The article considers the key stages of urbanization processes in Kazakhstan in the XVШ-XIX centuries. The processes of city formation of fortresses in the territory of Kazakhstan are considered. The features of the construction of fortresses and military lines in general have been revealed and studied. Studying the history of Kazakhstan cities in the XVШ-XIX centuries allows us to imagine how the economic life of urban settlements was changing, under the influence of what factors these changes took place, what significance they had for the population of cities and districts. Also, the article highlights the role of Kazakh historical figures in the process of urbanization of Kazakhstan in the XVШ-XIX centuries. Considerable attention is paid to revealing, both in common features, and the specificity of the socio-economic and cultural development of the county towns of the region. The authors conclude that the colonial policy of the Russian Empire had a significant impact on the transformation of the social and economic life of the population of the cities of Kazakhstan, had an impact on the socio-cultural processes in the region, and changed the ethnic composition of the urban population.
History of urbanization of Kazakhstan in XVIII-XIX centuries are attracting attention of researchers of many scientific fields. Kazakhstan cities, being the centers of resettlement of people of different ethnicities, as well as being the centers of industry, trade, material production, political life and private enterprise in the preservation of socio-political norms, played a significant role in the complex process of interaction.
The cities of the Steppe Kray can be divided into three groups as they arise: formed in the XVIII century, in connection with the construction of fortified lines-Orenburg, Yaitsky, Gorky, Irtysh, and others; emerged in the first half of the XVIII century as a result of the adoption of the «Charter of the Siberian Kir- giz» and «The Charter of the Orenburg Kirgiz»; the cities that arose in the second half of the 18th century as a result of «Provisional Statue on governance in the steppe regions Orenburg and West-Siberian Governorate General» [1; 71, 72].
The process of city formation of fortresses in the territory of Kazakhstan begins in the XVIII – early. XIX centuries, when fortresses were erected on fortified lines, the royal administration used the so-called bastion system, improved by the French marshal S. Vauban. The construction of fortresses at the beginning of the XVIII century allowed to take into account the topography of the terrain, regular lay-out was well superimposed on the terrain conditions. However, it should be clarified that the expression «fortress» meant at that time just a settlement, enclosed by a log palisade and a moat. Such fortresses as Omsk, Semipalatinsk, Yamyshevskaya, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Petropavlovsk were built with an earthen rampart along the bastion system.
The frontier line of military fortresses consisted of several parts: Gorky line — from the south-western side to the Omsk fortress, which was established in the middle of the XVIII century and included 10 fortresses. The key fortification was the Peter and Paul Fortress [2; 408, 409]; the Uyiskaya line — from the Verkhneyaytskaya fortress to the Zverinogolovskaya fortress, the Yaitsky line — from Guryev to Western Siberia, the Irtysh line — from the fortress of Omsk on the right bank of the Irtysh; the Kolyvan line — from the fortress of Ust-Kamenogorsk in the direction of the fortress of Kuznetsk. In 1752, by the decision of the government, construction began on several fortifications from the tract of the Zveriniy on Tobol to the Omsk fortress. According to the plan of Knyazh M.P. Gagarin construction of Ishim fortification from Tobolsk to Yarkend began. The Novo-Ishim line connected the Uyiskaya line with the Irtysh river. In the West, the Uyiskaya line was divided into the Upper-Uyiskaya and Lower-Uyiskaya lines. Lower-Uyiskaya distance included Zverinogolovskaya fortress, which was previously part of the Novoishimskaya line and was part of the Orenburg region . Later Zverinogolovskaya fortress, according to the report of the chief of the General Staff, was annexed to the Siberian line and became part of the Omsk Region [4; 1а].
The number of erected fortresses on the Irtysh in the first half of the XVIII century allows us to judge the scale of military colonization of the region: in 1715 built the fortress of Yamyshevskaya by Expeditionunder the command of lieutenant-colonel I.D. Buchholz. In 1716 the Omsk fortress at the mouth of the Om River laid by I.D. Buchholz marked the beginning of the construction of the Irtysh border line; in 1717 the fortress of Zhelezinskaya was laid at the Temirkash tract by detachment of the Svierskiy; in 1717 Kolbasunskaya fortress was built in the vicinity of Yamyshevsky fortress by Tarski Cossack captain Vasily Cheredov; in 1718 the Semipalatinskaya fortress was built by expedition of Lieutenant Colonel P. Stupin; the fortress of Ust-Kamenogorsk was founded by Expedition of Major I.M. Likharev.
The newly built fortresses and fortifications provided an opportunity for further advancement into the Kazakh steppe. In addition, they were important for the constant intimidation of Kazakh nomadism. Also these fortified points were used as centers for military-administrative management of the steppe.
In 1735, the construction of the city of Orenburg began, which was built on the initiative of the Khan of the Younger Zhuz Abulkhair, as evidenced by the following fact: «In return for such a splendid promises Abulhair through his son asked for two things; the assertion of the khan's dignity in its kind for the eternal times and the construction, at the confluence of the Ori River in the Urals of the city with a fortress, in which he could find refuge in case of danger» [5; 186]. Abulkhair Khan repeatedly appealed to the royal administration to build a city in the steppe. However, the decision to build the city was made on July 7, 1734. Under the signature of Empress Anna, the future city was given an extensive charter «Privilege», it listed benefits to the future population of the city. Also in this document the city was called Orenburg. In the beginning it was planned that the city would be inhabited by merchants and «craftsmen» and was viewed as a trade gate of Russia to Central Asia. Since 1744 the city became the center of the Orenburg province, and since 1748 — the Orenburg Cossack army.
By the middle of the 18th century, the Ishim line represented a weak defense. Local military commanders considered it necessary to strengthen the line with new fortifications. The old line fell into decay even a few years before the construction of Novaya. In 1740, the royal government approved a project to create a new chain of military fortifications, south of the Ishim line, a length of 558 km. — from the natural boundary of the Zveriniy Head to the Tobol River to the Omsk fortress to the Irtysh River. In 1755, after the rebuilding of the new Ishim line, the old line was destroyed. In 1752, the Senate approved the project of the correction of the Ishim line. The foundation of the Novaya line was the reason for joining the borders of the Orenburg province, which belonged to the Kazakhs. Under the erection of fortresses, the most favorable and convenient places were chosen. The seizure of the most significant pasture areas in the area has led to an exacerbation of relations of Kazakhs with prilinear inhabitants. A feature of the Novaya line is that the construction of the planned fortresses and redoubts was started at the same time in all places in the summer of 1752, by the soldiers of the Vologda regiment and the Cossacks of the Ishim irregular regiment and was accelerated. The construction of all fortresses and redoubts was completed in August 1752.
Thus, in the early fifties of the XVIII century a continuous line of fortresses and outposts was formed from the mouth of Yaik to the Ust-Kamenogorsk fortress. Initially, the main population of the fortresses consisted of soldiers and officers of the regular army, later replenished with Cossacks from Siberian cities, as well as Cossacks from the Don, Volga and the Urals, which led to the emergence within the fortresses of Cossack villages.
By the middle of the XVIII century Kazakhstan was surrounded on three sides by Russian fortified lines, which limited the territory of the settlement of Kazakh tribes and races, destroying the traditional routes of nomadism.
In 1752, in the very center of the Ishim steppe, the main fortress of Russian fortifications was erected in the Kyzyl-Zhar tract. The reason for the construction of the fortress was the establishment of political and trade and economic relations between the tsarist administration and the khan's authorities. Abylai Khan did not object to the construction of the Novo-Ishim fortress line on his land, as he was interested in the security functions of the Russian troops against the Dzungarian aggression. When erecting the fortress of St. Peter put forward certain conditions — to open a bargain here for the Kazakhs with Russia, geographically more profitable for the northern nomads, rather than Orenburg or Orsk. Thanks to this trade laid down as a military fortress, the city of Petropavlovsk (Kyzylzhar) in the XVIII century became a city of trade with Russia and Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Twice a year there were fairs where livestock and livestock products were traded. The fair was attended by merchants and local nobility, also, the exchange yard was in the city. Thus, Petropavlovsk owes its development to the insistence of Abylai Khan. He actively participated in fairs, here he sent his livestock for sale, he even had a personal cattle-driving track «Abylai Zhol» .
In connection with the frequent Cossack raids in the steppe, the culling of the cattle in the indigenous population and the seizure of land, there was a need for the construction of a special house, the residence ofthe khan to resolve the issues that arose. Archival materials show that «at his request, Abylai, for his stay was built right at the fortress of St. Peter, up the river Ishim in the mountains of Engistau, in 1765 a wooden house». Thus, Abylai's house was intended not only for staying, but also for resolving conflict issues in the steppe [7; 119, 120].
The erection of fortified military lines in the 50's of the XVIII century gave the tsarist government the opportunity to adopt the first legal acts that legitimized land restrictions for Kazakhs, which led to the Kazakhs losing the best pastures. The creation of fortifications limited the traditional wandering of the Kazakhs, violated the way of life, created tension between the tsarist administration and the Kazakh sultans. Thus, in the period from 1740 to 1760, 114 fortifications and fortresses were established on the border area with the northern region of Kazakhstan.
