History of colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the 19th century: electronic collection

Questions of creation of an electronic collection of information resources on history of colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the 19th century for formation of electronic catalogs and full text databases are considered in this article. During the creation of an electronic collection of information resources on history of colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the 19th century there were used more than 100 sources of information materials – original historical documents and photos of the Turkestan collection. The created electronic collection of information resources on history of colonization of the Kazakh steppe contains information materials from the Turkestan collection which were carefully analysed and systematized on subject in written sources of the 19th century and are presented as the separate PDF files. The electronic collection is formed on the basis of modern information technologies that will allow to increase the level of scientific and educational researches and to organize effective work of quick search, the analysis, systematization and storage of information resources.

Informatization process also deeply affected modern historical science, led to basic changes of its information environment and structure. An expression of these changes was the emergence and accumulation of new types of resources created on the basis of information technology. Historical information resources are various on a perspective and represent both products for scientific studying, and the products intended for historical education.

Rapid growth of information resources on history as bases of the modern information environment of historical science and education puts a number of problems. Among them there are problems of quality of resources, expediency and opportunities of their use in scientific research and education on history, ways of further development of technologies and techniques of their creation and application.

The certain experience of the solution of questions of classification and the description of information resources on history at the theoretical and applied level connected with discussion of problems of their creation, preservation, the description, documenting, cataloguing, the analysis, use, etc. is so far already accumulated. However the complete complex systems of classification and standards of the description of information resources on history do not exist. The problem of their creation is caused by a number of factors among which: considerable functional and substantial variety of resources; a considerable difference in the description of traditional and electronic resources, emergence of new types and types of resources; difficulty or impossibility of adaptation traditional (for example, bibliographic) attributes of the description to new types of resources; need of creation of the systems of the description suitable for various purpose (scientific research, education, storages, cataloguing documenting and others).

Current trends of informatization of public life of Kazakhstan, integrative processes in scientific and educational spheres, more and more broad access for humanists to computers and new modern information technologies. The increasing development is gained by use of multimedia technologies, technologies of optical identification of texts in researches on history of cultural heritage: to archeology, archive science, museology, in creation of electronic educational editions on national history. The Public Records Offices and libraries which work generally with financial support of the state and in line with state programs of informatization of the country's cultural sphere are systematically engaged in system work on preservation of cultural heritage.

Informatization of historical science and education in Kazakhstan has a positive tendency, however they pass extremely slowly. In our opinion, the main reasons for it are lack of coordination of scientific activities for use of new information technologies in historical researches and education; insufficiently developed system of training of future experts in the sphere of historical informatics and a certain inertness of the research associates preferring to research at the traditional level; the insufficient information culture of historical scientific community and weak promotion of opportunities of obtaining essentially new results at application ofmethods, means, techniques and technologies of historical informatics; the undeveloped user environment and use of the computer for printing of scientific works and search of a reference information in local networks, libraries, archives and the Internet.

Today, one of the most relevant problems of historical informatics are development of theoretical- methodological aspects and technologies of the source study semantic analysis of the electronic sources which are posted online by Internet. The unresolved nature of these sources of research leads to the exclusion of source material from the research space. Demand for historians of this case of sources and their judgment are a strategic problem of scientific and analytical ensuring processes of the state construction, formation of historical consciousness in the conditions of a new information and innovation paradigm.

Source study of electronic written sources on the basis of a vast source base of Kazakhstan's cultural heritage of past years on the history and formation of scientific and educational historical and cultural resources for research on the basis of interdisciplinary interaction of historical and natural sciences in domestic historiography is one of the topical issues.

The source base of the research should serve to identify the characteristic features of the information capability of written sources when they receive in full the factual information about the process of genesis of the Kazakhstani historiography of the colonial problems. Sources should be analyzed against the backdrop of the socio-political situation in which the sources studied arose. Each group of sources used should complement each other and, in the aggregate, enable the most complete disclosure of the development of the historiography of Russian-Kazakh relations in the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the process of accumulating knowledge on the research topic. To date, the scientific knowledge of the history of the colonization of the Kazakh steppe by the Russian empire and the national liberation movement of the Kazakh people directed against it in the second half of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries has become one of the main directions of scientific research in modern Kazakhstan. The colonization of the Kazakh territory by the Russian Empire is the most difficult and contradictory period in the history of the Kazakh people, the significance of which lies in the transformation of the province into a province of neighboring state education. The second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was marked by the rise of the national liberation movement, which entered a qualitatively new stage. The national intellectuals begin to play a defining role in the liberating fight. In this regard, it is natural that the development of various aspects of these problems during the period under review makes it possible to trace the development of modern Kazakhstani historiography.

