The analysis of implementation of the state program in the field of development and functioning of languages in Kazakhstan On the example of the region of Karaganda

The results of the research concerning «The state program in the field of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020» which realization is carried out in education system of our country in three steps are presented in the article. In the course of the research authors analyzed formation and reforming of education system in recent years on the basis of the analysis of a number of the strategic documents existing in the sphere of language policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Along with it, the events of each stage of introduction of the program held on promoting of broad application of the state language, creating favorable conditions for studying and preservation of languages of the ethnoses living in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan and also introduction of system of monitoring of efficiency of results are analyzed. In general, implementation of this Program is directed to increase the level of language culture of Kazakhstan and also to creation of pedagogical conditions for development of the linguistic capital. Conclusions and proposals of authors of article, confirm relevance of the research subject which has the scientific- theoretical and practical importance.

Education is the most important tool of mobility. Having got an education, people find the place in labor market, climb a career ladder, reach material well-being that defines importance of the state educational policy. Besides, the quality education calculated on prospect solves a problem of entry of the state into the economy based on innovations. Development of the state is in direct dependence on quality of political decisions. In the block of social and economic policy of the country the educational policy which is understood as a package of measures, undertaken by the state concerning education as social institute has key value [1; 117].

The foundation for the modern legislation on education in Kazakhstan was laid from the date of obtaining Independence. Allocate several stages of development of educational system in independent Kazakhstan:

  • – (1991-1994) — formation legislative and the regulatory legal base of the higher education;
  • – (1995-1998) — modernization of system of the higher education, contents updating (reforming of the higher education in the republic most intensively began to be carried out since 1995).
  • – (1999-2000) — decentralization of management and financing of education, expansion of the academic freedoms of the organizations of education.
  • – (2001-2007) — strategic development of system of the higher and secondary education.
  • – (2005-2010) — search of optimum ways of adaptation of system of the higher education to conditions of market economy.

Stage-by-stage approach to development of education served updating of the relations in this sphere and also executed important social function of preservation and protection of an education system during crisis development of the country. In the course of reforming of an education system considerable workwascarried out on improvement of its legislative base in recent years. Now a number of strategic documents works in the sphere of language policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Laws and Codes of RK, Resolution of the Government of RK, MES of RK's Orders, Standards and regulations of public services and other documents (Table 1).

Table 1 The main strategic documents in the sphere of language policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan of August 30, 1995 Concept of language policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 04, 1996 No. 3186 The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «About science» of February 18, 2011 No. 407-IV Law «About Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan» of July 11, 1997 Concept of expansion of the sphere of functioning of a state language, increase in its competitiveness from 11.21.2007

The state program of development of education and science of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2016-2019 from 12.7.2010 No. 1118 The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «About education» (with changes and additions as of 12.29.2014) Labor code of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 23, 2015

The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «About the state youth policy» of February 9, 2015 Standard and legal documents in the field of regulation of language policy in Kazakhstan confirm the thought-over strategy in the sphere of language policy and the stage-by-stage solution of the arising questions from the state. In them the education system role in solution of problems, connected with a new language situation in the country is noted. The essence of this role is caused by a problem of implementation of the principle of continuity of the educational process based on quality of language competence of pedagogical workers. Feature of acts is that these documents complement each other.

In an education system of Kazakhstan since 2003 occurred about the radical changes connected with introduction of new state educational standards, the multilevel system of the higher education, formation of network of the state and national research universities, creation of conditions for the choice by students of individual educational trajectories, improvement of mechanisms of development of continuous education. The new approaches in the system of public administration and reforming of the interbudgetary relations which are important factors make impact on development of education. In this regard there is an active updating of standard and legal base. Lately changes and additions were made to the Law «About Education», «About the Higher and Postgraduate Professional Education», etc. [2, 3].

The special role in an education system of modern Kazakhstan is occupied by language education which functioning and development is priority for the country in recent years. The important state document in the field of language education is the State program in the field of development and functioning of languages in Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 (further - the Program).

