The development of active types of tourism in Kazakhstan: theoretical aspect and practical guidelines

Tourism is a complex socio-economic process, and its organization requires a serious scientific justification. Studies of the essence of active tourism, its specific features are complex, systematic and territorial. The study of the efficiency of using the tourist and recreational potential of the territory for many regions of Kazakhstan can be an important step on the way to optimizing the regional structure of nature management. At the same time, the development of regional tourism can solve the problem of organizing recreation of the population, attracting foreign tourists to the regions of Kazakhstan, providing them with unique, competitive tourist products with a good bundle of their services. In the article the author developed a classification of active and adventure tourism, systematized data on the territorial organization of active routes, existing and proposed by tourist companies in the regions of Kazakhstan, and also the current state of sport and active tourism in the country was analyzed.

Today, tourism is perceived as the most mass phenomenon of the 20th century, as one of the brightest phenomena of our time, which really penetrates into all spheres of our life and changes the surrounding world and landscape. Tourism has become one of the most important factors of the economy, so we consider it not just as a trip or vacation. This concept is much broader and represents a combination of relationships and the unity of the connections and phenomena that accompany a person in travel.

Active tourism provides types of recreation and travel, entertainment, sports (hiking, rock climbing, sports games, rafting on rough rivers, underwater tourism, safaris, etc.), requiring significant physical strain [1, 2]. Often, between the concepts of active recreation and active tourism, various tourist companies put an equal sign, but these concepts are completely different: for example, if someone will be a day to row with a paddle for fun, this is an active holiday, and if in order to swim to a hard-to-reach landmark Is an active tourism. The same situation occurs with the concept of sport tourism, which is also often equated with the notion of active tourism [3,4].

The classification of active types of tourism is presented on the Figure 1.

Especially popular today are adventure and extreme tourism, which are classified into 4 leading categories:

  • water kinds: diving, wakeboarding, water skiing, windsurfing, rafting and many others;
  • land types: mountain biking, speleotourism, spelestology, jailao-tourism, backpacker tourism, etc.;
  • mountain types of tourism: mountaineering, snowboarding, mountain (alpine) skiing, freeride, backcountry, etc.;
  • air types: classical parachutism, skysurfing, paragliding with the motor, flight on air host, hanggliding, etc. (Fig. 2) [5-7].

It should be noted, that every day there are new types of tourism that are developing in different parts of the world, among them: kitewing, skimboarding, flyboarding, surfing on skis, water climbing; geocaching, volcanoboarding, industrial tourism; catskiing, snowboarding, geological and mineralogical tourism; skayaking. Each of the presented species requires a certain physical preparation from the tourist, as well as a deeply thought-out tour organization system from tourist operators and agencies [8-10].

The Republic of Kazakhstan is a unique country with huge opportunities for the development of active types of tourism: on its territory there is an amazing diversity of landscapes, climate, geographical zones, and diversity of flora and fauna species. Undoubtedly, all this gives tourists a unique opportunity for a large selection of activities: speleological tourism, hiking and mountain hiking, skiing, mountaineering, horseback riding, bicycle tourism and much more.

High rates of tourism development, large volumes of foreign exchange earnings actively influence various sectors of the economy, which contributes to the formation of its own tourism industry. It's no secret that the most important element of the tourism industry, especially in the sphere of active recreation, is the infrastructure component.

The natural landscapes of Kazakhstan are characterized by the presence of rocky-glacial highlands, mountain landscapes, small-scale massifs, forest-steppe, steppe, deserts and semi-deserts, as well as a multitude of water resources, which once again confirms the practical suitability of most of the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the development of active tourism.

