Saken Seifullin — the organizer of national education in Kazakhstan

In the article a comprehensive analysis of S. Seifullin's public educational activities, which contributed to the development of national education in Kazakhstan is presented. On the basis of new data of archival funds, the state of education of S. Seifullin during the rule of the Government of Kazakhstan in 1922–1924 was relatively widespread. In April 1924, the regional organization «Eradicate Illiteracy» was organized. The republican newspaper «Sovetskaya step» has published the message to the society «Literate, teach one illiterate!». The Society has been very active in all the provinces and counties of Kazakhstan and has done a great job in educating adults and children of school age. The authors classify the academic achievements of this period as follows: at first, the number of Kazakh schools has increased, and the communal schools adapted to the life of the Kazakhs have justified themselves, and the elimination of illiteracy is growing; secondly, a new breakthrough was made to improve the material conditions of schools; thirdly, textbooks for Kazakh schools were published; physics and hygiene textbooks were first published in the Kazakh language; fourthly, a vocational education system has been established as the basis of educational institutions that train teachers; fifthly, in the years of higher education, S. Seifullin made a great contribution to the training of teachers. Graduates of the educational institutions have been promoted to prominent scientists and statesmen of the republic, contributing to the development of culture and science, education in the country. In addition, the authors analyzed education articles published by S. Seifullin in the pages of newspapers, where the results of the realization of the ideas proved by the work of the Kazakh government.

Saken Seifullin was appointed as the Deputy People's Commissar of Education of the Kazakh ASSR on June 13, 1922 [1; 82]. Along with educational issues, the first teacher of the People's Commissar of Education, scholar Ahmet Baitursynov made a great contribution to the development of Kazakh schools. Later, S. Seifullin, J. Aimauytov, K. Tokhtabayev and others worked in the commissariat headed by Aspandiar Kendzhin. In the period from October 1921 to June 1922, Deputy Commissar of Education Ahmet Baitursynov was transferred to the post of Chairman of the Commission on Scientific and Literary Activities of the Commission, and Saken Seifullin was appointed as the successor.

In the face of the famine of 1921–1922, the Department of Education was tasked with attracting street children to school. Therefore, S. Seifullin proposed to repair the former real school building and transfer it to the Faculty of Labor [2; 14]. The organization of teenage communities in the provinces was considered effective. The Commune pays special attention to the protection of child labor.

During the time of the government of Kazakhstan, Saken Seifullin helped to create a special kind of education. First, if his profession is a teacher, educational, in the second it was clear that the Kazakh people without education can not be included in the number of talented, cultural countries. He also explained the advantages of education and informed the people about the changes in education through the newspaper «Enbekshy Kazakh», in which he was the editor. In his 1922 essay, «The Great Task» he wrote: «The Kazakh people must first learn, learn, learn! An insight will come through the teachings. If he begins to see clearly, he will see everything without a veil. Without education, the future of Kazakhstan's people will be in darkness. Now, over the next twenty years, the Kazakh people need to join the educated countries» [3; 158]. While studying the archived data, we saw the actual results of Seifullin's thought.

Let's take a look at the results of the 1922–23 academic year: in the Kazakh ASSR for the whole 1922– 23 school year, 113580 children were enrolled, including all schools and orphanages. The number of schools increased from 1546 to 2001. Among them 1411 Russian schools have 82582 children, 590 Kazakh schools have 22590 children [4; 9]. Given that this is 23 % of all school-aged children, it is clear that the situation has not improved. By contrast, the number of Russian schools is much higher than the Kazakh schools. The reason for this can be explained by the fact that in settlements where Russians dominate, the population is united by the necessity to open a school and equip it with its own funds. In the early years of the Soviet era, when Kazakh schools were opened, all school textbooks and teaching aids were available in Russian, which means that Russian schools have access to material, educational and methodical equipment.

