On some education problems of children-oralmans: historical background

The article deals with the questions of teaching children-oralmans. The authors of the article consider children of migrants not only as an economic issue, but also as a problem of human rights and political rights. The main issues of oralmans' social adaptation are identified. The most important and key aspects of teaching children - oralmans to languages have been noted by authors. The article reveals the essence of the notion «oralman». Experimental results are presented, which indicate that the second generations of returnees often use Russian or other languages. The authors focus on the national education, which until now has been based on the fundamental knowledge in one language, Kazakh or Russian. In conclusion, the authors conclude that today's priorities are shifted in favor of specialists with knowledge of a foreign language, almost ready to undergo foreign training, including language, capable of rapid adaptation to professional activity.

Since 1991 more than a million ethnic Kazakhs returned to their homeland and received the status of repatriates, most of them arrived from Uzbekistan and people from China, Mongolia, Turkmenistan, Russia (Table 1, Fig. 1).

Table 1 Information about the number of oralmans (ethnic Kazakhs)

Country of retirement (outcome)

Families

%

People

%

Uzbekistan

176340

62,0

620004

61,6

Mongolia

24712

8,69

117381

11,7

China

43152

15,18

121397

12,1

Turkmenistan

18153

6,38

71857

7,1

Russia

12318

4,33

38073

3,8

Tajikistan

2827

0,99

11812

1,2

Kyrgyzstan

2976

1,05

10004

1,0

Iran

1266

0,45

6329

0,6

Turkey

947

0,33

3585

0,4

Other countries TMT

445

0,16

1145

0,1

Other foreign countries

1225

0,43

4886

0,5

Total

284361

100

1006473

100

Recall, the Government Resolution No.783 dated July 8, 2014 identified regions for resettlement of oralmans excluding Astana and Almaty.

The largest number of oralmans settled in the South Kazakhstan Region - 21.2 %, Almaty Region - 16.3 %, Mangistau Region - 13 %, Zhambyl Region - 9.4 %, and other regions - 40.1 %.

Of the total number of arrivalsthe working age is 55.6 %, children up to 18 years - 39.9 %, and retirees - 4.5 %.

Most oralmans of working age have secondary education (60.8 %), 20.5 % - specialized secondary education, 8.7 % - higher education, and 9.9 % - no education [1].

People with oralman status enjoy all the social benefits provided for in the Law of RK «On migration». With the purpose of adaptation and integration services, in the cities of Aktau, Karaganda and Shymkent, and in the village Aksukent of the SoutKazakhstan Region, there are Centers of adaptation and integration of oralmans. Ongoing adaptation programs at the Centers include legal consultation, the State language learning and, if desired, Russian, vocational training, retraining and skills development.

The concept of «oralman» entered the scientific, legal, regulatory and real practice with the attainment of independence by Kazakhstan. Since 1991, the newly formed sovereign republics began to arrive citizens of other countries – the ethnic Kazakhs, who consider Kazakhstan as their historical homeland. This process paralleled the departure from the country of Kazakhstan citizens of other nationalities – Germans, Jews, Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Moldovans, Chechens and others. In the law of Kazakhstan «On population migration» 13 December 1997, gives the following definition of «oralman»: «...foreigners or stateless persons of Kazakh nationality, permanent resident status at the time of acquisition of sovereignty by the Republic of Kazakhstan beyond its borders and arrived in Kazakhstan for permanent residence.»

Oralmans - ethnic Kazakhs residing permanently at the time of acquisition of sovereignty by the Republic of Kazakhstan beyond its limitsand their children Kazakh nationality, who were born and permanently residing after the acquisition of sovereignty by the Republic of Kazakhstan abroad, arrived (arrived) in the Republic of Kazakhstan for permanent residence in their historical homeland and received (received) the corresponding status in the order established by the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On migration of popu- lation» (with changes and additions as 11.07.2016) [2].

The concept of «oralman» (translated in Kazakh means «returning». In the third quarter of 2017, 2,226 families or 4,297 ethnic Kazakhs arrived in the republic and received the status of oralman. The majority of oralmans - 44.7 % of the profits frothe Republic of Uzbekistan, 44.5 % are from China, 3.8 % from Mongolia, 2.7 % from Turkmenistan, 1.% from Russia and 2.7 % from other countries (number of people). The largest number of oralmans settled in Almatinskaya - 880 families (1,570 people), South Kazakhstan oblast - 423 families (726 people), Astana 198 families (293 people), Zhambyl - 135 families (208 people), East Kazakhstan region - 134 families (278 people), Mangistau - 76 families (390 people), Akmola - 69 families (161 people), Kostanay - 66 families (161 people), Almaty - 63 families (97 people), Pavlodar 53 families (152 people) Karagandinskaya - 52 families (89 people), Atyrau - 23 families (44 people), SKO - 20 families (39 people), WKO - 14 families (2people), Kyzylorda - 11 families (20 people) and Aktobe region 9 fami-

 

lies (45 people). Persons of working age make up - 63.8 %, younger than able-bodied - 30.8 % and pensioners - 5.4 %. Of the number of oralmans of working age, 13 % have higher education, 22.8 % have secondary specialized education, 56.1 % have general secondary education, and 8.1 % have no education.

For 9 months of 2017 720 families or 13 578 ethnic Kazakhs arrived in the republic and received the status of oralman. The majority of oralmans - 49 % of the profits from the Republic of Uzbekistan, 39.2 % are from China, 3.7 % from Turkmenistan, 2.6 % from Mongolia, 2 % from Russia and 3.5 % from other countries. The largest number of oralmans settled in Almatinskaya - 2,849 families (5,024 people), SKO - 1,668 families (2,707 people), Astana - 599 families (879 people), Zhambyl - 447 families (683 people), East Kazakhstan region - 343 families (683 people), Mangistau oblast - 315 families (1 634 people), Almaty city - 181 families (271 people), Akmolinsk - 171 families (327 people), Karaganda - 165 families (279 people), Kostanay - 133 families 291 people), Pavlodarskaya - 109 families (266 people), Atyrau family - 82 families (143 people), RMS - 72 families (126 people), WKO - 38 families (61 people), Aktyubinsk - 30 families (169 people) and Kyzylordi 18 families (35 people). Persons of working age make up - 66.1 %, younger than able-bodied - 28.1 % and pensioners - 5.8 %. Of the working-age oralmans in terms of education level, 12 % have higher education, 24.2 % have secondary specialized education, 55.3 % have general secondary education, 8.5 % have no education.

It should also be noted that the concept «oralman» is not to everyone's taste and in the most part by the repatriates. Especially most of them get a formal civil status, at the same time, they still have not acquired real (normal) socio-economic, socio-cultural and moral-psychological situation inherent to «indigenous» citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Hence, they are not only objectively but also subjectively consider themselves to be largely neglected, and even in your own name. In this regard, such self-designation as «Agayin» (brothers and relatives), «countryman» (otandastar) are considered not successful, because nationals can be members of other ethnic groups. Most importantly, the last two expressions does not have characteristics of strictly scientific term applied simultaneously and in the same sense in many scientific disciplines, whereas the term «oralman» possesses these qualities and is quite a good and accurate concept most adequately Express the socio-economic, civil and proper ethnic status Kazakh returnees to their historical homeland.

In connection with the need for equal access to quality education of children-oralman and identifying the range of problems they faced in school were sociological survey, which were attended by teachers from three regions of Kazakhstan: Zhambyl, South Kazakhstan and East Kazakhstan region.

In the sociological survey involved 611 teachers, among them 329 are working in rural schools, 282 – in the city (Tables 2 and 3). All teachers who participated in the survey work in schools with Kazakh language teaching.

Since more than half of teachers have the higher and first category (Fig. 1 and 2), that is full reason to argue about the reliability of the results of a sociological survey.

Table 2 Data on respondents-the teachers taking part in a sociological survey (village)

The name of the region

Total number of respondents

Category

Class of teaching

the higher

I

II

without category

1-4

5-9

10-11

0-9

1-11

Zhambyl oblast

51

2

17

14

18

16

18

3

10

4

South Kazakhstan

213

49

71

75

18

47

75

21

39

29

East Kazakhstan

65

9

32

21

3

19

28

6

6

7

Total

329

60

120

110

39

82

121

30

55

40

Table 3

Information on the respondents-teachers who took part in the sociological survey (city)

The name of the region

Total number of respondents

Category

Class of teaching

the higher

I

II

without category

1-4

5-9

10-11

0-9

1-11

Zhambyl oblast

64

15

18

18

13

24

17

4

8

11

South Kazakhstan

143

38

48

46

11

18

29

3

0

57

East Kazakhstan

75

17

28

20

10

16

32

12

13

2

Total

282

70

94

84

34

58

78

19

21

70

So, in the course of the study survey questionnaires there were identified the problem of domestic experience of teaching children of immigrants: the insufficient development of educational strategy in the field of language teaching has a negative impact on the integration of oralman children in the learning process. Therefore, the integration of oralman children in the educational space of Kazakhstaneeds special attention both from the government and from the teaching community.

As we already mentioned above the acquisition of the Republic of Kazakhstan's independence led, the mass return of repatriates to their historical homeland. This process especially intensified after the adoption of 26 June 1992 «Law on immigration».

Migration policy and its framework of policy on immigrants is part of the state internal and external policy of Kazakhstan. Institutional and legal framework for regulating migration of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan and it is possible to imagine around the major institutions responsible for regulation of migration processes in general and processes associated with the phenomenon of repatriates.

According to the Law on Migration oralmans are given certain privileges, compensations, and other types of social assistance:

  1. free adaptation and integration services in the centers of adaptation and integration of repatriates, namely:
  • – providing information and reference services;
  • – learning the state language, at the request of Russian language;
  • – training on the history, culture and traditions of Kazakhstan, fundamentals of law and the opening of a small business;
  • – conducting various cultural events;
  • – legal aid;
  • – the provision of translation services;
  • – assistance in employment, professional training, retraining and raising of qualification;

 

  • – assistance in the provision of guaranteed volume of free medical care;
  • – help in receiving targeted social assistance;
  • – assistance in the acquisition of Kazakh citizenship and documentation;
  1. medical assistance in accordance with the legislation of Kazakhstan in the field of health;
  2. places in schools and pre-schools on an equal basis with citizens of the RK, the possibility of obtaining education in accordance with the allocated quota for admission in educational institutions of the technical and vocational, post-secondary and higher education in the amount determined by the Government of the RK;
  3. social protection equally with citizens of the RK;
  4. assistance in employment in accordance with the legislation of the RK.

The information base included the data of statistical reports of the Committee of labor, social protection and migration on the number of repatriates from foreign countries from 1991 to January 1, 2017, the National collection of «Education Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan» 1 October 2015, and also materials of periodicals and Internet resources.

 

References

  1. 1 Komitet truda, sotsialnoi zashchity i mihratsii Ministerstva truda i sotsialnoi zashchity naseleniia Respubliki Kazakhstan. [Labor, Social Protection and Migration Committee Ministry of labor and social protection of population of the Republic of Kazakhstan]. enbek.gov.kz. Retrieved from https://www.enbek.gov.kz/en/node/346728 [in Russian].
  2. 2 Zakon Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 22 iiulia 2011 hoda № 477-IV «O mihratsii naseleniia» [The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated 22 July 2011 № 477-IV «On migration»]. [in Russian]. adilet.zan.kz. Retrieved from http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/Z1100000477.
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy