Features of the regional development of entrepreneurial activity in the field of tourism in Kazakhstan

In the article the development of entrepreneurial activity in the field of tourism in the regions of Kazakhstan is analyzed. The factors contributing the development of entrepreneurial activity in the field of tourism in the regions of Kazakhstan are identified. In the article the tourist flows by types of tourism, the tourism shares in GDP, the number of active subjects and the number of people employed in the field of tourism in dynamics. The study is based on the application of the main statistical methods: grouping, rows of dynamics. The result of the study was the rating of the regions of Kazakhstan on the development of entrepreneurial activity in tourism. The field of application of the research results is the activity of subjects of the tourist industry: the Ministries of Culture and Sports, Departments of tourism development, tour operators and travel agents, industry organizations, consumers. The results of the study can be used in the development of regional tourism development programs within the framework of the implementation of the state program of tourism development.

Tourism is able to give a big impetus to the development of entrepreneurship. President N. Nazarbayev repeatedly mentioned this in the state strategic plans, calling on Kazakhstani businessmen to invest in the tourism industry, guaranteeing support from the state in the form of creating the necessary infrastructure. This is the aim of the new state program of tourism development in Kazakhstan until 2023. In his annual Message to the people of Kazakhstan «New development opportunities in the conditions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution», the President emphasized: «One of the promising sources of income for any region is the development of inbound and domestic tourism» [1]. This was also indicated in the last Message of the President to the people of Kazakhstan «Growth of Kazakhstan citizens' welfare: increase of incomes and quality of life», dated October 5, 2018 [2]. This task is successfully implementing, since it can be argued over the past 5 years, the share of inbound tourism has increased by 12.6 %, domestic tourism — by 61.2 %.

As the analysis of statistical data shows, all types of tourism in Kazakhstan have a positive trend (Fig. 1).

Kazakhstan, which has a rich tourist and recreational potential, attracts tourists, both foreign and domestic. This is evidenced by the figures of tourist arrivals (Fig. 2).

Domestic tourism has become the most preferred and affordable than vacation abroad. This is due to the improvement of the tourist infrastructure of the country, quality increase of provided services. Adequately developed tourist infrastructure ensures the availability of tourist destinations, comfortable stay of tourists, brings substantial income to the state and entrepreneurs.

Currently, domestic flights are operated by six Kazakhstan airlines — Air Astana, Skat, Bek Air, Zhetysu Avia, Zhezkazgan Air and Kazakh Air on 42 domestic routes, with more than 500 flights a week.

Reconstructed sections of the republican roads Almaty-Astana, Astana-Kostanay-Chelyabinsk, Samara- Shymkent, Atyrau-Uralsk, Aktobe-Karabutak, Almaty-Bishkek, Atyrau-Aktau, Pavlodar-Maikapshagai, Taskesken-Bahty, Chundzha-Kolzhat, Astana-Schuchinsk and Schuchinsk-Kokshetau with a length of more than 8 thousand km.

The Kyzylasker-Kirovsky car roads, the Ridder-border of the Russian Federation, the Eastern, Northern and Southern bypasses of Astana, the access to the Shchuchinsk-Borovsky resort area, the access to the special economic zone PIT Alatau, thBypass of Kostanay, the Bypass of Kokshetau, with a total length of 216 km were built.

Bridges were built across the Ural River near the city of Uralsk, the Syrdarya River, the Kigach River, the Irtysh River in the city of Pavlodar.

As of January 1, 2018, 84 % othe republican roads and 65 % of the regional and district roads were in good and satisfactory conditions. Due to the performed work, the condition of the republican road network has been improved by more than 40 %.

Inflationary processes in 2015 and, as a result, a decline in household incomes, as well as increased political instability in some of the world's tourist destinations, also affected the preference for domestic tourism. Therefore, many entrepreneurs began to include tourism products in Kazakhstan in the list of services.

The rise in arrivals was caused by such events as an agreement on the facilitation of mutual tourist trips between Kazakhstan and Iran, signed in 2016; Winter Universiade; 2017 year of tourism in China and Kazakhstan, which led to the flow of the first groups of Chinese tourists. It should be noted that this trend was decided to be supported by introducing a 72-hour visa-free regime for citizens of China and India. And, of course, EXPO-2017, which contributed to the abolition of the visa regime for citizens of 48 countries of the world.