In the Kazakh ASSR, the eradication of illiteracy began in 1920, but the real pace — of the 1923–24 years. The level of literacy among Kazakhs was very low. The Government of the Republic, headed by Seifullin, made efforts to solve the problem, taking into account the difficult situation in the budget. In April 1924, with the head of the Government, the regional «Eradicate Illiteracy» was organized. The Society has been actively supported by workers. The republican newspaper «Sovetskaya step» has published the message of the society «Literate, teach one literate!» [5; 4]. It has been said that every literate person is responsible for training at least one person and helping his literacy. According to the Commission on Counter-Illness, the cost of training for one person is 4 soms. If he can not teach it, he will pay for the contribution and make a contribution to the noble cause. The Society «Eradicate Illiteracy» has made a great contribution to the development of adult and school-aged children's literacy in all provinces and counties of Kazakhstan.

In 1923–24, there were 611 seasonal eradication centers, 155 of which were located in Kazakh villages. This year, 16000 people were enrolled, 82 % of them — in rural areas. There are 1194 seasonal literacy points for 20 people each. Opening of communal schools in the provinces was considered effective in eliminating illiteracy. For example, Communal schools for 65 people worked in the Zhympity district of Uralsk province, in Tal — for 70 people, in the Novokazan district of Bokey province — for 50 people, in Aktobe for 60 people, in Turgay — for 100 people, in Atbasar district — for 100 people, in Fort Uritsk village of Adai district — for 60 people, in the second Burte village of Orenburg province for — 80 people, in Semiozer village of Kostanay province for — 100 people, in Burabai for — 100 [6; 14]. As we have seen, the eradication of illiteracy is beginning to take off. However, the number of schools across Kazakhstan was very small for the entire population of the country.

At the meeting of the Council of People's Commissars on April 25, 1923 Seifullin approved «Regula- tions on the People's Commissariat of Intellectuals of the Kazakh ASSR» [7; 13]. Where the rights and obligations of the National Commissariat of Education and its local branches were determined. The rules were multiplied and distributed to all provinces and counties. This document was the main focus of systematic organization of further work of the Commissioner and its local authorities. The joining of the Kazakh into the ranks of other civilized countries was connected with the prosperous development of its economy, but Seifullin paid great attention to the educational process. «If he does not read or study more quickly, the Kazakhs will be deprived of land and water. If you do not help in the work, even with your work, your strength and your tongue, the next generation of young people will be on hand» — thought Seifullin. That is why he asked the governor's educational departments to raise as much as possible the funds for education, as well as to the People's Commissariat of Finance of the RSFSR.

It is clear from the data that the teachers have a low salary and sometimes unpaid salaries. For example, the highest wage — 31 soms, 70 tiyn will be given to teachers of the Orenburg province, the minimum wage

  • 12 soms 50 tiyn will be assigned to teachers of the Ural province. Main disadvantages: budget deficits, the center's salary has been delayed and teachers have to spend 7–8 days in the city to get their salaries. Difficulties in paying wages have led school teachers to protest, and in some cases strike. For example, the revolt of teachers in Bokei Province lasted for almost three days [8; 7–9]. There was also a negative effect on the local authorities use of the funds allocated to the education sector for other purposes. For example, the Akmola regional department of education invested money allocated for education to equip the theater and artists [9; 1]. The government demanded such inaccuracies to be avoided and that special attention should be paid to teachers' circumstances.

In 1923, the government sent a letter to all provincial executive committees and academic units [3; 173]. It states that the number of students who have been studying in the country is 4–5 people per hundred people, and that now the majority of the state's funds are allocated to the educational process, the following instructions were given: 1) Reducing the cost of other works and increasing the amount of funds allocated to training; 2) Province's executive committees pay special attention to the situation of teachers; 3) Increase the number of schools that will be opened under the Agreement. At the end of the document, the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars Seifullin and the National Commissioner for Education N. Zaliev put the signature. Thus, local authorities had to direct all possibilities for the development of education.

Sayfullin says that with words alone it's impossible to solve everything and they need to concentrate all their energy for development of education: «Institutions around the world and the main institutions of Kazakhstan need to invest about half of all the means (50 %) for their education. Only then reading becomes better, there are teachers, schools are repaired, books are read, students are motivated, and reading becomes fruitful» [3; 177]. During the period under consideration, the financial situation of the republicwould not be criticized. Due to the fact that the regional budget was only formed and the limitations of taxation, the local budget could not satisfy the demand.

