training is carried out only by the teaching organization. Such assessment has to be carried out first of all by public authority as key interested party and its HR department. As a result of assessment of these indicators it is possible to define whether the offered training program answers the specified purpose. Methods of assessment can vary depending on the size, terms and the contingent of financial resources which can be written or functional testing with use of instruments of modeling, etc. At this level it is important to watch participants of the program in absentia, appraisers of this level - teachers, coordinators, and responsible people.

The subsequent measures are directed to control of that, how really programs of training are really carried out in a workplace. Assessment of this level defines degree of the effective organization of all previous actions. It is possible to see that in today's Kazakhstan case he doesn't consider importance of combination of efforts for assessment of this level and deepening of the gained knowledge. They are applied only indirectly, using additional elements as it is stated above, post-monitoring and various questionnaires. As well as in a case with the general practice, the value of poll is limited. If inspections are complete at the end of a research, results of post-monitoring inspections don't allow to draw reliable conclusions as the coefficient of feedback is too low and based on direct influence of the fact that participants can't provide information on depth of the knowledge and skills. Besides carrying out the questionnaire according to the program, participants can also use polls, an interview, the subsequent sessions, observation of jobs, focus groups, efficiency assessment, results of training, the dashboard. The obtained data can be used as a basis for release of the software.

Formulation of one method and its application to all programs is very misleading interpretation that leads to big mistakes in assessment. Each program has to be adapted for definition of influence of publicservants for their work. Of course, it is resource-intensive and difficult process. Therefore in a present situation there is no corresponding methodology.

All these examples can be used as the sizes of separate programs which can't be considered as the general indicators for all programs. The most difficult assessment of this level is definition of the corresponding indicators and indicators. Thus, it is possible to reach appropriate level of assessment only by fixing of concrete indicators according to each program even if it is expensive, from the point of view of expenses on resources on the basis of which it is possible to correct contents of the program. Indicators, such as percent of managers which as it is considered, correspond to the expected levels of competence and ability to correspond to administrative indicators can be defined as the general indicators of quality.

In this regard the author recommends to carry out the Program for a design cycle as the pilot project and to formulate methodology of assessment of its efficiency. Measures which need to be accepted have to be closely connected with the systems of monitoring and assessment of projects of public authorities, design offices. Thus, the efficiency of investments into the program of project management can be defined in time and money equivalents. Here is how the program productivity indicator can be displayed (Table):

Table

Quantitative and quality indicators of efficiency of the programs «Project management»

1 Performance Indicators

2 Intangible benefits

  1. The number of the projects submitted prior to training and quantity of financed.
  2. Number of the involved public servants.
  3. The allocated funds.
  4. Size of possible profit.
  5. Working hours.
  6. The repeating functions.

Final assessment. Interrelation between volumes of post-processing of the revealed indicators

  1. Increase in institutional potential
  2. Improvement of investment planning.
  3. Increase in skills and opportunities of public servants, degree of satisfaction with work, abilities to work in groups.
  4. Improvement of the information environment for the recommendations of the project.

Note: Designed by the author.

The same way, Strategic planning (where the key indicator submits the reporting under the strategic plan), the program of trainers on leadership of trends also estimates both material, and intangible assets in the pilot project, and then separates from other programs, formulating methodology of other programs, to optimize the spent resources and to increase their productivity. In this regard the author suggests to create the contingent of public servants, but not to select participants for separate objects and to develop groups on the basis of groups, such as (Project Office) project management, on the basis of structural divisions. Then project management, risk management, strategic planning, etc. Of course, the efficiency of programs will increase.

Besides, the curriculum and materials have to be confirmed by means of an experimental seminar. Then the expected results carefully are estimated. Especially for «A» and «В» administrative civil servants are approved competent system, have been included in programs of development of competence of the General competences directed on change of the behavior of consumers accepted the level of their realization of public authorities demand need of achievement of very high extent of support. It is necessary to create the organizational and regulatory base for such participation. It doesn't mean that rating indicators have to describe the purposes of the training program completely. Indicators have to have additional «criteria of demand» which will have the value which estimates efficiency of each interested party: the pupil, his / her heads and the subordinated employees and also human resources. If training is focused on providing knowledge instead of behavioral changes, such as changes in regulatory frameworks or administrative procedures, newer, rule-based indicators will be much easier. You can tell the number of filed or canceled decisions as an available indicator. Therefore, the collection of information from trainees and their managers in the staff resources of a stategovernment body can be the basis of reliable information.

Above-mentioned consists that process of determination of learning efficiency has defined itself as the strategic tool which will help to resolve issues which have to be considered in work of public authorities andincrease efficiency of their activity. The self-assessment of a self-assessment and assessment of results of training promotes increase in efficiency of public servants and, thus, creation of professional government. In the course of training the main attention should be concentrated not only on the program, but also on preprogram and post-program activity.

 

References

  1. Phillips, J., Phillips, P. (2016). Handbook of Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods. Fourth Edition. New York: Routledge.
  2. Prikaz Predsedatelia Ahentstva Respubliki Kazakhstan po delam hosudarstvennoi sluzhby i protivodeistviiu korruptsii ot 29 dekabria 2016 hoda «O nekotorykh voprosakh otsenki deiatelnosti administrativnykh hosudarstvennykh sluzhashchikh» [Order of the Chairman of the Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan for Civil Service and Anti-Corruption Affairs of December 29, 2016. «On some issues to assess the performance of administrative civil servants»]. adilet.zan.kz. Retrieved from http: www.adilet.zan.kz [in Russian].
  3. Todd Tauber, Wendy Wang-Audia. The State of Learning Measurement. Bersin by Deloitte. (2015). joshbersin.com. Retrieved from http://joshbersin.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/020316_INFO_StateOfLNMeasurement_DJ_Final.pdf.
  4. CEB. Learning Analytics: Measurement Innovations to Support Employee Development (2016). cebglobal.com. Retrieved from https://www.cebglobal.com.
  5. Training and Development in the Civil Service. Comptroller and Auditor General Report on Value for Money Examination. (2000). Dublin: Government of Ireland.
  6. Kirkpatrick, J.D., & Kirkpatrick, W.K. (2016). Four levels of Training Evaluation. Alexandria: ATD Press.
  7. Brinkerhoff, R.O. (2006). Telling Training's Story: Evaluation Made Simple, Credible and Effective. San Francisco: CA Berrett-Koehler.
  8. Suleimenova, G., & Demeuova, A. Training of Civil Servants at the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. pa-academy.kz. Retrieved from http://www.pa-academy.kz/images/files/nauka/Suleimenova_Conf- 2014.pdf.
  9. Public Service Training in OECD Countries. SIGMA Papers, No. 16. (1997). Paris: OECD Publishing.
  10. Government of Canada. canada.ca. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/government/publicservice/learning.html.
  11. U.S. Department of State. careers.state. Retrieved from https://careers.state.gov/civil-service.
  12. Government of the United Kingdom. gov.uk. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/guidance/training-and-development- opportunities-in-the-the-civil-service.
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Economy