Human development reports compiled under the United Nations Development Program note that health and human life expectancy by 51,2 % depend on maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 20,4 % on biological data, including on heredity, 19,9 % - from the state of the environment and 8,5 % - from the level of development of health care. Undoubtedly, in this big issue the great importance is given to the solution of environmental problems, the quality of drinking water and other subjective factors, but the main reserves are hidden in the need to create a healthy lifestyle for every citizen of our country. In this regard, the understanding that the exercise of physical culture, sports and active kinds of tourism must be firmly entrenched in the public consciousness is a necessary and most important condition for the development of a healthy nation [11]. Unfortunately, statistics show that in Kazakhstan in 2015, 26,3 % of the population systematically engaged in physical culture and sports. But the target indicator of coverage in 25 % did not reach 4 areas (SKO, WKO, Mangistau, Akmola). By the total population, the increase is insignificant, while for schoolchildren, there is a decrease in indicators. At the same time in European countries more than 50 percent of the population is involved in mass sports and active tourism.

Long-term communication with nature, active movement, the joy of informal friendly communication, the opportunity to have a good rest, to get an excellent charge of cheerfulness and tempering make hiking the best type of recreation and physical rehabilitation of the organism [12, 13]. Tourists note the unusual lightness and burst of energy after a seemingly tedious trip. The conducted studies also confirm the preventive value of occupations by active kinds of tourism (Table 1) [14].

Table 1

The preventive value of various types of tourism and recreation in strengthening the body (on a three-point scale)

Types of active tourism

Prophylactic value (in general)

Functional systems that need to be strengthened

Nervous

Cardiovascular

Breathing

Muscular

Endocrine

Thermoregulation

Water tourism (on oars)

18

3

3

3

3

3

3

Mountain tourism

17

3

3

3

2

3

3

Ski tourism

17

3

3

2

3

3

3

Cycling tourism

14

3

3

2

2

2

2

Horse tourism

11

3

1

1

2

2

2

Sledging tourism

9

2

1

1

1

2

2

Transport tourism (moto, auto)

5

2

1

0

0

1

1

со со

D.G. Mamrayeva

The development of active types Oftourism in Kazakhstan...

In order to organize effective work on the development of mass sports and active tourism, in almost all regions independent departments on physical culture, sports and tourism at the district level, as well as in the cities of Almaty and Astana, have been opened.

In July 2014, the first stage was launched for the creation of a bicycle infrastructure in Astana (40 bicycles with 200 bicycles) within the framework of the Memorandum of Cooperation with Samruk-Kazyna JSC and the Astana City Akimat. It should also be noted, that in September 2016 in Almaty, the ceremony of launching the Almaty Bike project was held. The first stations were installed in the central streets of the city, and 50 bike stations with a park for 270 bicycles are planned to be launched, which will help to reduce the intensity of traffic and, consequently, improve the ecology of the city. The system operates from solar panels and will be equipped with a parking terminal.

At the second stage of the project, the park is to increase the number of bicycles to 1730, and the number of bicycle stations will be 200, which in turn will cover the main business part of the city.

In the third stage of development, the number of stations will be expanded to 300, and the bike park - to 2,410 bicycles to cover almost all the busy parts of the city.

Given the city's weather conditions, it is assumed that the cycling season of the Almaty bike project will be year-round. Almaty will become the third city, whose residents «travel» on specialized bicycles. Astana citizens practice cycling for the third season and in July 2016 a project was opened in Shymkent.

Subscription fee per year for projects Almaty Bike, Astana Bike and Shymkent Bike is about $31 per year, with discounts and hourly rates.

The memorandum of cooperation was signed in June 2016 by Akim of Almaty city and JSC «National Welfare Fund «Samruk-Kazyna»» will help to develop cycling and cycling infrastructure in Almaty, promote healthy lifestyles and improve ecology, create and develop a system of automatic bike rental in the city, children's cycling and cycling in general [15].

In 2014, together with the Center for Healthy Lifestyle, about 34,000 sports, mass and tourist events and actions were held.

Important for the development of active tourism is the construction and reconstruction of sports facilities. According to the Committee on Statistics, out of 35,783 sports facilities in 2015 (which is 857 units more than in 2014), about 64 % of the country is in rural areas. In Mangistau, Aktyubinsk and North- Kazakhstan regions, the lowest number of objects of physical culture and sports is noted. More than 2100 objects are private. This is about 22 % of the objects of physical culture, sports and tourism.