However, despite the financial difficulties, the government has supported the education sector, as follows: in the academic year 1922-1923 — 1) The central state budget allocates 3 million 639694 soms to all the national commissariat of Kazakhstan, of which 1 million 402496 soms or 40 % of the funds are allocated for education; 2) 50 % (half) of the regional budget for education is allocated; 3) from local budgets up to 30-40 % are allocated to the province [4; 2].

The revenues of the regional budget for 1923-1924 were 552628 soms 97 tiyn, of which 287736 soms 47 tiyn, that is half, was allocated to the educational sphere [10; 22].

Distribution of the regional budget for the I quarter of 1924 is as follows: to the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs — 12000 soms, to the People's Commissariat for Health — 12000 soms, the land is paid to the People's Commissariat for the amount of 5000 soms, to the People's Commissariat of Education — 45000 soms [11; 54]. Comparing the specified data archive, we can draw the following conclusions: public awareness has always been under the scrutiny of the government. The government spent most of its public funding on education. The result of a constant increase in funding for education is seen by the increase in the number of new schools. The results of the pre-school education year preceding the 1924 academic year can be found in the table below [12; 65].

Table 1 General Education Indicator in the Kazakh SSR

Depending on the national composition

First-graders

schools

Experimental visual arts schools on the first-graders schools

Communal schools

7 years schools

Secondary schools

School

Students

School

Students

School

Students

School

Students

School

Students

Kazakh

743

28671

4

572

24

1573

3

220

1

47

Russian

1487

100786

-

-

1

145

31

7884

29

5426

National minorities

117

9067

       

2

367

2

79

Note. Report of the Government of the Kyrgyz ASSR to the All-Kyrgyz Congress of Soviets. — Ak-mechet-Orenburg, 1925. — P. 65.

Compared with the previous academic year, the number of schools across the country has increased from 2001 to 2444, including the number of Kazakh schools from 590 to 775, with Russian schools from 1411 to 1548, and the number of schools for ethnic minorities is 121. The number of Kazakh children has grown from 22590 to 31083.

Seifullin took part in holding the Council elections in December 1923 in the Ural Province [13; 354]. During this trip, he was deeply interested in the Kazakh schools and the state of the Kazakh language. Describing the appearance of the city of Uralsk «The state of schools except for soviet-party schools is very difficult. Kazakh students are very few, only this year began to recruit Kazakhs. There are no Kazakhs in the second phase of the school. We heard from Sakypkerey about the state of the school which was open among the people. Education is very bad at school. There is no Kazakh language school in Elek» — he was saying sorry for the fact that the local authorities were not paying attention to their studies. This is what the head of the government has to see. The situation in the Ural Province, near the center of the country, is unlikely to have a low level of education in far-flung regions such as Kazakhstan. That is why questions about education were on the agenda of the government and were considered ways to eliminate the shortcomings.

On August 22, 1923, at the government session, the issue of public education was discussed. People's Commissar of Education K. Toktibaev's report shows that although the country's schools have a growing system, illiteracy is still 84 %, especially in the Adai county — 90 %. By discussing the following resolution:

1) Obtaining the 4-year and 7-year boarding schools and the illiteracy centers at the disposal of the state budget; 2) Not to reduce the expenses from the local budget; 3) To take control of the strengthening of Kazakh schools, and oblige the executive committees of the province to preserve local social educational institutions; 4) Organization of teacher training courses; 5) Establishment of other 3 schools with 14 additional schools, taking into account the effectiveness of communal schools for Kazakhs; 6) To recognize as insufficient 22600 state rations allocated for orphanages, to request additional funding from the Center; 7) Use of non-state, regional and local budgets to grant 10 sums of gold to Kazakh peasants in vocational education [14; 32].

