History of the development of physical culture and sports in Kazakhstan in 1946–1960 in the period of Soviet power

The article notes that one of the crucial conditions for the development of the physical culture movement in the postwar years in Central Asia and Kazakhstan was the restoration, expansion of sports facilities, the production of sports equipment, the resumption of sports sections, organizations, sports schools, the revival of national sports. It is emphasized that the sports communities of Kazakhstan, actively created after the war, take an enormous part in the formation of physical culture and sport. The healthy way of life is propagandized, drunkards and parasites are ridiculed, new kinds of sports, for example, mountaineering get popular. At competitions of different levels — from rural competitions to the sports days of the peoples of Central Asia and the USSR — new sports records are set, new names of Kazakh athletes are sounded. More and more representatives of the indigenous population are attracted to all kinds of sports sections, sports are developing in rural areas. The article traces the main trends and trends in the development of physical culture and sports in the Kazakh SSR, quantitative indicators of sport achievements are outlined.

The interest of researchers in development of physical culture and sport, in history of their formation, is shown throughout quite long period of time. Especially often address this perspective in recent years. We consider, interest is attracted by nation-wide policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan, one of priorities of which is connected with orientation on development of the full-fledged personality. Interest in history of physical culture and sport in the USSR is shown in increase in number of works on this problem. Researchers seek to reveal culture potential, its internal reserves, possibilities of activization and development. Much attention is paid to problems of physical culture and sport which are one of the most effective means of extension of life and vigorous activity of the person.

In all times of the existence of the Soviet Union, the development of sports, physical education in the state has been given considerable attention. As a result of the war, the Soviet athletic movement suffered great losses — many specialists in physical culture and sports were killed, sports facilities were destroyed, sports organizations ceased to exist. And the first post-war decades there was an acute need to provide training and retraining of personnel in physical education. In this connection, in 1945, an extensive system of training courses for workers in physical culture and sports of various organs of the state and public apparatus was created, beginning from the union and republican ones and ending with the district link. New institutes and faculties of physical education were opened in the country.

In post-war years there was revaluation of value of sport. It was promoted by the resolution of the AllUnion Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of December 27, 1948 which has set the task «increase in level of sports skill and on this basis gaining of world championship by all Soviet athletes on the major sports» [1].

Propaganda of sport and healthy lifestyles in the post-war decades in the Soviet Union has become a matter of state importance. The morning gymnastics is becoming a common phenomenon, in obligatory physical culture «pauses» are held in the pre-school and educational institutions, the Days of Health are held on a regular basis. To the glorification of sport, radio, cinema, and television are also attracted, but the most popular means of propaganda are propaganda posters, which often featured the best artists of the Soviet country. Cartoons, caricatures of people leading unhealthy lifestyles and not engaged in sports, appeared both in the popular magazines of the time «Ogonyok», «Worker», and in the wall newspapers of factories, factories, institutes, schools. Radio and television programs, posters and agitation products actively informed the public that without sport, the life of a Soviet man is inadequate. Socialist propaganda of physical culture and sports was aimed at both adults and the younger generation. The media actively spread information about new achievements of Soviet athletes, making them an example for compulsory imitation. Booklets were published for children, collections, poems by famous poets on the subject of the need for sports to become as «brave and dexterous» as their fathers and grandfathers [2].

Standards which failure to follow could entail considerable problems not only at the teacher of physical culture and sport, but also directly and at the pupil have been entered into the school program even if he was round excellent student: it had problems with peers — malicious pokes and sneers have been provided to all shirking physical culture. Students without fail needed to visit sports sections. Inspired in actually Soviet people contempt and disrespect for those who fell short of necessary sports tops. Pioneers and Komsomol members condemned and boycotted idlers and shirkers of physical education classes. Participation in competitions and outdoor games was not just fashionable, it became lifestyle of the Soviet person in the 1940-the 1950 years.

It should be noted that promotion of physical culture and sport has brought the results: in the 1960 years in the country of Councils there were 84 million people who officially systematically played sports. Health was the real element of prestige, the sign of advantage and valor, — it was the real cult of health. By means of promotion of healthy lifestyle and sport the main cultural, social, economic and political objectives of the USSR were resolved, distracted exercises from problems of social disorder and shortage, everyday problems, dissatisfactions of pressing needs of the person. Motivation of the Soviet people to physical activity, occupations tourism and sport, increase in availability of these types of leisure — all this has been started for the sake of increase in productivity of work, competitiveness of production, decrease in expenses. Besides, it was both the available and most mass way of leisure occupation for the Soviet people when other types of active recreation (for example, tourism, etc.) were inaccessible for the majority. Such huge mass work has borne enormous fruits — the USSR for many years remained the strongest sports power of the world.

The considerable merit in creation of world sports prestige of the Soviet country belongs also to the Kazakh SSR. Formation of the correct perception at society of physical culture and sport has been included in economic plans of the Kazakh republic. The country leaders began to attach great value to training of youth for hitting qualifying standards of GTO, providing financing of sporting events. Work on arrangement of the available sports constructions has been carried out, numerous community work days on restoration of stadiums and athletic fields were held. Voluntary sports communities were created, these organizations have made the significant contribution to development of sport of Kazakhstan.

In March 1947, a voluntary sports society was organized «Red Banner», created VSS «Airplane», in June 1947 was organized by the VSS «Sadovod», consisting of six athletic teams [3]. In addition, physical culture collectives were created: at a furniture factory, a confectionery plant, etc. By the end of 1947, only 14 voluntary sports societies (VSS) functioned in Alma-Ata alone: «Bolshevik», «Urozhai», «Dynamo», «Spar- tacus», «Kairat» and others, among them there is also the rural sports society «Kolkhozhy» [4]. Altogether on the city of Alma-Ata on January 1, 1948, there were 73 sports teams with a total of 4,323 athletes, of whom 4215 people were members of the VSS. The number of sports events also increased, their number in 1947 was many times greater than a year earlier. The preparation and holding of these competitions has improved noticeably, large-scale competitions of the republican scale have been regularly held in the cities of the Kazakh SSR. In 1946–1951 the athletes of Kazakhstan repeatedly became winners and prize-winners of large all-Union competitions in boxing and equestrian sport. So, the success was accompanied by boxers M. Omarov, A. Usenov, the first of them, athlete-Kazakh, was awarded the title of Master of Sports [5].

Competitions were remembered during the mass holidays devoted to significant dates, such as, century since the birth of Abay in 1945 and century since the birth of Jambyl Dzhabayev in 1946. In 1947 city and regional track and field athletics championships, to sports, national fight against the number of participants have been carried out to them 14 521 persons (June). Same year city and regional sports contests on the leading sports (hand-to-hand fighting, swimming, track and field athletics, sports, shooting, etc.) with the number of participants of 3712 people (July), etc. were held. Since 1948 traditional sports contests of the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan began to be held regularly. During this period till 1957 9 sports contests in which teams of the Kazakh SSR won first place twice, have been held to the others - stable the second [6].

As it was already noted, on December 27, 1948 the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) has adopted the resolution «About the Course of Performance by Committee on Affairs of Physical Culture and Sport of Decorative Indications of Party and the Government about Development of the Grass-roots Sports Movement in the Country and Increase in Skill of the Soviet Athletes» [7] which made active the level of development and the relations to physical culture and sport in the Soviet country in general as during Stalin era of the directive of party were carried out strictly. In the resolution number of problems have been displayed: lack of mass character, unsatisfactory skill level of the Soviet athletes, etc. For the solution of these problems the tasks have been set: to provide broad development of physical culture and sport among the population of the cities and villages, expansion of the grass-roots sports movement in the country,increase in level of sports skill, gain by the Soviet athletes in the closest years of world championship on the leading sports, need of organizational strengthening of collectives of physical culture and improvement of work on the major sports; importance of mass development of sport among country people.

