The first information about the archeological monuments of Kazakhstan belongs to the medieval European, Chinese, Arabic, Persian historians, geographers and travelers. From the middle of the XVI century Russian servicemen began the active development of Siberia and neighboring territories. This led to the emergence of a new block of sources about archaeological antiquities. Peter I decrees played an important role. They were pointed at the search of rarities and respect for them, and were instrumental in organizing the first scientific expeditions (G.F. Miller, P.S. Pallas, I.P. Falk, P.I. Rychkov, I.P. Shangin and others). The routes of the expeditions ran through the territory of Kazakhstan. A significant contribution to the study of the region was made by G.I. Spassky, A.I. Shrenk, S.B. Broniewski and others. Thus, by the middle of the XIX century the first notes on archaeological monuments of Central, Northern and Eastern Kazakhstan were collected. They were rather fragmentary and were not obtained as a result of purposeful research, but in large part in passing. The first excavations carried out were intended to the search for valuable objects. In general, in this era the focus of archaeological study was on things and objects found without serious analytical research. There was no method of excavation, and the level of documentation was quite low.
The first information about the archaeological monuments of Kazakhstan belongs to medieval European, Chinese, Arabian, Persian historians, geographers, travelers. In their works, they mentioned the things that they saw personally or became known to them through the stories, namely ancient buildings, unusual objects and images. The information presented in the works of Al-Idrisi, M. Kashgarsky, D. Pizigani, as well as in the Catalan map of the world of 1375 and the map of Fra Mauro of 1459, is in many ways fragmentary and reflects the information of that time about the antiquities of Kazakhstan [1-5].
In the middle of the XVI century the active development of Russian servicemen of Siberia and adjacent territories began. New sources of information are the Siberian chronicles, traveler's notes and bureaucratic correspondence. Indirect material on the antiquities of Kazakhstan can be found in the Novgorod legend of the early 16th century. «About the people unknown in the eastern country and different languages», the chronicle of S. Yesipov (1636) .
The accumulation of knowledge about the region is inextricably linked with the excavation of ancient burials for the purpose of profit. In 1669, Moscow received one of the first reports on «digging gold and silver items out of Tatar graves or cemeteries» .
Some information about the archaeological monuments of Kazakhstan can be found in the work of the Russian envoy to China N.G. Spafary (1675) , who traveled from Tobolsk to Yamishev and further, through Siberia, to China. Upon his return to Moscow he presented a vast geographical work, in which there was a description of the banks of the river Irtysh, the peoples who lived on it, as well as «mosques», where «silver, copper and wooden idols stand» [9, 10]. The historical and geographical essay «Descriptions of the New Lands of the Siberian State» by N.Venyukov , who visited China as part of the embassy of N.G. Spafary, is noteworthy.
The travel notes of some European travelers (I. Mass, Yu. Krizhanich, I. Ides, N. Witsen) across Siberia in the XVII century, which mention ancient monuments of Northeast Kazakhstan should also be noted [12; 13].
Yu. Krizhanich on the return from the exile to Tobolsk (1661-1676) composed the work «Historia de Sibiria» (1680–1681). In 1822 it was published by G.I. Spassky, and in 1890 by A.A. Titov. Yu. Krizhanich wrote that «... in Siberia there are unknown tombs of ancient peoples everywhere. Treasure hunters, engaged in robbery, found such tombs, sometimes dig up a few silver. I myself saw the silver vessels thus dug out».
Large material on archeology is available in the books of the Dutch geographer and lawyer N. Witsen. In the early 90-ies of the XVII century, living in Moscow, he collected a rich archaeological material and in 1692 published his work «North-Eastern Tatariya». N. Witsen wrote: «Not far from the Tobol river, a veryspecial kind of very ancient grave is found under the mountains, in which metal utensils of silver, copper and iron were found ... In some localities one can see the old walls and ruins of apparently existed there cities, and there we find different monuments» .
An important role in the study of archaeological monuments of Kazakhstan was played by the decrees of Peter I, prescribing a careful attitude to the ancient rarities, their description and collection, as well as the measures taken at his initiative to study Siberia and the territories adjacent to Russia . As a result of these decrees, in 1701 the «Draft Book of Siberia» prepared by S. Remezov was published, which contained «a drawing of the land of the whole waterless and low-flowing stone steppe» , compiled on the basis of interrogation materials received from F. Skibin and M. Troshin, who visited Taukehan's inset in Turkestan in 1698. This atlas shows many ancient inscriptions and structures in the valley of the Ishim river, where along with geographic data, there is information about archaeological sites .
According to the orders of Peter the Great, several expeditions were organized under the leadership of A. Bekovich-Cherkassky to Khiva (1714–1717), F. Beneveni to Bukhara (1719–1725), I.D. Buchholz (1715–1716) and I.M. Likharev (1720) to the upper Irtysh, I.S. Unkovsky to the Dzungarian Alatau (1723) and others.In addition to searching for gold deposits and acquaintance with the economy of the region, great importance was attached to the study and collection of antiquities. After Peter 1 was informed (1714) of sandy gold and treasures in the steppe, he ordered the collection of ancient treasures on the ground, acquire archaeological artifacts and send them to the Berg College or to the Moscow and St. Petersburg pharmacies .
In January 1716 the first collection of gold objects was received from M.P. Gagarin: two plaques with images of lions, four small plates with the image of wild animals, etc. In December of the same year, the second batch of the Siberian collection was sent from Tobolsk. 19 Many things made of precious metals came from A.N. Demidov, director of the Ural and Siberian plants, and his successor, V.I. Gennin. By decree of 1727, V.I. Gennin was told «to have diligence in search of all sorts of underground things ... in search and purchase of Ostyak, Tungus and Tatar idols and other Chud' old and all sorts of underground things: gold, silver, copper, stone and bone ... as well as stones: carnelian, crystal and other colours ... and buy them on the local factory money» .
In 1719, in order to find all sorts of rarities, Dr. D.G. Messerschmidt, who traveled across Western and Eastern Siberia and sailed the Irtysh to Zhelezinsk, visited the headwaters of Tobol and the South Urals. He conducted a series of archaeological excavations and sent the material to the Kunstkamera. During these works, the scientist conducted field diaries and compiled a memo on archaeological monuments of Siberia with maps, drawings, an index of drawings, assisted in the compilation of which was provided by an employee of the expedition F.I. Stralenberg.
During his stay in Tobolsk in 1711–1721 F.I. Stratenberg collected materials on the history, geography, historical topography and archeology of Northern and Central Kazakhstan. In 1723, returning to his homeland, to Sweden, he published them in his monograph «Historical and geographical description of the northern and eastern parts of Europe and Asia» (1730).In this work there is information about the location of archaeological complexes and pisanitsy (ancient images on the walls and ceilings of caves, on rocks and stones) in the mountains of Ityk (Ulutau), rock carvings in Central Kazakhstan, Altai, and Siberia. The book by F.I. Stratenberg, despite its shortcomings and inaccuracies, is of interest to scientists involved in the study of historical topography and the ancient culture of the population of Siberia and Kazakhstan .
Of particular value are references of F.I. Stratenberg about stone sculptures and settlements in Northeastern Kazakhstan, discovered by the expedition of general Likharov. The researcher writes: «They found on the Irtysh not only many antiquities and old pagan temples, but further from this river, to the west, south and southwest from Tobolsk, between the headwaters of the rivers Tobol and Ishim (where few people walk) met , as the Tobolsk Tatars and Russians told me, a lot of images of people and animals carved of the stone. In the same steppes there are the ruins of various cities» .