The reason for these shortcomings can be summarized as follows: the deficit of funds was achieved in the planned implementation. Due to drought, lack of harvest, the local budget could not justify the costs of education. Especially illiteracy in the Kazakh populated areas. As we have already seen, in comparison with Russian schools, the number of Kazakh schools is small, and the material supply is low. Therefore, the government made a special effort to increase Kazakh schools, increase the number of public schools recognized as effective for Kazakhs and award scholarships to Kazakh children.

The lack of teachers with special education in the republic was a serious problem. Those with special needs re-training. Short courses for summer and winter holidays in 1923 and 1924 were mainly devoted to Russian schools. For example, 995 people participated in the summer courses, including Kazakh — 179. During the winter holidays conferences, circles were organized on methodical and political topics in separate provinces. In Orenburg, there are 4 circles working out the 4-year school curriculum. However, it should be noted that, as a result of the retraining of teachers for two years, 63 % of the short-term courses are Kazakh, 33 % are Russian and 4 % are representatives of other nationalities. However, short-term training courses could not satisfy the teachers' methodological skills to the new level of demand. Now let's look at the quality of teachers in the country [4; 30].

Table 2 Qualitative composition of teachers in Kazakh ASSR

Qualification level

all

by %

by stage

3 years

3-5

years

more than 5

years

Higher education

252

5,8 %

35

35

182

Graduated from the teacher's institute

59

1,1 %

4

1

54

Graduated from the teachers seminar

362

8 %

62

68

232

Additional pedagogical education

533

12,2 %

71

122

340

Graduates of regular pedagogical courses

404

9 %

90

115

199

Those who have the qualification of the document «teacher»

703

16 %

133

148

422

Those who have only secondary education

754

17 %

284

206

264

Those who do not regularly attend pedagogical courses

82

1,9 %

5

77

-

Those who don't have the qualification of the document «teacher»

1157

29 %

754

148

205

All

4306

100 %

1438

970

1898

Note. Reports of workforce of Kirnarkomprom // Sovietskaya Kyrgyziya. — № 3-4. — P 30.

Compared to the data in the table, the majority of those without special specialties were 29 %. On the contrary, those with higher education were 5,8 %, graduates of the institute — 1,1 %, and those who completed the seminar — only 8 %. That is, diplomas and qualified teachers are only 14,9 % of the total, but twice as much as those without special qualifications. It is clear that the education level in the country is at a low level.

K. According to Khamalieva's research, Seifullin wrote to the Main Trade Union Committee of the Kazakh ASSR in 1922 to open 9 educational institutions (8 pedagogical and pedagogical courses) [15; 29]. In this regard, we believe that the solution to this problem was taken by Seifullin when he was the Deputy Commissar of Education in 1922.

The basis of the first pedagogical educational institutions in Kazakhstan was laid in 1922-24. At the end of 1922 pedagogical technical schools were opened in Semipalatinsk, Uralsk, Karkaralinsk, 1923-24 in Petropavlovsk, Kokshetau, Bokey province, Orda, Kostanay, Aktobe. In 1923-24, 908 teachers have been trained [16; 24]. However, the financial situation of educational institutions was not the same. For example,in Orenburg, Kokshetau and Semipalatinsk, in Uralsk there were educational and methodical office, library, physics, psychology, workshop, history and mathematics. And in Orda pedagogical institute there is no scientific and support institution, the base is weak, teachers are not enough. Establishment of teacher training base accelerated the education of the population of the republic.

Seifullin seeks to inform people about the need to develop different professions so that Kazakhs can become on a par with cultural states. For example, he said, «Kazan school for Muslim, teaching children of military personnel allocated 50 seats for Kazakhs. 40 of them are allocated to each province of Kazakhstan, and 10 boys will be sent from Orenburg. Orenburg Medical College was opened. Out of 80 children will be 55 Kazakhs. Zoo technicum was opened under the jurisdiction of the Land and Water Commission. The Treasury Department will open a course of money-treasury. More than half of the children who can be trafficked should be Kazakh» — warns Kazakh children to come to these schools late [3; 233]. The reason for the low number of Kazakh children at the regional modeling school opened at the Kazakh Institute of Teacher Training in Orenburg is that the head of the government is not aware of the early warnings from local authorities.