As a result of daily work the sports organizations of the country have achieved considerable progress, second «birth» of national sports in Kazakhstan became one of such progress of development of physical culture and sport. Long time about them was safely forgotten. Only before the beginning of war «remember» traditional sports of federal republics, begin to take national forms of competitions mass character, the skill and achievements of participants grow.

In fight championships kazakhsha-kures, to tayak-zhugurt (throwing of sticks on snow), board game toguz-kumalak and to many horse sports representatives of almost all areas of Kazakhstan take part. In particular in military years, for example, in the winter of 1942 republican competitions in tayak-zhugurt have been held, in the summer of 1943 during the first sports contest of the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan indicative competitions on fight «kazakhsha-kures», to «kyz-kuu», «kumis-alu» and others have been organized [8]. The new round in development of national sports in Kazakhstan begins since 1944. The sports organizations of the republic have developed new competition rules on the main national sports and games. Since 1944, competition, sports contests and sports festivals on national sports began to be spent more often.

At the beginning of 1945 the All-Union committee on affairs of physical culture and sport has issued the special order «About Strengthening of Work on National Sports» in which it has noted need of wide use of national types of the physical exercises which are part of means of the Soviet physical culture and powerful factor in development of the grass-roots sports movement in the national republics. As practical actions the committee has suggested to include elements of national games, dances and entertainments in programs of physical culture of national schools and in practice of work of preschool institutions, to organize in days of holidays demonstration performances on national sports, to reconsider existing and to develop new competition rules, to make selection and streamlining of national sports, having included them in practice of sports work in city and rural sports collectives.

Since 1948 the emphasis on strengthening of work of the sports organizations of the republic for creation in collectives of physical culture, in particular in rural, sections on national sports, improvement of educational and training work in them, broader involvement of the Kazakh youth in sports activities is placed. In 1949 in the republic «The short collection of the Kazakh national sports» has been published that has finally set their official status and contributed to their further development. Almost in 10 years after release of the Resolution, in 1958 in Moscow All-Union horse-racing competitions of collective farms, state farms and studs which participants competed in the «көкпар», «bayga» on 7 km, to «kyz-ku», «kyz-zharys» were held the first. And in 1960 the anniversary Spartakiad on national sports where as obligatory valid types have been included «baygn» on 7 and 16 km, «zhorga-zharys», «kazakhsha-kures», the «көкпар», «toguz- kumalak» has been held.

A distinctive feature of the development of physical culture and sports on the territory of Kazakhstan was the possibility of the development of mountaineering. Massive mountaineering Kazakhstan trade unions began to revive back in wartime in 1944. The alpiniad of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions) was held. In the summer of 1945, three camps of voluntary sports societies («Lokomotiv», «Almatinets», «Medik») were already operating in the mountains of our republic. In April 1946, the first plenum of the All-Union section of mountaineering was held after the war, outlining the ways for the further development of alpine sports. The first postwar mountaineering season — the summer of 1946 — was quite successful. Seven camps have already been in operation and 2,600 people have visited them, of them an absolute majority (2 thousand) — beginners. As an incentive, in the same year, the Red Banner of the All-Union Committee for Physical Culture and Sports was established for the camp that took the first place in the socialist competition. The first was the camp «Lokomotiv», the following year it was won by the camp «Alibek» DSO «Nauka», in 1948-1950 — camp «Molniya» DSO «Burevestnik»

Between 1947 and 1949, the number of camps continued to grow. In 1947, the Physical Culture Society «Spartak» opened its camp. The system of training instructors-public workers was restored, courses of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions began to work on the basis of the camp «Lokomotiv». In Alma- Ata, the task of training instructors was decided by the Republican school of instructors.

In 1948 climbers of Kazakhstan in commemoration of the 25 anniversary of the Soviet highland sport organized the largest after the war mass ascent to the summit of the Pamirs, to the summit 502 climbersclimbed. During the course of 1950, a number of district alpiniads were successfully conducted with the participation of collective and urban youth, hundreds of new icons were prepared by the «Mountaineer of the USSR» [10]. In the 1949-1950-ies the growth of sports skills of Kazakhstani mountaineers continued, an increasing number of athletes took part in the ascent to the highest category. The mass figures of Soviet mountaineering and the growth of sports skills of the climbers are characterized by the following figures: the number of trained icons was already greater in 1949 than in 1940, and in 1950 the pre-war indicators were surpassed in the mass coverage of all types of climbing events. The level of sports skills of Soviet climbers has increased. In the last year of the post-war five-year plan, the number of sports groups increased 2.4 times in comparison with 1940, and the number of participants in sports ascents is 10 times. High-altitude sports in the Kazakh SSR developed more and more every year. It became a truly popular folk sport: newspapers wrote that metallurgists, miners, and military began taking holidays during the mountain climbing season.

In 1949, thanks to the joint coordinated work of all interested departments, in the cities of the republic the first masters of sports of the USSR have appeared. The government of the republic has indicated the need of broader attraction to exercises and sport of representatives of indigenous people. As the characteristic phenomenon of this period was given such fact in the resolution that among participants of the second sports contest of the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan of 1945 there was no athlete from among the Kazakh youth [7]. Kazakh girls joined physical culture and sport [11].

In 1949 on the 4 All-Union sports contest of the people of the USSR the Kazakhstan athletes have brought to the country of 38 new records [12]. Traditional in the 1950 years are city sports contests of labor collectives. Meetings between sports collectives of Alma-Ata, Karaganda, Semipalatinsk, Kostanay, Petropavlovsk, Sarani, Temirtau enjoyed wide popularity. Specific place in the history of the Kazakhstan sport is held by 1951 when the country's first high-mountain skating rink Medeo near Alma-Ata has become operational [13]. The first official competitions which have begun with draw of prizes of Council of ministers of the Kazakh SSR were marked by establishment of two world and six all-Union records.

The sports organizations of the republic and in development of different types of sport have achieved great success. The VI All Kazakhstan sports contest which has taken place in Alma-Ata in August, 1952 has brought together the most large number of participants — 2000 athletes. In October, 1952 the best athletes of the Kazakh SSR participated in traditional sports contest of the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan where they have taken the second all-command place. Since 1953 participation of athletes of Kazakhstan in the international friendly matches and official competitions as a part of the USSR in boxing, heavy and track and field athletics, speed skating begins. Also in 1953 in the Kazakh SSR over 525000 organized athletes were registered — it is 3,5 times more, than in pre-war 1940. Among them there were more than 50000 qualified athletes. The sport became mass hobby, every fifth inhabitant of the republic has been acquainted with physical culture, but nevertheless the overwhelming number from them was citizens. The problem of familiarizing of villagers with sport is staticized in the 1950 years. In the summer of 1954 the III All Kazakhstan sports contest of athletes villagers was held, about 800 athletes have participated in it. The victory in these competitions was won by rural athletes of the North Kazakhstan area.

In 1953, the Central Children's Sports School of Higher Sports Skill was opened in Alma-Ata, over the following two years it trained 20 masters of sports, 33 candidates for masters, 130 athletes of the 1st category of adults, 230 athletes of the II category and 1,100 athletes of the youth category [14].

In February 1955 the Council of Ministers of Kazakhstan adopted a detailed resolution on the measures for the further development of physical culture and sports in the republic. At the first Games of the USSR, Kazakh athletes took the 13 place, the inadequacy of the development of sports, and its poor performance in the allied competitions gave rise to the creation of a new document. In 1956, the CPC Central Committee and the Council of Ministers of the CEB jointly adopted a resolution «On the state and measures for the further development of physical culture and sports in the republic», it spoke of the unsatisfactory performance of the teams of the Kazakh SSR at the Games of the Peoples of the USSR. Given the assessment of their activities, sports organizations began to pay special attention to the training of highly qualified athletes. Also, the tasks of preparation and participation at the XVI Olympic Games in Melbourne (Australia, 1956) were set. This was another upsurge, a new stage in the physical culture movement in Kazakhstan.

Also construction of sports constructions and complexes became more active: the second half of the 1950 years was characterized by commissioning of new city sports constructions. If in 1957 371 persons who are engaged in sections, then in 1958 — already 292,3 persons fell on one sports construction. In 1957 about 3 % which were engaged in sections have executed standard of 2 and 3 categories, and in 1958 4 % became rated sportsmen. During this time the number of masters of sports and in the village has increased in the citymore than twice. Also the number of znachkist on the I step of the TRP complex and on step of RTRP which are annually prepared by the sports organizations [15] has more than twice increased.

In January, 1959 the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR have adopted the resolution on expansion of the public beginnings in the Soviet sports movement. Again questions of mass involvement of the population to physical culture and sport were brought up. Practical implementation of plans of the resolution has begun with preparation and holding the Second sports contest of the people of the USSR on which athletes of Kazakhstan have risen by two lines up, they have taken the 11th allcommand place. Performances of Kazakhstan citizens in equestrian sport, weightlifting, basketball and rowing were the most successful [16].

The sports organizations of Kazakhstan increased the rates of preparation of sports and sports shots. In only one 1960 Kazakhstan has given to the country more than 250 thousand znachkist of TRP, 77598 qualified athletes, including 116 masters of sports and 1674 athletes of the I category. At that time in the republic there were 12 961 sports constructions. Shots of workers of physical culture totaled 5694 people, including 971 with the higher sports education [17].

In the ranks of athletes of Kazakhstan there were many athletes of the international class. Many leading athletes of Kazakhstan were part of national teams of the country on different types of sport and repeatedly protected sports honor of the Soviet Union at the international competitions in Italy, France, Australia, China, Poland, Romania, the USA, etc. foreign countries. During this time in Kazakhstan significant amount of talented athletes — masters of sports whose names became known far outside the republic and even the country has grown. Among them: world record-holders — the skater G. Romanova and the weightlifter S. Ulyanov; champions of the Soviet Union: on alpine skiing — A. Artemenko and Yu. Kabin, on acrobatics — V. Starodubov, on boxing — A. Kadetov, on fight — A. Kolesov; prize-winners of the II Spartakiad of the people of the USSR (1959) are boxers M. Omarov and A. Nurmakhanov, the athlete V. Savinkov and the oarsman K. Neulybin and other strongest athletes of the republic [18].

The results of the 9 All-Kazakhstan Games and the Second Spartakiad of the Peoples of the USSR served as an indicator of the achievements of Kazakhstan athletes. Only at these two major sporting events the athletes of Kazakhstan installed 57 new records and the highest achievements of the republic, most of which were the norm of the master of sports or the 1st category. In the hard struggle with the strongest athletes of the country, athletes of the republic at the II Spartakiad of the Peoples of the USSR won 14 prizes, including 2 first, 2 second and 3 third places.

Thus, in the considered years of the city of the republic become the centers of development of physical culture and sport: sports constructions are restored and under construction, various sporting events are held and the number of the Kazakhstan citizens playing physical culture and sport increases. Especially widely and everywhere sports activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan developed in the period of 1951-1958. These years functioning of the sphere of sport and physical culture and welfare infrastructure of the cities of Kazakhstan in general has considerably improved. In general during the post-war period the Soviet system of physical training, its ideological, organizational and administrative, scientific and methodical bases have been created. Formation of system of physical training took place in difficult conditions and was followed by great difficulties of social and economic character, aspiration of the leading numbers of the state to create «special physical culture of socialist character». Nevertheless, such positive moments as tendency to mass development of physical culture and sport, achievements of science about physical training, increase in skill level of athletes, creation of reserve of sport of adults in the person of children's sport, revival of national sports, familiarizing of indigenous and country people of the republic with participation in sports life of the country were found.

 

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Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: History