Before passing to the analysis of this Program, it is expedient to give it definition. It is necessary to understand the system of actions and tools in state policy which are designed to provide within realization of key state functions, achievement of the goals and priorities in state policy in the sphere of safety and social and economic development [4; 84].

It is known that programs is the tool allowing to coordinate expenses and the expected results as makes the main value of programs as instrument of public administration. State programs give the chance to look in a complex at activity of departments and to define a role of departments and their strategic mission in development of the state and also to connect the strategy, the budget and programs of departments. Besides, there is a need of annual adjustment and specification of terms, target indicators, the amounts of financing of state programs. The changes made following the results of a year to the state program have to be proved and made on the basis of assessment of efficiency of the state program. Only such approach allows authorities to use all potential of program and target methods of budget planning [5, 6].

The state program of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 was accepted in 2011 for implementation of «The strategic development plan for the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2020» [7; 8]. The purpose of this Program is the harmonious language policy providing fullscale functioning of a state language as the most important factor of strengthening of national unity at preservation of languages of all ethnoses living in Kazakhstan.

The program is directed to the solution of the following tasks:

  • – improvement and standardization of methodology of training in a state language;
  • – development of infrastructure of training in a state language;
  • – stimulation of process of training in a state language;
  • – increase in prestige of the use of a state language;
  • – increase in demand of a state language;
  • – improvement and systematization of lexical fund of Kazakh;
  • – improvement of language culture;
  • – functioning of Russian in communicative and language space;
  • – maintaining language variety in Kazakhstan;
  • – studying of English and other foreign languages.

For implementation of the Program were held a number of actions according to the plan.

It should be noted that implementation of the Program is calculated on 3 stages: first stage: 2011-2013; second stage: 2014-2016; third stage: 2017-2020.

At the first stage (2011-2013) was improved the standard and legal and methodological base of further functioning and development of languages: work on improvement of standards of training in a state language, development of a legal basis of accreditation of the centers of training in Kazakh and implementation of rating assessment of their activity was carried out.

At this stage the complex was realizedof organizational and practical measures for promoting of broad application of a state language, to creating favorable conditions for studying and preservation of languages of the ethnoses living in Kazakhstan and also introduction of system of monitoring of efficiency of results.

We tried to analyse implementation of the Program on the example of the Karaganda region (Karaganda and also the satellite towns of Temirtau, Shakhtinsk, Saran, Abay, Balkhash, Zhezkazgan, Satpayev).

At the first stage within implementation of the Program in the Karaganda region were achieved the following results:

  • – the draft of standard programs for training of Kazakh through model of continuous education «Ka- zakh as foreign or as the second» is created;
  • – conducting testing in online the mode on pages of the operating official site of www.kazakhtest.kz is organized;
  • – in comparison with 2011 quantity of grants on training of teachers of Kazakh languages increased by 48 units;
  • – in the centers for training in languages work on training of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages for all categories of citizens, including for socially vulnerable categories of citizens is begun;
  • – broad explanatory propaganda activities on promoting of a state language with use of PR-technologies are ensured;
  • – the republican competition «State Language and Media» is annually held;
  • – in a state language it was published 741 sheets of the state digital topographic numerical maps, 4 state catalogs;
  • – the first numbers of the bulletin «Onomastikalakhabarshy» and «Terminologiyalakhabarshy», the almanac «TilzhaneKogam» and «TuganEl» are issued;

Following the results of the first half of the year 2012 the following results of the Program for target indicators are achieved: in the state media made less than 1) procent of Kazakh speaking content - 51,5%, at the plan 50 %; 2) procent of the adult population in the Republic which is knowing Russian - 91% at the plan of 90 % to 2020; 3) on training courses in the native language procent of the ethnoses national and cultural associations captured - 57 % at the plan of 57 %; 4) the population of the republic which is knowing English - 8,8 % at the plan of 8 % or it is exceeded for 0,8 %; 5), the population knowing three languages (state, Russian and English) - 7,3 % at the plan of 0,3 % or it is exceeded for 7 %. Results on target indicators of the Program are presented in the Diagram 1.