Thus, it should be asserted that the tsarist colonial administration began intensive penetration into the Kazakh steppes in the XVIII century, introducing at the same time a number of restrictions that undermined the foundations of the traditional Kazakh society.
In the first half of the XIX century, as the inclusion of the Kazakh steppe into the Russian Empire, on the territory of Kazakhstan, district towns were developed. The development of the district towns of the Steppe Krai had a special specificity in comparison with the cities of the European part of the Russian Empire. In the late 60s of the XIX century, due to the colonial reforms carried out by the tsarist government, urban settlements that emerged in the first half of the XIX century, such as Akmolinsk, Atbasar, Kokchetav and Karkaralinsk, became district centers. At the same time, new cities appeared on the territory of Kazakhstan, for example, Orenburg on the Turgai River and the Urals on the Irgiz River [8; 1, 2]. On the Tobol River in the Urdabai district, the city of Novo-Tobolsk was erected, where the administration of the Nikolaevsky district was located [9; 52, 53]. In 1870, the steppe fortifications of Irgiz and Turgai, later Aktobe, were transformed into district towns [9; 11, 12]. During the construction of district cities, terrain was chosen that were comfortable according to soil conditions, climate and abundance of water for the development of urban life. The district cities for a considerable time performed mostly administrative functions (military and civilian) and only after the Trans-Siberian railway in the mid-90s of the XIX century they began to significantly develop trade and industry and the population is growing.
In the first half of the XIX century, among the nomadic tribes of the Kazakh clans, populated areas arose, which later became administrative, commercial and cultural centers. For example, the village of KhanKala (Zhangir-kala) (now — the village of Urda), or, as in Russian sources Khan's rate. Its foundation began in 1826 [10; 45]. Zhangir Khan was one of the first who realized the consequences of the crisis of nomadic culture and the development trend of world civilizations. He is taking decisive measures and radical reforms in the internal policy of the Bukey Khanate. In 1827, he completed the construction of the Khan's Rate and set an example for a house-building. In Khan's Rate, besides the khan's house, houses for servants were built. By the summer of 1846, there were already 89 houses in the rate [11; 5].
In 1835, at the direction of Zhangir, the first Moslem mosque was built, the number of mullahs in the villages increased, and they functioned as clerks and spiritual guides. In 1841, at the initiative of Zhangir, the first Russian-Kazakh school appeared in Khan's Rate. This educational institution was kept at the expense of Khan's financial resources. Zhangir Khan widely implemented office work and even created his own archival service. In the field of healthcare, the khan introduced into practice vaccinations against infectious diseases.
According to the results of the first all-Russian census of 1897, there were 111 thousand inhabitants in the Bukeyevsky horde, of which 107 thousand were Kazakhs, 3 thousand Tatars and 1 thousand Russians. There were 1366 inhabitants in the Khan Rate in the capital of the Horde, including 742 Kazakhs, 341 Tatars, 231 Russian, 37 Ukrainians .
In the 20-ies of the XIX century, a new stage begins the erection of military lines and fortifications in the Steppe. So, in July 1822, the fortifications — Aktau on the Sary-Su River and Zharkaiskoye on Ishim — are based.
In the second quarter of the 19th century, the territory of Kazakhstan was surrounded by a chain of military lines surrounded by fortresses and outposts. Thus, the Urals line stretched from Guryev to the Iletskaya Defense and was at the beginning of the 19th century from 5 fortresses [13; 6, 7]. The upper line stretched from Orenburg to the east, including 9 fortresses, Orskaya — from 5 fortresses and Uyiskaya line — from 9 fortresses [14; 277].
In 1822, the Russian Empire, violating the conditions of the protectorate over the Kazakhs of the Middle Zhuz, abolished the khanate power. They began building military fortresses on the territory of the Middle Zhuz. Fortresses had to cover the newly created external districts. In 1824 in the territory of the Middle Zhuzwere opened the first two district orders — Kokchetavsky and Karkaraly. In 1829 the sultan of Konurkulja Kudaymendyuly appealed to the Russian government with a request to form an outer district in the volosts administered by him at the Akmola district. Governor-General of Western Siberia Veliyaminov I.A. ordered to send a lieutenant-colonel F. Shubin, commandant of the Peter and Paul Fortress, to lay the fortress and the base of the Akmola district. The fortress was laid on the right bank of the Ishim River, in the center of the steppe. The official opening of the Akmola district order took place on August 22, 1832. The chief sultan of the Akmola external district was Konurkulja Tore Kudaymendyuly [15; 553]. One of the positive steps of Konurkulja Tora Kudaymendyuly, as the senior sultan of the Akmola external district, was that he tried to protect the interests of his population. So, in 1837 he asked for a postponement of payments to the yasak because of the attack of the Tashkent people and the approaching dzhute. His request was granted, and the servants were given the right to pay it only since 1840 [16; 40]. By the beginning of the second half of the XIX century the city became one of the important and large shopping centers of Central and Northern Kazakhstan. This is connected with giving city status to Akmola.
Thus, in the first half of the XIX century, new fortifications were erected, such as the Bayan-Aul (1826), Ayaguz (1831), Kokpektinskaya, (1844) and Urdzharskaya (1855).
In the second half of the 19th century, the presence of educational institutions, schools and madrassas under mosques becomes an important factor in the formation of the city. For example, Kunanbay, the father of the great Abai, being a sultan of the Karkaraly external district paid much attention to education and enlightenment. As a religious person, he was inclined to the traditions of the old education, but he also accepted the new, connected with Russian culture, as a social necessity. In 1845, he sent a letter to the border administration asking him to send a Russian teacher who can speak Kazakh in order to open a school for Kazakh children. The head of the frontier post approved the decision of Kunanbay to open the school. Kunanbai opened a school in the area «Eski tam». He took part in the creation of the first mosque in Karkaralinsk. In 1850, Kunanbay told the head of the Siberian Kazakhs that «the Moslem mosque in the village of Karkaraly has been completed by construction». In 1851, the chief of the region of the Siberian Kazakhs with a special instruction allowed Kunanbay Uskenbaev «to have premises for mullahs and an educational institution».
The years spent by Musa Shormanov in the post of agay sultan of Bayanaul external district allowed him to create favorable conditions for improving the social status of the external district. Being a dedicated adherent of education, M. Shormanov realized the importance of education, approved the opening of schools for Kazakh children in Omsk and Pavlodar, provided financial assistance to schools. So, for example, with his participation were opened in Omsk: in 1857, the Kazakh school for the preparation of writers of the parish chancery; in 1878, a boarding school for Kazakh girls. He was one of the first to voice the issue of creating mobile gymnasiums adapted to the conditions of nomadic life before the regional administration of Siberian Kazakhs. In Bayanaul Musa Sharmanov built a madrasah and a mosque at his own expense.
In 1868, the «Provisional Regulations on Governance in the Steppe Regions of the Orenburg and West Siberian Governor-General» was adopted, after which the process of urbanization in the region began to occur more intensively. So, back in 1873 the Orenburg governor-general was presented with the draft of the Provisions on benefits for the cities of the Turgai region and the steppe settlements of the Ural region. The purpose of this project was to «provide benefits to people who settle in the steppes of the Orenburg department, to attract the Russian population in them and form industrial and trade centers in them» [9; 125]. Earlier, in 1858 a similar provision on benefits was adopted for the cities of Ayaguz, Kokpekty and Kopal of the Semipalatinsk region . On the reform of 1867-1868, five urban settlements, while entering Kazakhstan — Orenburg, Omsk, Semipalatinsk, Vernyi and Uralsk, became regional centers, while Tashkent was the center of the Turkestan governor-general with the Syrdarya region, Omsk had a control center for the steppe governor-general.
Since the middle of the 19th century, certain changes have taken place in the socioeconomic development and population of the cities of Kazakhstan. The population of cities was formed in different ways: at the expense of the settlers assigned to the urban estate, due to internal demographic growth, etc. Gradual erection of industrial objects in cities led to an increase in the number of workers and a change in the national composition. According to the First General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897 there were slightly more than 6 % of Kazakhstan residents living in cities, and there were 20 cities in total .
As a result of the resettlement policy in Kazakhstan, the multi-ethnic structure of the population has gradually evolved. According to the general census of the population of 1897, Kazakhs constituted the majority — 3,392.7 thousand people. The highest proportion of Kazakhs in 1897 was recorded in Semipalatinsk(90.6 %) and Turgai (88.3 %) regions; in the Urals — 71.3 % in the share of Kazakhs, 62.6 % in Akmola, 60.4 % in the Syrdarya, 52.1 % in the Semirechye regions .
Thus, the new Russian city-fortresses on the territory of modern Kazakhstan were formed in the traditions of Russian town-planning art of the late XVII – early XVIII centuries. Some cities-fortresses, by virtue of their successful location, gradually began to transform into trade-craft and agricultural centers, growing into county cities, others remained at the level of a small settlement or ceased to exist. Constructed fortresses and county towns in the XVIII-XIX century were not only military in nature, but also had a significant impact on the socio-economic and cultural development of the region, led to a change in the traditional way of life of the Kazakh population and society as a whole.
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