In general, in Kazakhstan, 16743 youth representatives are in one swimming pool, in Russia - 8938, in the USA - 38. In Kazakhstan, there are 15799 youth representatives in one full-size football field, while in Russia - 3959, in Germany - 667.

More than 73 % of sports facilities belong to educational organizations, only 26 % of the buildings are accessible to the adult population.

The leader in the number of sports facilities is the South-Kazakhstan region - 5178 units, in the second and third places - Pavlodar and Almaty regions (3350 and 3294 units respectively). But it should be mentioned, that these regions are leading mainly due to the indicator «the number of flat sport facilities» (sports fields, skating tracks, ski and ski slopes, etc.), while on a number indicators, for example «the number of ski bases», «the number of tennis courts», are inferior to other regions of the republic. According to the number of hockey courts, the absolute leader is the North-Kazakhstan region; this is also desirable to note about the city of Almaty, on the territory of which there is a record number of tennis courts for the whole republic - 61 units, while on average there are only 47 of them.

It should be noted, that with the holding of the 7 Winter Asian Games in 2011 in Almaty, old-style springboards have been reconstructed and new ones have been built that fully meet all modern international standards.

Undoubtedly, the successful 28th World Winter Universiade in Almaty (January 29-February 8) contributed to the popularization and development of various types of active tourism.

Consider the sports facilities that were used for the competitions during the Universiade, and that will contribute to more intensive development of such types of active tourism as skiing, snowboarding, mountaineering, mountain biking, riding on rooks, ice-climbing, skiing and others (Table 2).

Kazakhstan has a large number of natural resources, suitable for the development of all types of sport tourism, including extreme tourism. On the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan there are many beautiful tourist places suitable for organizing this type of tourism, but many have not been sufficiently studied and investigated. Natural and recreational resources of Kazakhstan, as well as national traditions and peculiarities, mentality, customs have attractiveness for foreign tourists, as they are already saturated with the proposed tourist services in the markets of Europe and Asia. With the appropriate state support, it is possible to study the unexplored places of Kazakhstan's natural landscapes for creating new, interesting sports routes that are popularized by sports tourism at the world level.

Table 2

Sports objects of the Universiade - 2017

Object name

Distance to the Athletic Village

Capacity

Brief description

1

2

3

4

Halyk Arena

18,5 km

3000 seats

The facility consists of a multipurpose, universal ice arena for 3,000 spectators and a small arena with stands for 300 seats. The facility is designed with the possibility of transforming ice coverings into volleyball, basketball, mini-football, etc.

Almaty Arena

700 m

12000 seats

The facility is designed with the possibility of transforming ice coverings into volleyball, basketball, mini-football, etc. The facility is perfectly designed for conferences, forums, tourist exhibitions of various levels with equipped halls, meeting rooms, etc.

High-mountain skating rink «Medeu»

30,6 km

8300 seats

«Medeu» is the world's largest high-mountain complex for winter sports. The surface of the artificial ice field is 10,5 thousand square meters, which allows to hold competitions in speed skating, hockey and figure skating.

After the modernization to the VII Asian Games the skating rink was improved. Now «Medeu» is a popular place for skating for both Almaty residents and city visitors.

Palace of Sport and Culture named after Baluan Sholak

12,7 km

5000 people

The palace consists of the Main Arena and the Minor Arena. In 2010, the Sports Palace was reconstructed in accordance with international standards for the VII Winter Asian Games. Currently, the Sports Palace hosts sports competitions of continental and world level in the Olympic sports. In November 2015, the Pacific-Asian championships for curling were held here, which were the qualifiers for the 2016 World Cup and test for the 2017 Winter Universiade.

Ski resort «Shymbulak»

35,4 km

-

The resort of Shymbulak was significantly renovated. The total length of trails from 6 km is doubled on average. The tracks are certified by the International Ski Federation (FIS).

To conduct the Asian Games in 2011, a state-of- the-art cable car was built, where 114 comfortable cabins function, the capacity of the road is 25003000 people per hour. This ropeway is the third in the world in length (4,5 km).