It is pleasant to note that special attention is paid to development of a state language. The positive tendency is explained also by the fact that historically Karaganda region is the Russian-speaking region in comparison with other areas. Therefore development of a state language in this region is paramount.

For example, in the city of Satpayev since 2010 functions multimedia-methodical office equipped with the modern equipment. Training in a state language is provided according to state standard of RK. Classes are given in the A1, A2, V1, V2 levels of the KAZTEST system. The contingent learning a state language in Satpayev, is presented in Table 2.

Table 2 The contingent learning a state language in Satpayev

Year

Total number

Public servants

Civil servants

Physical person

Kazakhs

Other nationalities

2012

174

2

168

4

7

167

2013

153

16

112

25

24

129

Total

327

18

280

29

31

296

As shown the Diagram 2 the number of teachers of Kazakh, trainees within the state educational order – 608 people at the plan not less than 500 people; growth of number of new television projects in a state language on air of the state media – 5 % (at the plan of 10 % for 2012); a share of the state information order focused on support of the printed media leaving in a state language – 53 % at the plan not less than 50 %; a share of the state centers of training in languages providing services in studying of English and other foreign languages from the total number of the centers – 24,5 % (the plan in 2014 of 50 %). Ratio of number of teachers of Kazakh, trainees within the state educational order and other language centers we placed in the Diagram 2.

 

For expansion of the sphere of functioning and development of a state languageis carried out a number of the actions directed to promotion of functioning of a state language. The commission is created on further improvement of the state language policy at which meeting reports are heard of executive bodies on holding actions and performance of legislations on languages in the region quarterly. The working group on further improvement of the state language policy are created also in Osakarovsky and Nurinsky districts, in the cities of Priozersk, Saran, Satpayev.

According to the regional program of development and functioning of languages are held various educational and methodical seminars, conferences. For formation of sense of patriotisto Kazakh, respect for the native languages at children anyouth are held festivals, competitions, etc. actions. Monthly monitoring on work is carried out of record keeping in a state language among regional managements, city and regional akimats and also institutions subordinated to them. The document flow indicator in state language in public authorities of area in 2009 was 39,5 %, and in 2010 makes 74,5 %.

For improvement of quality otranslation work in office-work in a state language were organized advanced training courses of translators. Since 2009 on the courses «Practice of synchronous translation» work is conducted on training of improvement of practice of synchronous translation.For further activization of work on training of the public and civil servants and the adult population to Kazakh and systematization of this work at management was created «The Karaganda regional Center of training in languages of the Karaganda region».

From 2007 to 2010 2018 experts of the different sphere of work were captured by three-level training in a state language. Training is conducted on the basis of the educational-methodical Saryarka complex developed on the funds allocated from the regional budget. In 2010 the electronic textbook is created І level the study- methodical Saryarka complex. Now is developed the electronic version ІІ the educational and methodical complex level. Today on area centers which train the public and civil servantwork: «Center to training in languages of the Karaganda region» and «Center of languages» of the city of Balkhash.

Thus, as a result of implementation of the Program the share of the population knowing a state language increased: 2011 - 39,5 %, 2012 - 42, 6 %, 2013 - 46 %. Increase in a share of the population knowing a state language is presented in the Diagram 3.

 

For implementation of the cultural project «The Triune of Languages» since 2008 work on free training in English of public servants is carried out, today it is trained 261 public servants. The quantity knowing three languages of youth, participating at the Olympiade «TilDaryn» increases. The project «The Triune of Languages» is implemented also at schools and kindergartens of area. Growth of number of the population knowing state, Russian, English languages is shown in the Diagram 4.

The level educational and methodical complex Saryarka is developed for training in Kazakh 3rd. In 2010 the electronic textbook of level of the educational and methodical complex Saryarka is published, the collection of tasks of development of language, the collection of tests, the illustrated explanatory dictionary, workbooks are developed and published. In 2009 UMK «Saryarka» received the second prize-winning place at the republican competition «The Best Methodical Grant on Studying of Kazakh», organized by republican fund of development of a state language at the President of Kazakhstan.