Seifullin knew about the exact number of Kazakh young people being trained. «There are about two thousand Kazakh children studying in Orenburg this day. Future Kazakh workers, educated citizens. All of them have a social sense of urgency», — he says [3; 279]. However, he was not satisfied with the fact that the far distance of Orenburg from the Kazakh people is difficult for the education of Kazakh youth. If Orenburg was in the central part of the country, then the number of Kazakh youth would be much higher. The significance of Saken's thoughts is that the capital's transition to the central part of Kazakhstan today is proving.

Because of the absence of higher education institutions in Kazakhstan, Kazakh youth trained in higher education institutions outside the country. However, not all of them had the same opportunity as their social status. Seifullin decided to solve this problem from the first day when he became the head of the government. On December 6, 1922, signed by Seifullin, the «Guidelines for the Scholarship Commission for the State Scholarship for the Students of Higher Education Institutions» was published [17; 101]. It should be noted that the document was drawn from the head of the government and the educated experts, the people's commissars. This is fully understood from the contents of the document. Manual starts with lines «The leading grant authority is the Scholarship Commission created by the People's Commissariat for Education and the Kazakh Vocational Education Institution, which includes representatives of national commissariats». It has been established through higher education institutions outside of Kazakhstan with Moscow and Turkestan through the Kazakh authorities, and through the provincial vocational education institutions in Petrograd, Saratov, Tomsk, Kazan and Omsk. The following criteria were included in the scholarship awarding requirements:

  1. first of all, with a special referral from party and professional organizations;
  2. hardworking and talented people.

In the fifth paragraph of the Instruction, scholarships are awarded to students who complete all the requirements (exams, practical work plans), and the student who has received a scholarship is required to submit to the Scholarship Commission, the Kazakh Delegation and the Province Educational Institutions. It should be pointed out in this paragraph that the student who has been awarded the state scholarship must return to Kazakhstan after graduation.

Here are some concrete facts: by Government decision, 425 scholarships were allocated, to the Polytechnic Institute — 50, the Kazakh Institute of Public Education — 100, the Semipalatinsk Institute of Public Education — 60, and the Tatar People's Education Institute — 60. 195 grants were awarded to students outside of Kazakhstan, 75 to Petrograd, 40 to Turkestan, 6 to Tomsk, 20 to Saratov, 70 to Kazan, 32 to Omsk. In addition, financial support was provided to those who were sent for business trips with research and development activities, with the Center, in accordance with the provisions of the RSFSR: 2 scholarships were awarded to Red Profession Institute and 3 scholarships to the Academy of Social Sciences and 15 scholarships to other educational institutions.

According to the data, in 1922–23 there were 800 students from Kazakhstan in the Russian higher education institutions [18; 9]. This is not a low indicator for that time. But the head of the government strives to maximize the achievements, suggesting that the Center is present. The data we have on hand prove that Seifullin did not just support being specialists of Kazakh youth, understanding the importance of higher education, he was looking for convenient conditions for this. Here are some examples of these documents:

«Moscow. Kremlin. Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR and the People's Commissariat of Education. For excursions from 3 experienced agencies in the Kazakh Republic, I ask you to allow the Intellectual People's Commissariat of the Kazakh ASSR to provide a 75 % discount on transportation on the territory of the Republic. Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars S. Seifullin. April 4. 1924» [19; 104].

«№ 1785. To the Council of People's Commissars of Turkestan ASSR. We ask you to take Akpaev Abdulkhamit Ibrayevich, a former student of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the Tomsk University, at the present time from the Karkaralinsk University to the Central Asian State University for the 1924–1925 academic year. Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Seifullin. People's Commissar of Education Zaliev. April 14. 1924» [20; 107].

«№ 1769. Samara. To the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. In connection with the shortage of medical staff in the Republic of Kazakhstan, I ask you to make Rameev Ravgat, a student of medical faculty, studying you. Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars Seifullin. March 3. 1924» [21; 139].