Therefore, the creation of modern technological conditions for wide access to the rich information materials for scholars, teachers and students of the republic concerning the history of the colonization of the Kazakh steppe in the 19th century written sources inhabiting the Turkestan region in past centuries are the main ideas of the study.

The aim of the research is to collect, digitize and store rare books and manuscripts for creating electronic collections in libraries, and to provide users with wide access to historical documents on the history of the colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the XIX century.

The work is aimed at replenishing the resources of specialized databases of the electronic library with unique full-text scientific and educational information concerning the history of the colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the XIX century, which are reflected in written sources and the development of a virtual environment, by organizing effective operational search and remote access to necessary sources.

The significance of the problem lies in the creation of technological conditions for access to rare funds for a wide range of consumers relating to historical and cultural heritage of Kazakhstan in history, by digitizing documents and storing them in electronic format; in the application of modern information technologies in the creation of specialized databases of valuable materials from the past of our region, which would not only help to raise the level of scientific research and education, but also organize effective work to systematize the rich cultural heritage in history and provide consumers with relevant information.

Many materials of the past centuries are damaged by deformation and other damages over time, and as a result they become unusable. Therefore, the digitization of rare historical documents and manuscripts on history in electronic versions is topical as well as the creation of technological conditions for researching historical and cultural heritage of Kazakhstan in history through modern information technologies in virtual information environments.

A preliminary review of our previous scientific research shows that the main written sources of the XIX century, which are the cultural heritage of Kazakhstan in history, which contain unique full-text materials arestored in libraries and archives of the countries of the former Soviet Union, near and far abroad [1]. These collections which are separated from each other in time and different in purpose, provide an opportunity to analyze different aspects of cultural heritage in the written sources of Central Asia on history. Comparison of these ensembles makes it possible to reconstruct the peculiarities of the situation in the Turkestan region more reliably and to trace through the history of their creation individual elements of the cultural heritage in written sources of that period of Kazakhstan.

A preliminary review of previous scientific research conducted in the world practice relating to the topic under study and their relationship to the present study is in the features that is expressed by the generality of the archival sources studied.

The research and study of materials relating to the history of the colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the XIX century and stored in libraries and archives of the post-Soviet space are based on published materials, original documents and photographs - «The Turkistan collection» of V.I. Mezhov and the collection «Turkestan Territory» A.G. Serebrennikov.

Collection of Serebrennikov. The collection was created by the military and the classic sample of military history, combining retrospective reconstruction and reflexion, and its compiler was known as the author of military historical and military topographical works on Central Asia [2]. Serebrennikov Adrian Georgievich - military engineer, major general, outstanding Russian military orientalist, researcher of the Pamir and the Pripamir khanates, «whose name will forever remain memorable in the history of the Pamir annexation» (B.L. Tageev). Member of the «Pamirian campaigns» (1892–1895), three reconnaissance of Alai and Pamir. He directed the construction of the «Pamir tract» in Pamir, the erection of posts and fortifications. Famous Swedish traveler in Central Asia Sven Hedin called the Pamir fortification, built by Serebrennikov, a «true miracle.» The author of several military-geographical works on the Pamir - «Pamir and Pamir Khanates (Military-geographical and topographical sketch)» (1894), «Essay of the Pamirs» (1899), etc. For the work «Pamir and Pamir Khanates».

He worked on drawing up the set of documents – «The Turkestan region: The collection of materials for history of its gain of 1839–1876» on the instructions of the War Ministry and the Turkestan GeneralGovernor. In four years (1902–1905) he did great job on identification and collecting historical materials in archives of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Tiflis, Orenburg, Omsk and True. He carefully studied funds of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, military and sea, headquarters of the Caucasian, Turkestan and Omsk military districts, headquarters of Separate Orenburg and Siberian cases, offices of the Deputy in the Caucasus and the Turkestan -general-governor, regional management and the headquarters of troops of the Smerechinsky region whose materials were a part of the collection.

Military operations on gaining the Turkestan region, being a brilliant example of how with insignificant means it is possible to achieve enormous results, these military operations quite deserve that on their studying more attention and that, thanks to it, did not go to waste past lessons was devoted perhaps, relying on strong knowledge of which, it would be possible and to make in the future in each separate case the corresponding decision.

From this point of view studying of military operations on gaining the Turkestan region has special value, and drawing up history of gaining edge is, without disputable, an extremely necessary matter, having not only the theoretical interest, but also purely practical value of paramount importance.

But since each story should be written mainly on the basis of primary sources, that is, archival documents scattered across different archives, the use of which is accessible, for material and other reasons, to very few people, it was considered necessary first of all to collect these documents and by printing in a more or less significant number of copies make them available for use by all persons involved in historical research.

Another goal was to exclude the possibility of the disappearance of archival documents, due to fires in the archives, negligent storage, embezzlement, etc. The idea of collecting and publishing materials for the history of the conquest of the Turkestan Territory belongs to the former Military Minister Adjutant General A.N. Kuropatkin, who during the visit to Tashkent in 1901 instructed the commanding troops of the Turkestan district, Lieutenant-General N.A. Ivanov, to take care of bringing this to execution and to get out the leave required for this funds.

The direct execution of the work on the collection of materials was entrusted to the writer of these lines, to which General Ivanov was given proper instructions.

In a type of the fact that gaining the Turkestan region was conducted with three parties — from Orenburg, from Siberia and from the Caucasus, when collecting materials for history of this gain, it was solved touse not only the archives which are in Tashkent and in other cities of the Turkestan region. And also military and scientific and the general archives of General staff where the main mass of materials, but, besides, and the archives which are in Orenburg, Omsk and Tiflis is stored; subsequently it was necessary to extract materials for history of gaining the Turkestan region as well from archives of the Ministry of Defence's office, the Head engineering department, the Naval Ministry, the St. Petersburg Main Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Moscow branch of the General Archive of the General Staff.

Being guided by instructions of the general N.A. Ivanov, the author of the present collection of materials started to collect since 1839, i.e. from a winter campaign to Khiva of the Adjutant-General Perovsky; ended the collection 1876, year of final conquest of the Kokand khanate and accession it to the Russian Empire, under a name of the Fergana region.

At the same time it was decided to publish materials in crude, absolutely raw look, in the form of exact copies not only documents, but also resolutions on them, the inscriptions and marks which are often of very high importance.

When compiling this collection and determining the historical value of the documents placed in it, there was primarily a possible fuller and more comprehensive coverage of events, and in this respect the compiler encountered difficulties of two kinds: first, materials relating to various events of the period from 1839 to 1875 year, in different archives there was not the same number, far in disproportionate interest and importance of events, thanks to which it turned out that sometimes events of lesser importance are covered more fully than events of more importance ; and secondly, it was necessary to take into account the fact that too much material would require enormous amounts of money for their publication. The third volume of the collection of materials for the history of the conquest of the Turkestan Krai (1841) contains mainly interesting documents concerning the mission of Captain Nikiforov to Khiva, as well as the actions of the troops sent to the Kirghiz steppe from the Siberian and Orenburg lines to suppress the rebels the inscription «not subject to disclosure», made on the cover of the book, shows that the book was not intended for use by the general public at the time.

It is difficult to say how the author of the collection managed to get out of this difficulty, especially since the assessment of this depends on the subjective views of those persons who will use the collected materials and those special requirements with which these persons will approach them. The work differs from previous collections, as it was not a fixation of universal knowledge in general, it did not create a propaganda glossy image of Russian Turkestan and did not evolve the military-popular control system. It was, first of all, historical publication that reconstructed the events of the half-century prescription and 74 volumes, contained information not only about Turkestan, but also about Afghanistan, Iran, China, Kashgar, Pamir and Tibet.