At the republican competitionorganized by Committee on languages of the Ministry of Culture of RK, applicants from the Karaganda region became owners of prize-winning places. In 2006-2008 they occupied ІІ, ІІІ, І places on republican «The best teacher of Kazakh». Participants from the Karaganda region at the republican Olympiade «TilDaryn» in 2008 took ІІ the place, and in 2009 І the place. Representatives of the Karaganda region received the 3rd prize-winning place in 2008 at the competitio«The Best Translator», a competition of young poets of M. Makatayev and in 2009 on Abay readings. In 2010 the team of the Karaganda region of Zhaskyran took ІІІ the place at the republican competition «StatLanguage — in Public Service».

The state support is given to studying of the native languages of the ethnoses living in Kazakhstan, in this plan is carried out purposeful work on education of spiritual unity, promotion of friendship of the people. At the national cultural centers work 15 sunday schools, in them train in the native language of ten nationalities living in area. Facultative courses are also organized at 6 high schools where train in the Polish, Tatar and Korean languages. Representatives of the national cultural centers took active part in the festival devoted to Day of languages of thpeople of Kazakhstan and also in the competition «The Best Sunday School» in training in the native language and at a seminar on exchange of experience of work on teaching the native languages «Effective methods of training in the native language in Sundaschools».

In the areafunction over 237 means mass information, including 39 electronic, 1 news agency and 197 printing editions which also contribute to the development state and other languages. From them 16 in a state language, 94 in Russian, 126 in two languages, 1 in English. For promotion of a state language, traditions of the Kazakh people are presented to the audience in a state language in 2007 – 16, in 2008 – 18, in 2009 – 23, in 2010 – 28, in 2011 – 36 telecasts. In media articles were published propagandizing language policy in 2009 – 97, in 2010 – 147, 2011 – 385.

Within the second stage was realized (2014-2016) the complex of practical measures for introduction of new standards, technologies and methods in the field of studying and application of state language and also maintaining language variety. Together with it at this stage was conducted work ocarrying out accreditation of the centers of training in a state language and also introduction of rating assessment of their activity. On the basis of the drafted regulatory legal base along with strengthening of controof compliance with the law in the sphere of the use of languages will be begun work on streamlining of terminological fund of Kazakh, ensuring systematization of onomastic space

 

Dynamic growth is observed captured by training in a state language For example, in 2013 – 153, in 2014 – 157, in 2015 – 160 listeners, in 2016 – 165 listeners. The share of public servants made – 46 %. Level of assimilation of a state language is considered by the number of the persons which handed over testing on the Kaztest system and who received the certificate. In 2014 122 public servants handed over testing on the Kaztest system. By results of testing the lowest point-58, maximum point-131. In 2015 52 persons passed diagnostic test, 10 people were tested for the certificate. By results of testing the lowest point – 47, the maximum point-135. 6 people which were tested for the certificate of the A2 level received certificates.In 2016 on May 19 passed diagnostic test of 57 people, 10 people were tested for the certificate. By results of testing the lowest point – 56, the maximum point-126. From 10 employees 5 were certified which were tested for the certificate of the B1 level. In September, 2016 54 persons passed diagnostic test, 10 people passed the test for the certificate of the C1 level, 36 people for the certificate of the B1 level (Table 3).

Table 3 Diagnostic testing, people

Year

Total captured by the test on the KAZTEST system

Public servants

Civil servants

Physical person

Level

А1

А2

В1

В2

С1

2014

122

122

0

0

1

65

41

15

0

2015

52

14

38

0

1

18

23

9

1

2016

111

8

103

0

7

46

44

14

0

 

285

144

141

0

9

129

108

38

1

1359 people wrote the all-Kazakhstan dictation devoted to the patriotic act «Mangilik El». The quality of knowledge of a dictation was – 72,2 %. Representatives of the ethnocultural centers, public figures, the public and civil servants were involved in writing of a dictation.