In 1733 the First academic expedition under the direction of G.F. Miller was sent to Siberia. It included outstanding scientists of the time: professors I. Gmelin, L. Delacroer, geodesists A. Krasilnikov, A. Ivanov, N. Chekin, M. Ushakov. Later, I. Fisher, a well-known historian of Siberia, joined them. The expedition route ran through Tver, Kazan, Yekaterinburg. The researchers left Tobolsk and went through Tara, Zhelezinskaya, Yamishevskaya, Semipalatinsk fortresses to Ust-Kamenogorsk, and from there -to Siberia through Barnaul, Kuznetsk . The materials of the expedition contained interesting data on the archeology of Siberia and Kazakhstan.
In 1740 I. Gmelin visited Northern Kazakhstan and reached the upper reaches of Yaik (the Urals). Due to the works of I. Gmelin it is clear that he collected a considerable material on the archeology of Kazakhstan, gave a description and sketches of a number of monuments.
The reconnaissance along the Irtysh was conducted by G.F. Miller, who excavated in the areas of the Yamyshev fortress and near Ust-Kamenogorsk on Ulba, and also measured and sketched the ancient buildings in the Irtysh valley: the Kalbasun Tower, Seven Chambers, the Ablai Kita Castle.
In 1768-1774 the study of Kazakhstan was continued by the second academic expedition organized to obtain materials on the history, geography and ethnography of the peoples of the Urals, the Volga region, Kazakhstan and Siberia.The expedition included P.S. Pallas, I.P. Falk, I.G. Georgi, P.I. Rychkov, H. Bardanes. P.S. Pallas made a more detailed description and conducted a historical and cultural analysis of the same monuments, which previously were described by I. Gmelin and G. F. Miller.
I.P. Falk was involved in the survey of Northern and Central Kazakhstan. His archive contains a considerable amount of material on historical topography, archeology and the history of architecture. Kh. Bardanes was an active participant of the expedition of I.P. Falk, this is the first scientist who crossed Central Kazakhstan from Petropavlovsk to Ayaguz. In the course of this expedition he noted the antiquities that he had met along the way .
A significant contribution to the study of geography, historical topography and archeology of Kazakhstan was made by P.I. Rychkov. Problems of archeology were reflected in a number of his works, and above all in the «Topography of Orenburg». He was one of the first to describe the «ruins of ancient cities and structures», known as «Таţаğау, Zhuban-Ana, Belyan Ana» and the scientific assessment of Bayanaul caves. P.I. Rychkov was interested in ancient workings, extraction and smelting of copper, lead and tin ores .
A very interesting archaeological material is contained in the diary of captain N.P. Rychkov, who traveled on the Turgai and Ishim steppes in 1771. He described the monuments of the Ulutau and Atbasar regions, mentioned the huge ramparts on the Ishim river and was struck by the sight of mounds in the valley of the Kara-Turgai river: «... A huge cemetery of ancient peoples is sprinkled with just land and raised to the height of more than 15, his entourage is 135 fathoms». The researcher was perplexed by the manner in which these embankments were built and admired: «What a great number of people should be the builders of this mass» .
An expedition of the mining engineer Strizhkov, organized by the Loktevsky and Kolyvan factories in 1798, contributed to the study of the ancient excavations of the eastern part of the Karkaralinsk and Bayanaul steppes. In the expedition, the Kazakh ore specialists participated, namely A. Zaripov and A. Berdykulov, who showed in the mountains Aygyrzhal, Akbota and Degelen a number of places associated with the ancient development of copper ore. Strizhkov wrote in his field diary: «Here on the hill there is a pine forest and quite a fewChud'hillocks (dumps of ancient excavations), which are often found in these moun- tains».The metallurgical engineer of the same plant, Beznosikov, who visited the Karkaralinsk steppe in 1796, made the following entry in his diary: «There is a rich copper mine in this place under Karkaraly ... Two versts from the lake (Botakara, near Ulyanovskoye village near Karaganda) to the northeast at a small hillock there is a copper mine, where the Chud'development is visible. The Malaya Nura River flows on the right side of the above-mentioned mountain» .
Since the end of the XVIII century. researchers and travelers began to visit Central Kazakhstan more often. The routes of captain I.G. Andreev are known, as well as of the mountain officials M. Pospelov and T.S. Burnashev (1800), F. Nazarov (1813), N.I. Potanin (1829), etc. In their notes, they explicated the archeology of Kazakhstan to one or another degree. The works of captain I.G. Andreev, in addition to information on ethnography, geography, history of Kazakhstan, contains significant material on archeology and historical topography of the Semipalatinsk, Chingiz and Karkaraly districts, including Semirechye.
In 1800 mountain officials M. Pospelov and N. Burnashev went from the Yamyshev fortress to Tashkent through the Karkaraly, Sarysu steppes and lower reaches of the Chu. «In many places of the Kaisatsky steppe», they reported, «especially near the Nura River, there are mounds of ancient peoples ... According to the Kaisaks, in some of them there are also metallic things».
Some data on the archeology of the Turgai steppe and the Northern Aral Sea are contained in the observations of Ya.P. Gaverdovsky recorded by him during his trip to Bukhara khanate (1803-1804). The translator of the Separate Siberian Corps F. Nazarov who accompanied the Kokand envoys informed on the archaeological complexes of Central and Southern Kazakhstan. He described the monuments of the Karatau Mountains, as well as the city of Shymkent .
Of great interest are the observations of N.I. Potanin, who traveled from Semipalatinsk to Suzak through the Karkaralinsk steppes and the Eastern Betpakdala. In the Kokchetav, Temirchin and Kzyl-Ara mountains he inspected the monuments of the Bronze Age, including cyclopean stone fences such as Begazy .
In the first half of the 19th century the interest in the antiquities of the outskirts of the Russian Empire, in particular, in the territory of Kazakhstan, increased in the connection with the new political situation, the formation of administrative districts.
In the works of mining engineers and geologists such as B.F. Herman, I.P. Shangin, G. Rose, V. Ledebour, A. Humboldt, Vlangali and later in the works of Tatarinov, A.I. Gabriel, D.M. Bogoslovsky, K.I. Grigorovich, G.D. Romanovsky, N.A. Davidovich-Nishchensky and others, one can find significant material on the archeology of Kazakhstan. Geologists were more interested in ancient mines, dumps of copper and lead mine workings, ancient quarries, caves, rock paintings, ancient irrigation systems, etc. Later, the academicians K.M. Baer and L. Gelmersen took part in the development of these issues.
The descriptions of the monuments of Central Kazakhstan by the mining engineer I.P. Shangin are of interest. His route ran from Petropavlovsk and crossed the Kokchetav, Atbasar, Akmola and Karkaralinsk steppes strictly along the meridian, to North Balkhash. I.P. Shangin first reported on a kind of monument in Central Kazakhstan, composed of large granite slabs. «The Kaisaks revere this grave», he wrote, «as the remnant after the people, who lived here long before the coming of the Mongols and known to them from the legends under the name» Myk. «They do not know anything about the origin of these Myks, nor about their migration or enslavement by any people, nor about the name that follows from this change. «As a result, I.P. Shangin concluded that «this people, it seems, is the same as one that once inhabited the vast expanse of the land between the Irtysh, the Ob and the Yenisei and which is called the Chud».
A large number of monuments of the Bronze Age I.P. Shangin discovered in the present Kokchetav region, in the mountains of Baikoshkar, near the lake Joldybai, etc. In the mountains of Imantau he found the «vast Chud' mines produced in clay-shale low mountain ...Huge dumps, containing many different types of copper and silver ores, show that this mine was a rich source of industry for the people working on its devel- opment». A significant Chud' mine of copper ore was discovered in the Ulutau district, in the upper reaches of the Tersakkan River, in the mountains of Aulietau, three versts from the Yanteli-Su spring, with 120 and 6-15 fathoms in size. Quite a few ancient workings of copper and lead ores were discovered in the Karkaralinsk steppe, particularly in the Korpetai Mountains, Beschoki, where the ore pieces contained silver, copper and lead. In Beschoki ancient swilling was discovered. I.P. Shangin came across huge miner dumps in the valley of Altynsu .
A number of ancient excavations were surveyed in 1815 by mining surveyor B. Herman in the Ulytau steppe, the most famous among them is the Korgasyn mine (Lead Mountain), located to the north of the Ulytau mountains. According to his description, the most powerful in this series was the «Mystau mine (Copper Mountain), belonging to the system of the Chud' mines. It is located 21 versts from the lead mine at the Kanchalbulgan river (Kanshabybulgan). «1.5 km to the north of the right bank of the Kanshabybul river, B.German examined another copper mine with characteristic pits for the» Chud' time» in the form of a» panlike depression, surrounded by ore mounds (heaps) of more than two fathoms (about 4 m ), one of which was filled with clay, pieces of sandstone and coarse-grained porphyry, impregnated with copper greens, azure, copper niello, red copper ore and sparkles of native copper .
G.I. Spasskiy published articles on the archeology of Siberia and Kazakhstan, in which he expressed his opinion on the culture of the steppe tribes and tried to determine the types of the monuments and give their scientific classification. The scientist distinguished the burials, «Chud'» mines, ancient settlements, remains of stone structures, and payed particular attention to rock paintings, considering them to be the most important historical source in studying the initial stage of the development of artistic creativity . In his works the researcher put the archaeological heritage preserving at the head of the problem, considering spoilage of the monuments of rock art as the height of ignorance. In addition to destruction from the hands of man, he drew attention to the destruction of rocks with rock paintings under the influence of natural factors. Describing the drawings that he discovered in Bukhtarma cave in 1805, he wrote: «... apart from the destruction of the human hand, they are exposed in a cave of more dampness from the air and from the water flowing into the cracks from the surface of the water, they could not have remained as long as those under protection hanging stones» . Emphasizing the methodological aspects, the scientist proposed some solution in preserving individual petroglyphs: «To preserve this memorable inscription from the rain and snow it would be very good to make a roof over them» . In fact, G.I. Spasskiy is the first of the researchers who on the pages of the press raised the issue of the protection and effective preservation of the monuments of rock art.
G.I. Spasskiy is the author of the first publications devoted to the monuments of rock art of East Kazakhstan: «On ancient Siberian inscriptions», «Journey through Siberia», «Notes on Siberian antiquities», «On the most notable monuments of Siberian antiquities and the similarity of some of them to the Great Russians ones», «Notes on antiquities in the Kirghiz-Kaisatsky steppe». He also devoted several works to the monuments of the Irtysh valley and Central Kazakhstan. In the article «Antiquities of Siberia» he analyzes the question of the historical and cultural significance of large mounds and stone fences: «It is impossible to look without surprise at these high embankments, like the hills towering above the tombs, and on huge stones of granite, porphyry, jasper and other rocks, set near them. «He noted that, for sure, the stone slabs had been delivered from remote places, because in the surrounding mountainsthere was no property of stones of the same type with them» .
Valuable material on the historical monuments of Central Kazakhstan was collected by the expedition of the academician A.I. Schrenk, who conducted geographic, botanical and topographical studies in the steppes in 1840-1843. He visited the deep places of Kokchetav, Ulytau, Dzhezkazgan, Sarysu, Bayanaul, Karkaraly, Ayaguz and partly Kokpekty districts. During his expeditions the well-known scientist repeatedly mentioned local historical and cultural and architectural monuments, ancient settlements, Chud' graves, and compiled a brief description of them. Special attention was paid to the burial mounds, stone statues of mausoleums and tombs.
A.I. Shrenk archive, which includes 54 storage units, in addition to his manuscripts and diaries, contains notes and drawings of the surveyor-topographer, teacher of the Omsk cadet corps Nifantiev, topographer Sobolev, interpreters Frolov and Lobanov, who participated in his expedition .
Judging from the photographs taken by the professor F.K. Kessler and teacher of the Omsk cadet corps Boulanger, represented bronze cannons were massive in shape and beautifully preserved. Among them there were two powerful square-shaped picks with two working ends, one flat celt, one celt of elongated form, three bronze picks with a bushing, a peshny (scrap) with a bushing and one working end, a battle ax with beveled sides and a loop, a bronze dagger with a rounded pommel, six bronze knives of various types, one bronze spearhead, ten bronze arrowheads of socketed and petiolate, one adzo, one chisel, three awls. A.N. Bakhirev and A.I. Shrenk collections testify that the excavators extracted exceptionally large bronze objects from the ancient tombs, they were apparently not interested in small objects. Most of the collection of bronze objects from Saryarka is kept in the Hermitage.
In 1849 and 1851, for the purpose of investigating the geological structure of the region, an expedition was sent to the eastern and central part of Kazakhstan under the direction of the mining engineer captain A. Vlangali. The main objects of research were ancient mines. The expedition was especially interested in the issues of economic development of metal by ancient inhabitants. In his work A. Vlangali reported that «the people who lived before in this part of Central Asia probably had the concept of ores, because in many parts of the steppe there are huge differences in which there were ore deposits».
As the result of the research on the Kalmak-Tolog mountain A. Vlangali discovered «... carved images of marals, goats, horses, etc» . Further on, based on the information of the staff captain, a number of interesting studies were being carried out. Some of the data of A. Vlangali were used in addition to the fundamental work of the German geographer on the geography of Asian Russia, professor of the Berlin University K. Ritter . The compilers of this work were the famous scientist and traveler N.N. Semenov, as well as the prominent figure in the Siberian region, the scientist and traveler G.N. Potanin. This work contains information about the inscriptions found in the Bukhtarma cave in the east of Kazakhstan and drawings on the Kalmak-tologomountain .
A few years later, the study of the rock drawings of the Kalmak-tologo mountain was resumed, and the updated information of A. Vlangali was reflected in the collective article of A.N. Sedelnikov, T.N. Belonogov and P.P. Stolpiansky. Having conducted additional researches of this monument, the scientists expanded the research area and conducted work on separate groups of the rock paintings in the vicinity of the village of Bukhtarma and the village of Bolshoy-Narymsky .
The officers and officials, such as S.B. Broniewski, L.N. Guerne, Darto, V. Starkov, M. Krasovsky and others were also engaged in the study of the province. In one of his works M. Krasovsky gave a description of the antiquities of Central Kazakhstan. In addition to his own observations, he widely used materials from the notes of the officers of the Siberian Cossack army. The merit of M. Krasovsky is the assertion about the need for a comprehensive study of archeological monuments of the central regions of Kazakhstan by studying the issues of the origin and genesis of various types and types of structures found in the region .
Information on archaeological monuments of Kazakhstan is preserved in the notes of S.B. Broniewski, in which he drew attention to the antiquities of the Karkaraly and Ayaguz districts: «... On the plains ... there are many stone fortifications in the form of an ellipse. They fell apart all the way to the ground ... They are big and small, but the figure is quite similar to each other. At the entrances to the interior of the walls were two round towers, in the middle of the same courtyard are dug thick plates of stones for shooting from them». It is nothing but a concentric ring or ellipsoidal fence made of vertical, dug in the ground plates of the Bronze Age .
Thus, by the middle of the XIX century the first information materials were collected on the archaeological monuments of Central, Northern and Eastern Kazakhstan, which were rather fragmentary and were not obtained as a result of purposeful research, but in large part in passing. The first excavations carried out were limited to the search for valuable objects. In general, in this era archaeological research was focused on the things and objects found, without serious analytical research, there was no method of excavation, and the level of documentation was quite low. However, there are facts about the monuments registration and their mapping, this is the main value of the works of the scientists of that time.
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