The social position of the teachers and students is also noticed by the prime minister. His brother Majid Seifullin in his memoirs said: «Saken lived on Deev Square, house number 5. He has a 10-room house. However, only two of them he used for himself, and the rest are provided to students as hostels. Saken was in charge of such students as S. Ainabekov, B. Batyrbekov, S. Mukanov, G. Musirepov and many others. After graduating from school, they brought a new group of students to their home. He ate dinner after us. The idea is not to shrink us» [22; 40].

Despite the economic difficulties, the government's financial support for publishing was executed by 80 % of the 1923–24 plan. This year for the Kazakh schools N. Kulzhanova's «Mektepke deiіngі tarbie», A. Baitursynov's «Eresekterge arnalgan alippe», «Etimologiia», «Sintaksis», «Fonetika», Dulatov's «Oku kitabi», «Esepter — I boHm», «Esepter — II boHm», Zh. Aimauytov's «Pedagogikalyq basshylyq», E. Omarov's «Physica», Zh. Tleulin's «Mektep gigienasy», Mukanov's «4 jyldyq mektep programmasy», «Qazaqsha kespe aripter» were published [23; 73]. This year, 24 different books were published with a total of 142,000 copies. It is worth noting that these textbooks, compiled by the Alash intellectuals, were of great value as it was designed to embody the Kazakh national identity. Unfortunately, at the beginning of the prosecution of Alash intellectuals, all their work was recognized as abusive and expelled. Later, textbooks with ideological sophistication typical of the Soviet schools have been disrupted from the national spiritual wealth for years and have led to the education of young people to patriotism.

The first Congress of Kazakh intellectuals was held in Orenburg from June 12 to 18, 1924 [24; 3–5]. The conventions of the Congress agenda were relevant for that period, even if you have any questions such as alphabet, Kazakh language, collecting oral literature, writing textbooks, and elementary schooling. Among them is the presentation of the Arabic alphabet by A. Baitursynov, which caused great controversy and even resistance. Among the Kazakh intelligentsia there were those who emphasized the importance of the Latin alphabet. Later, Seifullin approved the Kazakh alphabet for Baitursynov's transformation at the government session on September 5, 1924 [25; 84.]. The first collective gathering, organized with the help of shortsighted, nationalistic intelligentsia, laid the foundation for further development of the future education system. The united alphabet swayed the passage of the Kazakh language. For the first time, the principles of the development of Kazakh terminology have contributed to the study of linguistic science.

On April 7, 1925, the Regional Party Committee appointed Seifullin as the Chairman of the Scientific Commission at the People's Commissariat of Education, taking into consideration his petition «to make literary and creative work» [26; 4]. Here he led the work of analysis, evaluation, analysis of the scientific justification of the works which should be published as a book, and the analysis of the plays presented to the public at the Kazakh theater.

On October 16, 1927, Saken Seifullin was appointed Rector of the People's Education Institute in Kyzylorda [27; 16]. The deficit of qualified specialists was also a problem here. After Seifullin applied to the People's Commissariat for Education with a request to ensure permanent staff members of the party such as S. Mendeshev, M. Zholdybaev, T. Zhurgenov, A. Kenzhin began to read lecture for students.

In 1928–1929 Seifullin served as rector of the Kazakh Higher Pedagogical Institute in Tashkent [27; 16]. In this institute, in one of the most important educational institutions in Central Asia prominent Russian scientists, professors Vinogradov and Barthold worked. They also taught and lectured at the institute's seven-year practice-practice school and the Central Asian Communist University. Founded the literary association of the Kazakh youth, Saken tells the story of the Kazakh people and explores the ancient heritage of the Kazakh and Central Asian history. One of the pupils Seifullin's memory, Dilmukhametov, remembers Seifullin's advice on the poems of the Kyrgyz poet Aaly Tokambayev, his literary heroes, and published in the University's «Kedey ainasy» magazine [28].

 

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Year: 2019
City: Karaganda
Category: History