International complex of ski jumps «Sunkar»

16,1 km

5200 seats

It consists of two zones: the international complex of ski jumps «Sunkar» and the Ski stadium.

1

2

3

4

Ski-biathlon complex «Alatau»

50,5 km

2600 standing places and 3600 seats

It includes the main stadium buildings, several parking areas, a helipad, a shooting range and startfinish zones.

The layout of the stadiums is made according to the international standards of sports organizations FIS, IBU.

The tribune of each stadium is designed for a capacity of more than 3,000 spectators (1,300 standing places and 1,800 seats).

The maximum length of the ski runs is 10 km, consisting of two independent circles of 5 km red + 5 km blue. The maximum length of biathlon tracks is 4 km. The total length of the trails is 14 km.

Sport and entertainment complex «Tabagan»

36,6 km

800 seats

The ski resort «Tabagan» is located on the territory of Talgar district of Almaty region, near the national nature reserve. In the summer time «Tabagan» provides all conditions for the development of mountain tourism, quad biking and mountain biking, family recreation resort type, cultural and outdoor events.

Note. Compiled by the author.

Today Kazakhstan has all the bases and resources for activating the already existing types of active tourism. In modern realities, the tourist has become more demanding on the quality and the set of services provided: it is no longer enough for a client to just give skiing, the tourist wants to get the whole range of services - quality accommodation in an accredited hotel, professional equipment, healthy food, etc. In this regard, today it is necessary to think about creating an appropriate infrastructure and to target customers of different price segments and preferences.

The population living in conditions of unfavorable ecological conditions, needs a rest in clean air, classes with active kinds of tourism.

All over the world, rock climbing is developed mainly in the low and medium mountain areas, as well as in Kazakhstan (for example, the forest ridge in the Kishi gorge). Often, climbing routes are found on the plains in the canyons washed by large rivers. Annual competition for the prize of V. Gorbunov is held in similar conditions on the river. Ile in the area of the Pisan rocks on the holiday «Nauryz». Rock-climbing is also common in the mountainous terrain (Butakovskyi Fall, rocks near the mountain climbing camp Tuiksu).

A special kind of active tourism is skyrunning. Basically skyrunning is held as a mass sporting event. In Kazakhstan, annual races are held on the peaks of Nursultan (Komsomol) and Amangeldy.

The center of water tourism in Kazakhstan is the Zhetysu Alatau (Jungar Alatau) river, among which are: Karatal, Lepsi, Kora, Tentek, and others.

The development of cycling tourism is possible in all areas of Kazakhstan, as was mentioned above.

Speleotourism is a type of active tourism, the purpose of which is to visit natural or man-made caves and labyrinths. It is interesting for a variety of forms of relief, creating obstacles for passage (wells, debris, narrow cracks, underground rivers, etc.), as well as extreme unfavorable physical conditions (high humidity and lack of natural light). In the highlands caves are found in glaciers (for example, Bogdanovich glaciers and Tuyyksu). The longest in Kazakhstan is the October cave located in the Bogdanovich glacier (length - 1390 m).

Ski tourism is popular in those regions of the country where the snow cover lasts at least 3 months. Like mountain and pedestrian, ski tourism passes along a previously prepared route and requires physical and technical training. North and East Kazakhstan are the most suitable conditions for its development [16].

Undoubtedly, that the city of Almaty is the leader among all regions in terms of the number of proposed developed routes in Kazakhstan. Its leadership is due to the presence of a large number of tourist agencies and operators, both independently developing and offering already prepared routes, as well as a rich natural landscape and a historically established strong school of tourism instructors with sports ranks of the highest class in various types of active travel (Table 3).

Table 3

Examples of active tours are offered by different companies in the context of the regions of Kazakhstan

The name and brief description of the proposed tour

Duration

1

2

3 ~

Almaty city, Almaty region, South-Kazakhstan region

1

Peak «Sovetov» (4317 meters above sea level). Season: end of May / June- September. Accommodation: in tents. District: Zailiysky Alatau, NSNP Ile-Alatau, Big Almaty Gorge, the Ozernaya River.

2 days -

1 night

2

«Incredible Turgen. Glaciers and lakes». Season: 15-20 June-September. Accommodation: in tents. District: Zailiyskiy Alatau, NSNP Ile-Alatau, Turgen gorge, Chon-Turgen gorge. Route: Turgen gorge (Batan) - glacier of the Mining Institute - Chon-Turgen plateau - moraine lakes of Chon-Turgen - 4 sphagnum lakes in Turgen - Turgen gorge - Temirtas river - Oikaragai plateau - Kairak waterfall - Turgen gorge (Batan).

6 days -

5 nights

3

«The Big Almaty Circumnavigation». Accommodation: in tents. District: Zailiyskiy Alatau, NSNP Ile-Alatau, Left Talgar, Big Almaty gorge. Route: Almaty - Chimbulak - Left Talgar - Pass of Tourists - Big Almaty Lake - Almaty. The most popular route in the Zailiysky Alatau. Its attractiveness lies in the fact that it passes through all the natural zones and the most beautiful places of the mountains of the Northern Tien Shan.

3 days -

2 nights

4

«Cossack Lakes». Season: July-September. Accommodation: in tents. District: Zailiysky Alatau, NSNP Ile-Alatau, Kaskelen Gorge. Route: Limestone quarry - Emegen gorge - Aidarys pass - South Kazachka river - Cossack lakes.

2 days -

1 night

5

«Peak Tourist is 3954 meters at sea level (backcountry)». The maximum slope is 50 %. Season: 20.04-31.05. The length of the descent is 2-2.5 km. The height difference is 550 m (3950-3400 m). Complexity: short approach, descent for the experienced. The descent passes along a stony slope, which is covered with snow unevenly; there stones are encountered.

Short trek with a descent

6

«Charyn Canyon» «Valley of Castles»». Season: spring, autumn, winter. Route: Almaty - NSNP Charyn - Almaty.

1 day

7

«Three brothers» (freeride). Season: 1.12.-14.02 (31.03). High avalanche danger at the end of the season. The length of the descent is 6,0-7,5 km. The drop from 2860 to 1700 m.

5-6 hours

8

«Rafting on the Turgen River and an excursion to the waterfalls». Season: July -

August. The length of the waterway is 3 kilometers. The complexity of the alloy - 2 category (for the beginners).

1 day

9

«Horse route through the mountains of the Northern Tien Shan». Season: June - September.

11 days -

10 nights

10

«Glacier Saldyrtas». Season: June-October. Complexity of the route: trekking of medium complexity. Height difference: 2000-3300 meters.

5 days

Astana city and Akmola region

1

«One-day tour to the Kurgaldzhin Reserve». Kurgaldzhin Reserve protects 36 species of mammals and about 250 species of birds. Here you can meet representatives of the southern and northern fauna.

1 day

2

«In the land of not afraid birds». Visit to the Kurgaldzhin Reserve for monitoring the pink flamingo. There are 4 possible routes - the choice of a tourist.

1 day

East-Kazakhstan region

1

«Rafting on the rivers of East Kazakhstan». Season: end of May. Rafting on rafts or inflatable rafts along the rough mountain rivers of East Kazakhstan, near the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk.

-

2

«Rafting along the Bukhtarma River». The tour is optimal for corporate and family holidays; restriction on age: from 7 years, from 7 to 16 years - accompanied by adults. Modern equipment is provided by the company.

4 days -

3 nights

1

2

3

Atyrau, Mangistau and West-Kazakhstan regions

1

«Back to the Stone Age». The length of the route: 350 kilometers. 2 nights in tents. Season: April-October. The number of people in a group is no more than 10.

3 days -

2 nights

2

«Journey to Bukeyev Khanate». Route: Uralsk - Chapaeyvo - Zhangala - Urda.

3 days -

2 nights

Zhambyl and Kyzylorda regions

1

«The Riddle of Akyrtas». Visit one of the most mysterious monuments of Kazakhstan - Akyrtas.

1 day

2

«Barkhan of Moyynkums». Pedestrian - equestrian two - five - day ecological routes. The total length of the route is 1000 km. The frequency of the organization of the route is daily.

2-5 days

3

«The revived Red book». One-day horseback-walking route along the Aksu - Zhabagly Reserve.

1 day

4

«Turkestan - Taraz». Itinerary: Almaty - Turkestan - Otyrar - Shymkent - Taraz.

2 days

Pavlodar and North-Kazakhstan regions

1

«Ten-day wedding tour «Zhar-Zhar». The tour provides an opportunity for foreigners to get acquainted with the unique traditions and customs of the Kazakh people.

10 days

2

«Weekend tour - Bayanaul». Breakfast with samovar, rest on the shore of Lake Zhasybay, beach volleyball.

1 day

3

«Nature is the source of health and inspiration». Departure to nature, neighborhood of Pavlodar, conducting competitions, relay race, rope course, orientation on the terrain, team building, master classes of experienced instructors.

1-2 days

Aktobe and Kostanay regions

1

«Kostanay is the city of the future». Hiking city tour.

4-6 hours

2

«Water tour for children: a journey to Andronovo culture». Type of tourism is water tourism. The length is 157 km. Goal of the trip: visiting the parking lot of Andronovo culture, practicing the tourist skills and skills on the rocks near the village of Pereleski.

5 days -

4 nights

Karaganda region

1

«Ornithological tour». Bird watching.

2 days -

1 night

2

Observing the flowering of tulips.

1-3 days

3

«Kazakhstan: Back in the USSR». The Kazakhstan part of the Soviet heritage is presented in the central part of the country in the best way. It was here that the notorious correctional camps of the Stalin era Karlag and ALZHIR were located. The development of virgin lands, industrialization, the development of cities - silent witnesses of all these processes, which were part of the life of one sixth of the land called the USSR, can still be seen here, in the heart of Kazakhstan.

6 days - 5 nights

4

«Kyzylaray - height and antiquity». The Kyzylaray mountain forest oasis, located in Central Kazakhstan, provides truly exclusive opportunities for the traveler.

5 days

5

«Ulytau is the cradle of the nation». Ulytau («great mountains» in Kazakh) is the most interesting part of Central Kazakhstan, rightly considered to be the «cradle of the Kazakh people».

-

Note. The table was compiled by the author according to official websites of tourist agencies and tourist operators, as well as the information site «Visit Kazakhstan».

The tourist products were presented in the table are far from all the offers of Kazakhstan companies. Taking into account the rich nature of the country, the availability of unique historical sites, sacred places, the list of proposed routes is diverse, and differentiated by the set of services included in the tour, client skills and cost. In each of the regions of Kazakhstan you can find a tourist offer that can satisfy the desire of even the most demanding traveler. But, nevertheless, relying on the previously given statistics, most of the country's tourist companies are working to «exit», as the flow of incoming tourists to Kazakhstan is still small. Undoubtedly, the exception is those years when the largest events of the world scale were held, among them: the Winter Asian Games in 2011, the Winter Universiade - 2017, the World Exhibition EXPO-2017.

It is also important to note one more trend: today an increasing popularity among local people is gaining weekend tours, which undoubtedly contributes to the polarization of active tourism in the regions of Kazakhstan, both among the local population and among foreign visitors.

Summing up all the above, it can be concluded that the development of tourism in Kazakhstan, encountering a number of problems, nevertheless, goes in the framework of a certain direction and scenario designed to make this type of business promising in the conditions of non-raw development of the country's economy. Today, much has been done for this purposes: adopted the Concept of development of the tourist industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2023, created the national company «Kazakh tourism», amends the relevant legal instruments, a great work of the Kazakhstan Tourist Association, but, nevertheless, about the promotion of active forms of tourism too early to say, because their development needs a systematic approach, the presence of highly qualified personnel, and, above all, high-quality instructors and guides, a comprehensive work on the creation of new and modernization existing infrastructure.

 

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Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Economy