It was not possible to publish the Collection in full, although it was completed and it stretched from 1908 to 1915. 74 collected books with handwritten and typewritten documentation were to be published in 30 volumes, in each volume — from two to three books. However, only 12 volumes were written, and in 1915 the publication was stopped due to lack of funds. The remaining 52 books — from 14 to 27 and from 34 to 67 (some volumes were sometimes composed of three books) — were not issued. At present, the collection of Serebrennikov is kept in the Central State Archive of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Unpublished volumes are stored under the title «Preparatory materials for the history of the conquest of the Turkestan Territory, collected in various archives by Serebrennikov» [3].

Turkestan collection. This work was conceived as a monumental-original «encyclopedia» on Central Asian issues. All publications concerning Central Asia and its adjacent East were purchased and collected. Newspaper articles were cut out, pasted onto white sheets of paper, articles from magazines and books hadn't brochure and pasted into paper frames. All the pasted material was collected and intertwined in the same volumes, which were in the same bindings, and also were supplied with the title page printed from the printing house. All publications were selected as they were published, thus observing the chronological order. In 1868, four volumes of the collection were published, covering the material for 1867. Then until 1877 in St. Petersburg, published volumes of the collection, which were sent to the Library. By 1888 there were 416 volumes, including 4713 titles.

It is some kind of huge encyclopedia. Everything that left in Russia and abroad about Central Asia in 20 years, was included in the collection The compilation and publication of the Turkestan collection continued regularly up to 1887. On average in a year there were about 20 volumes. Megeve was engaged in drawing up the collection within 25 years. But according to the decision of the Turkestan administration (governor general I.O. Rozenbakh) in a type of high cost the edition of the collection was stopped. Within the next 20 years the Collection was not published. And only in 1907 work on its drawing up was resumed.

In 1907, 34 volumes were published in Tashkent, for 1908 – 45 volumes, for 1909 – 44 volumes, etc. Also, whenever possible, all the most important materials were collected during the time since 1888. Drawing up the Collection was stopped on 591 volumes, in 1917. Later the erudite orientalist, the bibliographer E.K. Betger added 3 more volumes. Thus, the Collection includes 10710 names of publications in the form of books, journal and newspaper cuttings, cards, illustrations, charts, plans and drawings [4].

More than 100 sources of information materials – original documents and photos of the Turkestan collection were used for creation of an electronic collection of information resources on history of colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the 19th century. The extracted information materials from the Turkestan collection were carefully analysed and systematized on subject and formatted as the separate PDF files.

The created electronic collection of information resources on history of colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the 19th century, is temporarily available at (https://yadi.sk/d/6svDDFOpoRNCC).

Thus, summarizing the above, we can say that the use of modern information technologies in creation of databases of rare and valuable written sources would allow not only to increase the level of scientific research and education on history but also to organize effective work of collecting, the analysis and systematization of historical and cultural heritage of Kazakhstan on history of colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the 19th century and to provide to consumers relevant, reliable and relevant information according to requirements.

Potential consumers of research results are scientists, teachers, students and other categories of users who can have broad access to information materials on the history of colonization of the Kazakh steppe in written sources of the XIX century past centuries.



  1. Касымбеков А.С., Альжанова Э.Е. Виртуальная библиотека культурного наследия среднеазиатских тюрков в письменных источниках XIX века // Общество, интеграция, образование: материалы междунар. конф. (22-23 мая 2015 года). — Латвия: Резекненская Высшая Школа, 2015. — С. 426–435.
  2. Серебренников А.Г. Туркестанский край: сб. материалов для истории его завоевания 1844-1866 гг. / собрал полковник А.Г. Серебренников. — Ташкент, 1908-1915.
  3. ЦГА РУз. Ф. И-1. On. 15. Д. 73. Л. 24.
  4. Межов В. И. Туркестанский сборник сочинений и статей, относящихся до Средней Азии вообще и Туркестанскому краю в особенности: систематический и азбучный указатель сочинений и статей на русском и иностранных языках / В.И. Межов. — СПб., 1878. — 150 с.
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: History