As international practice shows, the share of tourism in countries with developed tourist flow is at least 40 % of the country's GDP. Unfortunately, despite the positive dynamics of tourist arrivals, the share of tourism in Kazakhstan GDP remains not only insignificance, but also unstability (Table 1).

Table 1 The share of tourism in the GDP of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2017

Year

The contribution of small and medium businesses in the GDP of Kazakhstan [1]

GDP, billion tenge

Rate of increase, %

Gross value added and created by tourism, billion tenge

Rate of increase, %

Share of gross value added and created by tourism in GDP, billion tenge, %

2013

35275

 

336,4

 

1,0

2014

38712

10

336,8

0

0,9

2015

40884

6

406,4

21

1,0

2016

46971

15

558,8

38

1,2

2017

53101

13

     

Note. Compiled by the authors based on the source [3, 7; 4].

The task of tourism is to increase its share in the structure of GDP to 8 % by 2025. Over the past 5 years this figure has not changed, despite the increase in the number of tourists.

Thus, the reality proves the complexity of this task. It is obvious that tourism activities, which are an integral part of the national economic system, should be planned, directed and coordinated in a comprehensive manner. Tourism needs to be taken to a new level, tourism should be massive, that is, to have demand from not only consumers (both external and internal), but also entrepreneurs, as a promising area for business, become a part of a national culture.

Unfortunately, the indicator of gross value added and created by tourism in a regional context is not compiled by the statistics committee. Nevertheless, the share of regions in the gross value added and created by tourism can be judged by indicators of the number of active entrepreneurs.

Currently, the activity of entrepreneurs in tourism is characterized by a positive trend (Table 2).

Table 2 Analysis of entrepreneurial activity in tourism

Year

Active individual entrepreneurs and SMEs

Number of active individual entrepreneurs and SMEs in tourism

Share of active entrepreneurs and SMEs in tourism in total volume, %

Number of people employed in SMEs

Number of people employed in tourism

Share of employment in the tourism sector in the total employment in

SMEs, %

thousand units

rate of increase, %

thousand units

rate of increase, %

thousands of people

rate of increase, %

thousands of people

rate of increase, %

 

2013

888

 

118,922

 

13,4

2577

 

100,9

 

3,9

2014

927

4

133,414

12

14,8

2811

9

108,3

7

3,9

2015

1243

34

185,545

39

14,9

3184

13

111,3

3

3,5

2016

1187

-5

185,322

0

15,6

3075

-3

113,9

2

3,7

2017

1662

40

191,623

3

11,5

3190

4

116,3

2

3,6

Note. Compiled by the authors based on the source [3, 45; 5].

In the period of 2013–2017 the number of active individual entrepreneurs, small and medium businesses in tourism has increased 1.6 times, and the share of active entrepreneurs and SMEs in tourism in the total volume of active entrepreneurs decreased by 1.9 %. Thus, a favorable business environment, including active state support in Kazakhstan, contributes to the development of business in general. However, entrepreneurs do not choose the tourism sector to engage in business, because they do not know the potential for the development of the industry. The tourism sector is among the promising 16 areas of concessional lending and subsidies. However, in our opinion, active support is necessary, similar to the one that is rendered to the agrarian sector by such specialized institutions as Fund for «Financial Support of Agricul- ture» JSC, «Agrarian Credit Corporation» JSC, «KazAgroFinance» JSC, «KazAgroGarant» JSC; specialized financing programs «Sybaga», «Agribusiness 2020», etc.

The activity of small business is most actively represented in the sphere of individual and collective places of accommodation, the activity of tourist agents, excursion companies, the sphere of public catering. Small business is capable to provide mobile creation of the most important objects of tourist infrastructure (mini-hotels, campgrounds, cafes, travel agencies), develop new niches for serving tourists, create jobs for young people, as well as employment for families.

The leaders in the number of active entrepreneurs in tourism are still the cities of Almaty, Astana and the Turkestan region (Table 3).

Table 3 Dynamics of the number of active SMEs and individual entrepreneurs

in tourism by region of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2013–2017

Regions

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Rate of increase (2013–2017), %

Akmola

3749

4260

6374

6360

6552

74,76

Aktobe

6433

7310

10183

10170

10616

65,02

Almaty

8889

10101

14460

14456

15014

68,91

Atyrau

5554

6312

8834

8810

8833

59,04

West-Kazakhstan

2683

3049

4042

4031

3814

42,15

Zhambyl

5389

6120

8822

8806

9162

70,01

Karaganda

6291

7148

10556

10540

10915

73,50

Kostanay

5607

7009

7589

7580

7817

39,42

Kyzylorda

4566

5073

7035

7020

7364

61,28

Mangistau

6793

7548

9824

9808

10099

48,67

Turkestan

15316

17602

23179

23160

24003

56,72

Pavlodar

3142

3570

4771

4760

4871

55,03

North-Kazakhstan

2091

2376

3615

3609

3716

77,71

East Kazakhstan

6529

7420

10497

10480

10715

64,11

Astana city

12586

14302

19856

19840

20543

63,22

Almaty city

23304

24214

35908

35892

37589

61,30

Note. Compiled by the authors based on the source [4].

According to the Concept of tourism industry development of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2023, it is planned to create 6 cultural and tourist clusters: «Astana is the heart of Eurasia», «Almaty is a free cultural zone of Kazakhstan», «Unity of nature and nomadic culture», «Pearl of Altai», «Revival of the Great Silk Road» and «Caspian Gates». In 2017, the number of placements in Almaty compared to 2016 increased by 15 % (184). These facilities served 969,861 people, which are 22 % higher than in 2016 (18.3 % of the total number of tourists served by the RK, 5,279,406 people), of which:

  • residents — 616 235 people: 14 % of domestic tourists (4,387,495 people of the RK );
  • non-residents — 353 626 people: 39.6 % of inbound tourists (891 911 people of the RK ).

The volume of services rendered by placements in 2017 compared to 2016 increased by 14.3 % and amounted to 22,479,547.1 thousand tenge (20.7 % of the volume of services of the Republic of Kazakhstan — 108,359,760.4 thousand tenge) (Table 4).

Table 4 The volume of services provided by the locations, thousand tenge

Regions

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Share in total volume, % in 2017

Republic of Kazakhstan

59 714 164,2

72 401 941,1

72 597 228,3

82 853 434,6

108 359 760,4

100

Akmola

3 329 941,1

3 987 484,3

4 255 885,7

5 020 856,3

5 656 946,1

5,22

Aktobe

1 305 907,8

1 697 767,8

1 445 833,9

1 549 764,0

2 078 793,3

1,92

Almaty

1 101 212,4

2 244 240,7

3 202 810,2

4 779 411,8

8 280 288,8

7,64

Atyrau

8 412 823,5

5 472 461,5

6 802 761,1

7 086 544,2

7 192 536,3

6,64

West-Kazakhstan

1 317 940,0

1 465 823,5

1 970 286,6

2 906 309,2

3 121 014,4

2,88

Zhambyl

537 390,2

669 522,3

874 895,3

1 004 788,6

1 258 402,0

1,16

Karaganda

2 884 647,3

3 399 112,3

3 418 374,4

3 872 377,1

4 226 003,2

3,90

Kostanay

1 018 681,6

1 109 894,3

1 075 420,3

1 122 255,6

1 506 394,8

1,39

Kyzylorda

822 941,9

900 957,0

739 374,3

783 860,6

933 647,9

0,86

Mangistau

5 010 419,4

5 097 621,0

4 656 540,8

3 922 236,3

4 154 705,1

3,83

Turkestan

1 398 196,2

1 539 512,2

1 915 253,7

2 730 818,9

3 652 733,9

3,37

Pavlodar

1 450 686,5

1 612 252,1

1 550 449,8

1 591 832,4

1 852 259,7

1,71

North-Kazakhstan

432 000,0

473 721,1

583 507,5

826 061,4

1 000 726,3

0,92

East Kazakhstan

2 940 325,5

3 677 811,8

3 290 367,2

3 877 789,5

4 278 273,5

3,95

Astana city

13 292 428,2

18 456 615,4

18 228 423,7

22 116 316,7

36 687 488,0

33,86

Almaty city

14 458 622,6

20 597 143,8

18 587 043,8

19 662 212,0

22 479 547,1

20,75

Note. Compiled by the authors based on the source [4].

Almaty city is the center of business activity of the country. The megapolisis also ranked first in the production of goods by small and medium businesses that produced goods for more than 4 billion tenge, which is 26 % in the republic. But at the same time, there are industries that need financing on favorable terms. These are tourism industry, food industry and innovation. On October 21, 2016, within the framework of the implementation of the memorandum signed between the Akimat of Almaty and the Damu Foundation, the Almaty Tourism program was launched. This program was developed for the development of small and medium businesses, by financing projects in priority sectors for the region or individual territorial units. In 2016, 250 million tenge was allocated from the local budget to the Almaty-Tourism Regional Program, and 250 million tenge was financed by the Damu Foundation. Loans issued at 8.5 % per annum up to 7 years. The maximum loan amount is up to 100 million tenge.

As part of the implementation of the regional program «Almaty - Tourism», 4 projects were financed under the «NurBank» line of «SG Restaurants» LLP 50 million tenge (actually issued), «Park-Kok Tobe» LLP — 50 million tenge, «SkiParkPioneer» LLP — 52 million tenge (actually issued) and FE «Rysbekov» S.K. — 48 million tenge (actually issued), through HalykBank 2, the project of IP «Erezhepova» — 100 million tenge (issued), through the ATF Bank 1 project of IP «Vanshanlo T.P.» — 75 million tenge (not issued). Also «OtrarTravel» LLP — 50 million tenge.

In order to modernize and increase the amount of funding, the Tourism Department together with the Entrepreneurship Department, the National Chamber of Entrepreneurs of Almaty, the Damu Foundation and tourist associations set up a working group.

Turkestan region, which occupies the second position in the ranking of active entrepreneurs in tourism, was included in the «Revival of the Great Silk Road» cluster and was positioned as the «Heart of the Great Silk Road».

In order to promote the tourist potential of the region, the Ontustik Tourism Center «Tourist Information Center» was created. «Ontustik Tourism Center» operates on the principle of «Single Window» and provides information and reference services to develop tourism, strengthen and develop the business environment of the region.

In order to improve the quality of services, since May 2017, 5 training seminars have been held in the direction of «Tour guide», «Restaurant business», «Waiters», «Tourism managers» and «Hotel business». In March 2017 on the basis of the tourist information center of the Association «Center for development of the tourism industry of South Kazakhstan region» a 3-month course for representatives of the tourist business was held [6].

In Otrar district, in the rural district of Betarangyl the official opening of the ethnic village «Alash» took place. The opening was attended by local residents of Otrar district and representatives of foreign media, tourist operators who were invited to the info tour in the South Kazakhstan region. In general, the event was attended by over 200 people. Several yurtas, workshop, national kitchen, bakery and other small facilities have been established on the territory of the ethnic-village «Alash».

In order to provide quality services to the visitors of the state nature reserve Aksu-Dzhabagly in the Tulkubas district there are working tourist bases like «Aksu-Dzhabagly», «Ruslan», «House of Zhenya and Lyuda», «Kokzhailyau», «ZhabaiyTabigat».

In addition, by the end of 2017, the recreation center «Zhailau» was commissioned in Tulkubas district. «Alem AGRO» LLP is developing a project for a recreation area and a health complex, «NuranKurylys» LLP is developing a project for a recreation area. It is planned to expand the tourist bases «Ruslan» and «Aksu- Dzhabagly». Also in 2017, the Izum Tau recreation area was opened in Tolebi district [7].

The largest volume of investments for 2017 was in Astana. All achieved indicators of the development of entrepreneurial activity in the field of tourism in Astana are a legacy of EXPO-2017 and push for further development. Due to EXPO, the infrastructure of the city is ready to accept tourists of any level. There was a significant increase in the stock of hotel rooms from 165 hotels to 201 in 2017. Today, the tourist infrastructure in the city is represented by: 201 hotels with 15 thousand beds and more than 1,100 cafes, restaurants and other objects of the hospitality industry. To facilitate the entry of foreign guests, visa-free travel was introduced for 48 countries. The «open sky» mode was also introduced, that is, all restrictions on flights of foreign companies in Astana were lifted up to 7 flights a week. Since January 9, 2017 new international routes from Astana have been opened, and the number of flights on existing routes has significantly increased. By the time of the start of work EXPO launched a new, equipped with the latest technology station «NurlyZhol». A new airport terminal for international flights was also opened [8].

The government of the country plans to make Astana one of the most attractive cities in the Eurasian space by 2020, through holding various forums, summits, business conferences, exhibitions, cultural and sport events. Annually Kazakhstan International Tourism Exhibition is held in Astana. Its goal is to create a modern, highly efficient and competitive tourist product, on the basis of which conditions will be provided for the development of tourism as an economic sector, integration into the world market system and the development of further international cooperation in the field of tourism. On average, 100 companies from 15 countries take part in the exhibition.

In September 2018, a delegation from Astana took part in the Seventh UNWTO Global Summit on Urban Tourism in Seoul, where Astana was declared the next Summit venue, the date is October 7-11, 2019.

On November 16, 2017 the «Roadmap for the development of tourism in Astana until 2020» was approved, including 24 events. They are: measures to attract domestic and foreign tourists; landscaping, infrastructure and improvement of the quality of tourist services; increase the efficiency of use and selfsufficiency of cultural, sport, health and higher education facilities in Astana; development of medical tourism and educational tourism activities. Until 2019 it is planned to attract investments for the construction of the first theme park in Astana, Astana Cosmoland, which will be located on the territory of the national space center [8].

The ranking of regions in terms of growth rates in the number of active SMEs and individual entrepreneurs in tourism is associated not only with the concentration in the region of tourist resources, attractions, cultural facilities, development of tourism infrastructure, but also with the government support for entrepreneurship initiatives.

The highest growth rates in the number of active SMEs and individual entrepreneurs in tourism are observed in the following regions: North Kazakhstan region (77.71 %), Akmola region (74.76 %) and Karaganda region (73.50 %).

North Kazakhstan region has a great potential for the development of domestic and inbound tourism. The region has a number of nature conservation facilities, rivers and lakes, rare species of flora and fauna, historical and cultural monuments, folk crafts.

It is worth noting that, thanks to the efforts of the local authorities of the North Kazakhstan region, Aiyrtau district was included in the Concept of development of the tourism industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2020 — in the cluster «Unity of nature and nomadic culture». This means state assistance in the implementation of regional government plans, additional funding for the tourism industry.

Nowadays, on Shalkar and Imantau lakes in Aiyrtau district, not only residents of the region, but also residents of other regions of Kazakhstan and border regions of Russia come to rest. In this direction, the train «Tulpar-Talgo» began to ply the route «Kyzylorda-Kostanay», stopping at station «Volodarovskaya». Large- scale work is underway on the reconstruction of highways. Transport and road condition play an important role in the flow of tourists.

Obviously, natural reserves are among the most attractive places for tourists. Among the active reserves of North Kazakhstan region there are Mamlyutsky, Orlinogorsky, Smirnovsky and Sogrovsky. North Kazakhstan region takes the first place in the Republic by the number of lakes. In addition, the North Kazakhstan region is on the second place in the country in terms of the number of forests and on the third one — in length of roads.

The peculiarity of North Kazakhstan region is the opportunity to offer a diverse type of recreation: historical, educational, ecological, medical, hunting and agritourism.

The Department of Entrepreneurship and Tourism of North Kazakhstan region organized field seminars of the working group on the topic «Measures of state support for small and medium-sized businesses in the framework of state and industry programs». The working group includes representatives of local executive and territorial bodies, the Chamber of Entrepreneurs, financial institutions, a branch of the Bank of the second level. During the seminars, the mechanisms and conditions for participation in the Program Business Roadmap 2020, the Program for the Development of Productive Employment and Mass Entrepreneurship, the KazAgro Program, non-financial support measures, legal protection of business were covered, and brochures entitled «Support Measures for Small and Medium Business sectoral programs», individual consultations were carried out [9].

In Akmola region the recreation and tourism industry are priority sectors of the economy. The tourism cluster of the region includes over 700 tourism enterprises (338 accommodation facilities, 45 sanatoriumresort institutions, 266 roadside service entities, 68 travel agencies licensed to carry out tourist activities, 3 state national natural parks «Kokshetau», «Burabai», «Buiratau», «Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve», «Burabay Lady» LLP). The cultural-historical segment of the cluster is represented by 900 monuments, the largest of which are under the state protection. Historical and cultural heritage of the region is of a paramount importance in the promotion of historical, sacred places of the region, with their further use in tourist routes and excursion programs. The priority directions of tourism development are ecological, cultural, educational ones, as well as health and fitness, business, sports, extreme, etc. Today, almost all existing types of tourism are prerequisites for development in the region, which are reflected in 80 tourist routes developed and successfully implemented by tour operators in the region. The development of the tourism industry in 2017 is characterized by a steady growth of the main indicators of the tourism industry. Ten new tourist infrastructure facilities were created (4 hotels, 4 recreation areas, 1 guest house, 1 children's entertainment center), 111 jobs were created.

In order to promote the tourist potential of the region, including resort «Burabai» and to saturate the recreation of tourists with attractive events and events on an ongoing basis, work is being carried out to form an image, including the information promotion of tourism in the region, both in the country and abroad. During the current period, more than 17 events aimed at promoting the tourist potential of the region were held, including various seminars, trainings, round tables, fairs, festivals, expeditions, 4 informational and promotional tours for foreign and Kazakhstan tour operators, investors, and media representatives on the Shchuchinsk-Borovsky resort zone, Zerenda recreation area.

In 2018 it is planned to commission 5 tourist facilities totaling 629 million tenge, upon completion of which more than 80 jobs will be created. Prospects for the development of the tourism cluster should be inbound and domestic tourism. In order to do this, it is necessary to take measures to promote and ensure year- round functioning of the Burabai resort. To this end the «Four seasons» concept is being implemented, which includes more than 20 areas in which own resources, additional borrowed funds and private investment are being sought.

As a part of a comprehensive solution to the problems of the infrastructure plan 2 phases of the Shchuchinsk-Borovsky resort area development plan have been implemented. Currently, the third stage of the Plan has been accepted for the implementation at 61.4 billion tenge [10].

The main tourist centers of Karaganda region, where there is a potential for the development of tourism, are Karaganda city, Ulytau, Aktogai, Karkaraly regions, the center of beach tourism development is the coast of Balkhash Lake.

Ulytau region is a region for the development of ecological, historical, pilgrim, as well as sightseeing tourism. The main resources are the mountains of Aulietau, historical and cultural monuments (the mazars of Zhosha Khan, Alash Khan, the ancient cities of Baskamyr, Ayakkamyr, rock paintings of Terektaulie, etc.). On the territory there is a museum-reserve of republican significance «Ulytau» and the only museum in the Republic of the history of mining and copper smelting in Zhezdy.

On July 12, 2018 a tourist foru«Ulytau — the center of sacral tourism in Kazakhstan» was held in the village of Ulytau. The purpose of the forum was to discuss and develop activities tincrease the number of tourist arrivals. During the forum, the «Tourist mobile application for Ulytau and the new equestrian tourist route» was presented. One of the events to provide tourists to this region was the holding of the I International Festival of Folklore Collectives «Zhezkik», which brought together musical bands from 9 countries of the world. The international festivawas held within the framework of the State Program «Ruhani Zagyru», with the implementation of the project «Religious Shrines of Kazakhstan» and the special program «Tugan Zher». The objectives of the Festival are the preservation of the intangible cultural heritage of Kazakhstan, the promotion and development of Kazakh folklore, the development of the tourist cluster and the popularization of folk culture in alits diversity. Conduction of such events gives the local population the opportunity to intensify their business activities in the provision of excursion services, trade in national dishes, clothes, etc.

Karkaraly district is one of the centers of recreational vacation. On the basis of the State National Natural Park «Karkaraly» there are 6 tourist-excursion routes.

Balkhash region includes the territories of the cities of Balkhash and Priozerskthe territory of Aktogai district of Balkhash Lake. The maitourist resources of the region are Balkhash Lake, the mountain range of Bektauat, Kyzylarai reserve, Aksoran peak.

In order to develop tourism infrastructure in 2016, within the framework of the Unified program of support and development of business, the Business Road Map 2020 supported 6 projectfor the construction and reconstruction of tourist accommodation sites in the cities of Karaganda, Priozersk and Bukhar-Zhyrau district [11].

The provision of tourist resources has contributed to increasing the number of tourism entrepreneurs in these areas.

At the present time, the rating of regions by the number of active entrepreneurs, and, consequently, the development of tourism in the regions remains the same.

The cities of Almaty and Astana respectively occupy the leadership in the number of active subjects and the number of people employed in the tourism sector, and in all types of economiactivity (Fig. 3). North Kazakhstan region (1.94 %), West Kazakhstan region (1.99 %), Pavlodar region (2.54 %) has a smaller share in the total amount of active entrepreneurs in tourism.

Despite the high growth rates of active entrepreneurs in North Kazakhstan region, the region is lagging behind in the number of active subjects and in the number of personnel in the tourism sector by economic activity (Table 5).

Table 5 The number of workers in the tourism sector by economic activity in 2017, thousands of people

Regions

Activities of tour operators, travel agents and other organizations providing services in the field of tourism

Accommodation services

Activity of sanatorium organizations

Activities for the organization of recreation, entertainment, culture and sports

Akmola

0,1

2,3

1,0

4,1

Aktobe

0,1

0,9

0,4

3,2

Almaty

0,3

2,5

0,4

4,6

Atyrau

0,1

1,5

0,2

2,3

West-Kazakhstan

0,1

0,7

0,3

5,0

Zhambyl

0,1

0,5

0,5

3,0

Karaganda

0,4

1,8

1,5

6,4

Kostanay

0,1

0,8

0,7

3,6

Kyzylorda

0,0

0,4

0,7

3,2

Mangistau

0,2

1,4

0,1

2,0

Turkestan

0,2

1,3

1,7

5,9

Pavlodar

0,1

0,8

0,5

4,4

North-Kazakhstan

0,1

0,5

0,0

2,5

East-Kazakhstan

0,3

2,2

0,3

5,3

Astana city

1,1

4,7

0,0

7,1

Almaty city

3,9

5,3

1,4

9,5

Note. Compiled by the authors based on the source [3; 47].

It is necessary to increase the number of tour operators and travel agencies in Kyzylorda region, since the underdevelopment of the network of tour operators and travel agents increases the risk of reducing the supply of local tourist products, therefore, the region tourism will not develop.

The underdevelopment of the sphere of accommodation does not contribute to tourist attractiveness, even with the attractiveness of tourist potential. Kyzylorda region, North-Kazakhstan region, Zhambyl region are lagging behind in the development of this direction.

According to statistics, about a thousand people work in the activities of sanatorium organizations of Mangystau region, and in North Kazakhstan region and Astana there are only fifty people. Knowing the sanatorium and resort potential of these regions, we mean that it is not fully realized.

The number of employees in the field of recreation is less in Mangystau, Atyrau, North Kazakhstan regions. It is necessary to take into account that the modern tourist is demanding and he needs the whole range of services, including entertainment, culture and sports. And if they are absent, the region will be little attractive as a tourist destination.

As the data of Table 5 shows, employment in the sphere of entertainment and organization of accommodation provides the largest employment in the field of tourism, since these areas involve the whole system of various services for organizing the activities of enterprises. At the same time, the organization of family hotels is becoming very popular, which, as a result, leads to a smaller number of employees.

According to the results of the analysis, we can conclude that entrepreneurship in the tourism sector has a positive trend as a whole. However, the tourist potential has not been fully realized yet. On the way to the implementation of the state program for the development of tourism, it is necessary to encourage entrepreneurs to increase their activity. As evidenced by the results of the development of tourism in the regions, with the implementation of certain economic and organizational measures, it is possible to activate entrepreneurship.

In addition, we believe that it is necessary to develop regional tourism policy, since the republican program is not able to take into account the specifics of all regions, which are characterized by a wide variety of territories, climatic conditions, traditions and other features that determine the originality and uniqueness of a particular region or area. In addition, the development of tourism in the regions makes it possible to solve a wide range of socio-economic problems: improve infrastructure, ensure employment of the population, overcome the uneven development of certain areas of the region, etc.

 

References

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Year: 2019
City: Karaganda
Category: Economy