The second direction is promoting and expansion of scope of a state language. Target indicators: a share of Kazakh speaking content in the state media (by 2014 - 53 %, by 2017 - 62 %, by 2020 - 72 %) (Table 4).

Table 4 Share of materials in the Kazakh and Russian languages published in the state media

Name's of city

Year

Total amount

Share of the published materials In Kazakh language

Share of the mater in Russian l

published als anguage

Newspapers magazines

TV channel

Newspapers magazines

TV channel

Newspapers magazines

TV channel

cm²

min

cm²

%

min

%

cm²

%

min

%

Satpayev

2015

227 568

5640

113 784

50

2820

50

113 784

50

2820

50

2016

168 052

4014

84 026

50

2007

50

84 026

50

2007

50

2017

241 688

4473

120 844

50

2236,5

50

120 844

50

2236,5

50

The state language is widely applied when holding mass cultural, sporting and other public events which are held in the cities. In the Sharayna newspaper in headings: «Language» and «Language policy» are published 35(2015), 36 (2016) articles.

On promotion of multilingualism are held in the 4th quarter 2016 the following events. So, for example, the competition «Tilsheber» takes place annually in Karaganda within the cultural project of the President of Kazakhstan «The Triune of Languages» at the initiative of GU «Department of Culture and Development of Languages of the City of Karaganda» among experts on the Kazakh, Russian and English languages. The purpose of its carrying out is support and encouragement of talented youth, knowing three languages, formation of language culture, education of youth in the spirit of the Kazakhstan patriotism, respect for culture and languages of other nationalities. Students and teachers of the universities and colleges of the city aged from 18 up to 30 years participate in a competition.

Conference on a subject: «Yshtygurly til sayasaty - zhastardyn bolashagy men mumkindigi», creative day «Ysh til», participants of a competition of readers competed in eloquence and an oratoric in a state language, recited verses of Abay, Magzhan, Mukagali Mukatayev, Baubek Bulkyshev, creative composition

«Halychtar dostastydy», the intellectual game «Syr-sandyk», a city olipiada «Til sheberі» among youth to knowing three languages, a regional competition of verbal artists and a seminar on a subject «KAZTEST zhyesi», the festive program by Day of languages of the people of Kazakhstan, «a round table» on a subject: «Ysh til bilim beru», «The Olympiade for experts on the Kazakh, Russian and English languages among pupils of 9-11 classes».

A Republican competition «Parasatty of polices» is annually held under the auspices of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of RK. The purpose of this competition of education of staff of Department of Internal Affairs in the spirit of patriotism to the Homeland, Language, History of the people. In Company «KEGOC» is annually held a competition on knowledge of a state language among the staff of the Company. The purpose of the competition is promotion and promoting, expansion of the sphere of use, increase in prestige of the use of a state language and also identification of the problems and solutions connected with the status of Kazakh. Here it here in the way, holding competitions, the government tries to involve the people in studying of a state language. Usually such competitions leave behind positive and positive emotions therefore holding such here competitions is very necessary.

In the educational and methodical center «Tiltanu» function 9 groups on training of a state language, the number of listeners - 104, 9 groups on training of English, listeners - 124.

In 2016 in the city of Zhezkazgan is held testing for determination of level of knowledge of a state language among civil and public servants on the Kaztest system. 200 people participated in diagnostic testing, from 46 employees 31 received the certificate.

Thus, increase in a share of the population knowing state, Russian and English languages considerably in the Diagram 5.

The third stage (2017-2020) of the Program assumes the organization of work on introduction of mechanisms of control of extent of acquisition of a state language. Along with it system monitoring of degree of demand of a state language in all spheres of public life, quality of its appropriate application and level of proficiency is supposed at further preservation of positions of other languages. Work will be continued in the sphere of onomastics, terminology, promoting of application of a state language and also on preservation of the tolerant language environment.

In general, results of realization of Gosprogramma for the last 3 years showed average efficiency, on mark system are appropriated 2,66 points from 4 possible. Extent of achievement of target indicators and indicators made of results 88 %.

For identification of level of satisfaction with implementation of the State program of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 by the institute of economic researches conducted questionnaire of the population. As showed poll, 85 % of respondents are informed on the Program. In general the population is satisfied with the course of implementation of the Program. More than a half of respondents constantly use a state language, the majority (63,7 %) considers that recently language culture improved, that is the level of development of language knowledge, skills, creative abilities of the personality increased. A half of respondents is satisfied with quality of educational and methodical literature on training in a state language.

 

Within further realization of Gosprogramma will be carried outinformation and explanatory works with the population about the existing opportunities of training in a state language, to fully involve the capacity of the Internet and television, to actively involve the private sector to actions for training of the population state and to other languages and also work on strengthening of material and technical resources of the centers of training in languages of the cities and areas.

The analysis showed that the advantage of the Program of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 is its complex character: actions of the Program are directed to acquisition of a state language, to promoting and expansion of scope of a state language, to increase in level of language culture of Kazakhstan citizens and to creating favorable conditions for development of the linguistic capital.

The carried-out analysis of the Program allowed us to draw the following conclusions:

  • – he purposes and tasks which are directed to strengthening of the status of a state language on functioning of Russian and studying of English in general are implemented through the Plan of measures developed by authorized public authority for the entire period of implementation of the Program and approved by the resolution of the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
  • – all actions provided by the Program are based on priority of development of a state language as most important factor of strengthening of national unity and directed to full-fledged satisfaction of spiritual and cultural and language needs of citizens [7];
  • – universal work on implementation of the Program of functioning and development of languages is in the Republic on constant state control.

In general, system implementation of the Program for forecasts will lead to improvement of a situation in the field of development and functioning of Kazakh on the basis of scientific data on functioning of Kazakh as state language, data on level and quality of knowledge of Kazakh and data on relationship of the Kazakh and Russian languages.

 

References

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  2. Zakon Respubliki Kazahstan ot 27 iiulia 2007 hoda № 319-III «Ob obrazovanii» [The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of July 27, 2007 No. 319-III «About education»]. zakon.kz. Retrieved from http://www.zakon.kz/ [in Russian].
  3. Zakon Respubliki Kazahstan «O vysshem i poslevyzovskom professionalnom obrazovanii» [Law «About the Higher and Postgraduate Professional Education»]. online.zakon.kz. Retrieved from http://online.zakon.kz/ [in Russian].
  4. Golovina, T.A. (2012). Hosudarstvennaia prohramma Rossiiskoi Federatsii «Dostupnaia sreda» na 2011-2015 hodу – posledovatelnoe reshenie problem dlia liudei s osobymi potrebnostiami [The state program of the Russian Federation «The available environment» for 2011-2015 – the consecutive solution of problems for people with special needs]. Vestnik Cherepovetskoho hosudarstvennoho universiteta – Bulletin of the Cherepovets State University, Vol. 3, 4(44), 84–86 [in Russian].
  5. Bogacheva, O.V., Lavrov, A.M., & Yastrebova, O.K. (2010). Mezhdunarodnyi opyt prohrammnoho biudzhetirovaniia [International experience of program budgeting]. Finansy – Finance, 12, 4–13 [in Russian].
  6. Barylin, S.V., & Kysmarceva ,V.S. (2010). Otsenka rezultativnosti i effektivnosti realizatsii dolhosrochnykh tselevykh prohramm [Evaluation of effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of long-term target programs]. Finansy – Finance, 5, 22–27 [in Russian].
  7. Hosudarstvennaia prohramma razvitiia i funktsionirovaniia yazykov v Respublike Kazakhstan na 2011-2020 hody [The state program of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020. Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of June 29, 2011 No. 110]. adilet.zan.kz. http://adilet.zan.kz
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy