The article examines the reasons of the foundation and conditions conducive to the commission of acts of terrorism, identified the most optimal and acceptable ways and forms of combating terrorism. In the analysis, terrorism is a self-defensive reaction of the political, public, religious, economic and such minorities against some actions of the mainstream. The real warning of terrorism is usually found in effective action at its deepest «roots». The prevention of terrorism is only a labor-intensive task, this action is generated by almost all social, political, psychological, financial, historical and other causes. The prevention of terrorism must be carried out simultaneously in several directions: the first is impact on the main, even global phenomena and processes in the society that have a terrorist effect, the second is an identification and prevention of terrorist acts that could be committed in the near future or even in the near future, and thirdly suppression of ongoing terrorism and terrorist acts against state and public figures, detention of perpetrators and bringing them to court.
Nowadays, international terrorism is the most dangerous thing to the world. Modern terrorism is like the most powerful weapon of today's prosperity. Failure to understand the loyalty of the forces aggravates antiterrorist activities. if it is necessary to understand the reasons of support, it is possible or impossible to determine ways of overcoming threats to national security. The most important thing here is the formation of a civil society.
The use of force is certainly an overwhelming force. Terrorism, which has spoiled the peaceful life of the nation, has gained a large scale in the world. Although there is an uncompromising fight against terrorism, and the current stabilization of the situation remains uncertain. The excitement of the country stems from the fact that the fight against terrorism is unnecessary and does not mean a fight. We are facing explosions and a growing number of terrorist organizations (Afghanistan, Iraq, Palistina and other countries). And it's not just terrorism, it's a war that brings fear and panic to the humanity. As far as we are aware of all this things, it is time to focus on the causes of terrorism and find ways to eliminate them. Only then we can confidently say that progress can be achieved only in the fight against terrorism. The path to realization of this idea will be the subject of criminology. We rely on these criminological studies to identify and reduce the overall level of crime. Based on these studies, we know the basics of preventing or minimizing the negative consequences of the community, as well as reducing the risk of human trafficking. It can be seen that the causes and circumstances contributing to terrorist acts are revealed in such way that we can achieve the same opportunities as preventing, protecting terrorism from organizing the stage of effectiveness. In the fight against terrorism, it is necessary to look for the most effective ways and look for possible reasons for its effectiveness.
When determining the socio-psychological causes of terrorism, it is important to take into account the family and social environment of the terrorist, the mentality and other factors that make them terrorists. Because terrorism wants to destroy the values and achievements of society, using society against harmful elements. A terrorist is a person who comes from the same society. He acts on behalf of society and on behalf of society and opposes the state. So, what are the main reasons for contradicting people against their country and turning them into terrorists?
Along with the internal and external organizers of terrorism, the causes of terrorism are the following:
- political reasons;
- economic reasons;
- social and cultural reasons;
- the educational system;
- Psychological reasons [1; 4].
Now let's classify them by sphere.
(1) Political reason: a) the geopolitical position of the state or states in the case of strong transit of drugs and weapons;
- the struggle between political parties, social movements and associations because of the lack of experience of a civilized way of solving ideological problems;
- the power of interethnic conflicts (propaganda of representatives of certain social movements, the superiority of a particular nation, domination);
- the lack of genuine democracy in the country and the lack of realistic government practices that do not conform to the principles of democracy in the world;
- growth of criminal political elite and inactive civilians;
- ineffectiveness of the ongoing political reforms.
It is clear naturally that the cause of terrorism may be political radicalism. Any social radicalization affects the radicalization of methods and methods for the purposes of certain groups. At the same time, one can speak about the consequences of «positive» and «left» radicalism in terrorism. After all, if political radicalism (radicalism should strive for a radical change in the full-scale situation at a certain stage and do this without any fearing), we can say that it is a terrorist. It is obvious that the source of the geopolitical cause of terrorism, which is a form of terrorism or terrorist groups, is that terrorism was finally overcome by world and regional powers. Contradictions between states and groups of nations and its growing influence on the weakening of international institutions capable of obtaining a mission to coordinate efforts to combat terrorism. In today's world, the problem of ensuring world and internal security has particular importance, and this is the emergence of new structures that are adapted to counter threats to the survival of the human community. We can not exclude that terrorism is the result of armed conflicts between states. For example, "political jealousy" caused by the struggle between the United States and Iraq, one of the most attractive for wealth, oil and the use of atomic bombs in the country, has made aggressive actions and, finally many civilians, soldiers are getting worse. As for the system of public administration, the control over migration is weakened by the weakening of terrorist acts. Extremist groups that do not want to find a place for tension can become refugees and move to peaceful areas. This issue is in the openness of borders now [2; 20].
In today's world, religious fundamentalism is often used as the cause of terrorism. Fundamentalism is the overcoming of development tendencies in this process, the desire to preserve the true principle of a certain doctrine. At present, the widespread use of Islamic extremism and terrorism is a great blessing for us and for the people. The country's security does not fight, but the organization of preventive measures is another way to do this, but we cannot hide the fact that the terrorist act does not change the way of information technology.
We should bear in mind that the 21st century's topical issue on the agenda is a matter of religious extremism and terrorism, which contributes to the political, social, economic, cultural and spiritual world of the world. At present, the antagonisms and contradictions that led to terrorist acts are growing, and religious fundamentalism and terrorism are not unique to any region or state. It's incredible that, although global terrorist extremism leading to terrorism continues to be distracted, various groups are trying to solve political economic problems by using it.
The main driving force of modern terrorism is the diversity of contemporary problems. The difference between the development of different countries, poor living conditions in developed countries, poverty, unemployment, corruption, illiteracy and the desire of the highest authorities of developing countries retains power in any case. It creates favorable conditions for terrorism.
At the first stage, terrorist organizations are trying to weaken state power and destroy public confidence in the state. They are distrustful of some statesmen, notifying the public about the deficiencies in the management of state officials. All this should damage the central government. The overwhelming majority of conscientious objectors, whose inner world has disintegrated and the unity of their citizens will be easily expelled for terrorist purposes, also internal conflicts and insurrections in the country will be easier. Another goal of the terrorist attack is an economic shock for the target state. This is demonstrated not by the economic problems of the country, but by the welfare of the people, the embarrassment of terrorism and struggle. The fight against terrorism is the most expensive project and requires significant funding.
Of course, the fight against terrorism is always ineffective and harsh. That's why this fight seems to be faster. The mobility of terrorists creates the first terrorist act, and then goes in search, arrest and punishment. In the future, we will be able to improve the protection against unauthorized access to terrorists. Precautions and monitoring of citizens will always be included. This will make the fight against terrorism eternal — anycampaign against the fight against terrorism can only increase the number of future terrorists, therefore, all the strictest anti-terrorist actions are gradually benefiting [3; 119]. At the beginning of our speech, terrorist attacks are detrimental, which means that, people still use force. Such a fight against terrorism is an endless process. In practice, it is impossible to get rid of it, so people are forced to react. However, it would be a mistake to conclude that the fight against such terrorism is only a return of compensation, and who calls it «terror»? We must decide who we will call the «anti-terrorist». If we look at this, it's no secret that the psychology of terrorism is not so different from the psychology of terrorists. Terrorism — [Lat.Terror — Fear, Fear] — the use of force to justify political intentions; This concept was used to describe the repressive policy pursued by the Jacobians during the great French revolution of the late 18th century. The term «terrorism» is used in modern literature to describe the use of force and fear of dictatorship or totalitarian systems against their own citizens. There is no need to contact Islam in the face of threats to public policy, intimidation [4; 344]. Terrorism begins with the emergence of states, and the first terrorist attacks are found in ancient Greek and Babylonian data. Terrorism is a method used by a fierce force to achieve the goal set by an organized group. In our time, terrorists have committed themselves to seize money, to seize public buildings, to explode, to remove planes, etc. D. Terrorist movements are always published and directed to the public, affect the power. From a psychological point of view, terrorism is a relative threat. There is a discussion about what is happening in our time. The definition of this word varies depending on people and society. For example, according to the definition of many people, the term «terrorism» in its definition includes the use of jihad, mujahedeen and punishment in Sharia. «Terrorism» is the word «Irhab» in Arabic, which means «intimidation» [5; 241]. Terrorism and religious extremism are threats and threats to humanity. They come into force to fulfill their own interests. It does not shy away from anything in order to gain power and wealth. It removes force, creates danger and threatens people's lives. This causes the disunity of society and breaks the peace. Let's not forget that the most important thing here is that terrorism is basically political, social, economic, religious and other activities that are the self-defense of a minority. In addition, both sides do not understand themselves, they do not agree, do not hear, do not listen to them, etc. We often say that it is one of the actions or reactions that we do when the possibility of mutual agreement has been exhausted.
Terrorism (primarily prominent political and public figures) has a significant impact on history, but terrorist attacks against politicians do not pose a serious threat to humanity. In XX century the situation radically changed, and a sharp classification of various types of terrorism occurred. This became a mass war against politics, institutions and the rule of law of all the political systems. The irrational aspect of terrorism was reflected in the mass annihilation of the common people, who had nothing to do with politics. As a result, violence and a vaccine left everyone on the globe in the blockade of unreasonable ideas of a terrorist organization. In XX century, terrorism has become a turbulent global problem. As we think, we will not only be able to investigate the causes of terrorism, but we will also consider the main ways to prevent its development. But we avoid it as a legal, interreligious, social, ideological and political nature. These are all antiterrorist socio-psychological judgments.
First of all, «keeping the door open» is the need to be able to negotiate with terrorists at any time and call for an agreement [6; 89]. Here potential terrorists have the opportunity to speak out and declare their claims separately from the organization and implementation of the terrorist act, if it is consolidated. An example of this is the frequent negotiations between the political wing of the Irish Republican forces and the British authorities. Although terrorist acts can not be fully predicted, they reduce the presence of such terrorist acts and provide intelligence services to prevent terrorist acts and timely assistance by obtaining preliminary confidential information. Such a combination of psychologists, doctors, educators and lawyers can be achieved through effective anti-terrorism measures, especially anti-terrorism education among young people.
In the future, states should not be extremist in relation to themselves or their citizens, and also to each other. Extremism is the cause of extremism, and it should be borne in mind that terrorism is not far from it. People make up the state to meet their needs, but the state can not justify the rights of people.
In this context, the concept of civil society that has developed in developed countries is now fashionable. As they say, the integrity of society should be of paramount importance for the fight against terrorism. In a democratic political system, civil society achieves the highest level of development, formed on the basis of a multilateral agreement between the government and civil society. Democratic procedures in civil society are based on the right to the media to assess the quality of public service and the mechanisms of influencing public interests for the benefit of society.
There are different approaches and different orientations towards civil society. At present, civil society does not have a common definition. However, in social and philosophical science this phenomenon has two different types of research. The first considers civil society as a universal social category. This concept entails the whole complex of social relations, which opposes the state and government. The latter refer to the concept of civil society as a genuine Western phenomenon and to link it with the formation of bourgeois (market-democratic) relations. Civil society is a type of public order that creates favorable conditions for the development of the person's personality and informal social organizations [7; 88–93].
It is only through the activities of these non-governmental organizations that an individual can influence the development of society. That is why civil society is seen as a unique form of communication, because civil society is a dialogue between the state and the citizen. Civil society demonstrates social relations outside the power structures. Civil society requires more developed economic, cultural, political, legal relations. If we consider the state as an institution of power, control and punishment, it is wrong to regard civil society as the opposite of absolute freedom — anarchy. In fact, these two components, which constitute social unity, complement each other. There is no civil society without statehood. Without this, only chaos, fraud, organization and disintegration are possible. Conversely, there is no democratic, law-abiding state without civil society, only tyranny and violence. There are many approaches that link the emergence of civil society with the emergence of a citizen as a subject of action. A citizen is a subject of an activity that has certain rights and duties. Such a society limits the severity of the state in the development process. As for civil society, the basis for the emergence of terrorism (within society) is so low. Civil society can demonstrate self-restraint on the basis of specific terrorist threats.
An effective response to the deep «roots» is a specific prevention of terrorism. It does not matter how the roots are divided into internal, psychological and the impact of humanity. Here we can say that terrorism develops from the five best «external» roots. These are: ideological, religious, social, political and geopolitical roots.
Democracy should not tolerate excessive democracy. Many democratic countries can lead to terrorism. Undoubtedly, the extent to which excessive freedom allows terrorists to fight. Therefore, the democratic process should be at a moderate pace [8; 20–42].
In principle, preventing terrorism is a very difficult task. Because this phenomenon is caused by many social, political, psychological, economic, historical and other reasons. Such reasons should be the object of preventing terrorism. Because many of them are based on the ideology of transformation of state power, separation of property, social and national structure of society [9; 36]. Although a civilized society does not eliminate terrorism, it must strive to timely detect terrorist threats and prevent its development.
Prevention of terrorism should be conducted simultaneously in several areas:
1) In societies with a terrorist effect, impact on key and even global phenomena and processes, this trend can be called strategic, and even if it takes a long time, it would be true if it identified the most potential participants in terrorist predictions.
2) It is clear that in the near future terrorist acts will be useful and predetermined in order to clarify the object and theme of terrorism and to determine the circumstances, ways and causes of terrorism.
Informing the population, focusing on the problem of youth, overcoming economic difficulties and promoting a moral and healthy lifestyle. A powerful tool in the fight against terrorism in Kazakhstan is the use of measures to strengthen domestic abundance, the strengthening of the concept of patriotism and the rule of law.
In addition to phenomena that go beyond terrorism, one of the most effective areas is to increase the legal level, increase responsibility, exacerbate terrorist activities and lawfully improve the law.
- Belgibayeva, R.B. (2007). Terrorshyldykpen kuresudehі kokeikestі mа seleler [Actual problems of countering terrorism]. Zan hazeti — Juridical newspaper, May 21, 4–8 [in Kazakh].
- Gasser, H.P. (1994). Zapret na akty terrora v mezhdunarodnom humanitarnom prave [Prohibition is an act of terrorism in international humanitarian law]. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnyi Komitet Krasnoho Kresta [in Russian].
- Antonyan, Y.M. (1998). Terrorizm. Kriminolohicheskoe i uholovno-pravovoe issledovanie [Criminological and curb-right research]. Moscow: Shchit-M [in Russian].
- Biekenov, K., & Sadyrova, M. (2007) Aleumettanudyn tusіndіrme sozdіhі [Explanatory dictionary of sociology]. Almaty: Sozdik-Slovar [in Kazakh].
- Saiasi tusі ndі rme sozdіk [Social Explanatory Dictionary] (2007). Almaty [in Kazakh].
- Minkovsky, G., & Revin, V. (1997). Kharakteristika terrorizma i nekotorye napravleniia povysheniia effektivnosti borby s nim [Characteristics of Terrorism and some of the areas of influence of the situation]. Hosudarstvo i pravo — State and law, 8, 84–91 [in Russian].
- Petrishev, V.E. (1998). Pravovye i sotsialno-politicheskie problemy borby s terrorizmom [Right and social-political problems of terrorism]. Hosudarstvo i pravo — State and law, 3, 88–93 [in Russian].
- Ponomarev, V.A. (1995). Terrorizm: psikholohicheskie korni i pravovye otsenki [Terrorism: Psychological Counseling and Privileges]. Hosudarstvo i pravo — State and law, 4, 20–42 [in Russian].
- Chufarovski, Y.V. (1998). Terrorizm — hlobalnaia problema sovremennosti [Terrorism is a global problem of the past (methodological analysis)]. Sledovatel — Investigator, 5, 35–39 [in Russian].