Problems of macrosocietal structure of the contemporary community, their communication and interrelation

The article reveals the sociocultural directions of communication processes, the communication model of the community on the basis of the principles of the sociocultural approach. We believe that, given the reference to the methodology of structural and functional analysis, it is possible to identify the corresponding societal structures. These structures have the widest level of the social system, meaning the consideration of society as an aggregate of the most complex and large systems with developed and ramified social structures.


Sociocultural directions of communication processes contain the potential for a holistic and systematic revision of views on public life and the exchange of information in it [1-3]. This trend can be realized by transferring to the macrolevel of the communicative-logical analysis of the already known concept of integration, which assumes the stabilizing role of various components of the culture of communicants - life values, experience of cognition, social ideas, customs and traditions acting as generally shared, i.e. accepted by the majority of members of this community [4].

Another basic assumption concerns the process of psychologization and socialization, during which the individual assimilates constructive value-normative patterns of communicative behavior in society and, through his roles, integrates into the macrosocietal structure of the modern community.

This search leads to the development of a number of special concepts, such as «function», «functional imperatives or requirements», and a number of others, which make it possible to identify the corresponding societal structures [5, 6]. Given macrosocetal structure have the widest level of consideration of society as a set of the most complex and large systems with developed and ramified functional structures, social institutions that are closely related to each other and interact, performing numerous communication functions.

Materials and methods

The societal system (from the Latin societas - community) is a system of relations and interconnected acts of communication, considered at the level and in different statuses of the community. The term «socie- tal» was introduced by A.G. Keller, who compared it, above all, with the organizational moments of communication in the social life of a person [7].

The societal system as a reproducer of not only social qualities and functional communication structures as bio-psycho-neurolinguistic indicators of communicants included in communication proves that the phenomenon of expectations and mutual clarification of the meanings and meaning of a communicative dialogue plays the role of a socially important process. Where statements as acceptable and reasonable actions represent communicative behavior, allowing participants in the interaction to induce a partner to interact with actions [8, 9].

The societal structure in its turn is a stable connection of the components in the social system and the psychological environment of the person. The main elements of the societal structure of the community are individuals with their in-vividness in relation to the internal multiple criteria of the communication resource.

Modern humanities lawfully calls the process of communication a communicative approach to the processes of managing the exchange of information and are in search of a methodology for ensuring the effectiveness, efficiency and quality of communication contacts in societal aspects.

The most important conclusions about communication can be summarized as follows. Communication is the interaction of two or more universal and multifaceted systems, occurring in different situations using technology with natural means as bio-neuronally electronic message channels.

Characteristics, parameters of modern interacting communication systems, situations of information interchange, at best, are typologized by common types of communication at the expense of different socioeconomic relations, according to different ideological or socio-psychological criteria [10].

As in any system, all the types of communications allocated are in complex interaction, affect each other, and the identification of a database of these types of communications is necessary only for structuring the knowledge base, deepening the sign-semantic structures in a narrow area of the communication process.

Classification and systematization of the knowledge base and data bank of information technologies allows later to determine the similarity and differences between the phenomena, the possibility of applying knowledge from other areas, to put forward scientific hypotheses, to model the modernization processes.

The real process of communication includes simultaneously a lot of allocated as a spring types of social features of communication, and contains internal psychological signs with different types of neurolinguistic properties of communicants. The essence of social communication is the transmission of a message containing information, one participant in the communication to another participant. The act of conveying a certain content of information in the course of communication in sociology is called a signal. When choosing a signal means through communication channels, its dependence on the level of retranslation styles of erudition and personal characteristics, as well as the internal psychological, moral and moral status of the communicant, is manifested [11].

These personal characteristics of communicants affect both the perception and reproduction of information content, and a real assessment of the level of genetic memory for the condition of forming a situation of internal communication. Psychological science determines the presence of internal genetic memory in communication subjects that allow them to process information in their minds, forming an image of the perception of the communication situation.

Communication processes, especially business ones, or as business communications, are carried out with specific goals and intentions, therefore, the parties of communication strive to provide not just data, but already, in their opinion, the finished information, processed, structured, formulated in such a way that in contacts get the expected result, the necessary behavior, a positive reaction.

However, business communication involves the possibility of a response that does not accurately reflect the expected result. Since the communicant is not always able to «turn off» immediately its communicative uniqueness, individuality and present the objective content of information, since the process of «presenting» is a product of the work of the consciousness of the individual and must reflect its subjectivity [12].

By the signs and properties of communication types, communication subjects can be associated with the diverse parameters of these communications (between whom and by whom communication takes place) and all kinds of communicative barriers (Table 1).

Table 1 Typologies of communication on the grounds


Types of communication



Interlevel communication

Communication «leader-subordinate», «leader-subordinate group»


Informal communication

Related to informal groups and unofficial issues, as well as the dissemination of rumors about official matters


Formal communication

Written and oral speech

Each member of the social community at the societal level must have the opportunity to include in the system of public relations. The social personality, has a huge number of social ties, has a certain status. This status defines a set of standard rules for communication and communication and puts forward a number of different provisions for each status with a set of roles, specific ideological directions, psychological properties and character composition. It is impossible to take into account the diversity of the properties of each personality, so the social and psycho-linguistic properties of the individual are important for similar, objective conditions and the definition of communication barriers. These barriers are grouped and analyzed in different ways. Thus, in the open information sources, the micro-level and macro-level communication barriers are distinguished (Table 2).

Table 2 Communication barriers of microlevel and macrolevels

Communicational microbarriers

Communicational macrobarriers

Psychological attitude of the sender of information in relation to the recipient (addressee)

Increasing the capacity of networks, channels, means of transmission and coding of information, as a result of which some of the information is lost or distorted due to overloading

Psychological attitude of the recipient (addressee) in relation to the information sender;

Simplified information, carrying in itself a few constructive ideas, loosely related to the context of communication

Low ability of the recipient's perception of the format of the given information (difficult or specific vocabulary, complexity of phrases, national accent, etc.)

Language barrier (foreign-language communication environment, professional slang, not perceived nonverbal communication style)

Absence of feedback

Organizational causes

Biased relationship of both contractors of communication to the discussed topic (idea) and the argument given

Technical causes

Despite a variety of reasons, one can try to imagine the internal structure of communication barriers as a factor linking several root causes - the causes of misunderstanding. In this regard, the emergence of a barrier of misunderstanding is also associated with a number of psychological and other order of situations in the societal structure of the community. These kinds of situations arise because of a number of speech-language errors in the transmission of information; this is the so-called semantic misunderstanding. First of all, it occurs when communicants communicate on various lexical slangs, have significant distortions in the linguistic system of speech. While implementing communications, take into account the presence of such «barriers of misunderstanding» as semantic, stylistic, logical, and phonetic. And therefore there is a need for communicants to master methods of overcoming them. Overcoming of communication barriers is carried out in various ways - ways of transferring the communication process to the interpersonal level: influence on positive motives of behavior and influence on negative motives. You need to know how to prevent the undesirable impact of communication on events [13].

Considering the communicative process, it is necessary to determine the violations that have arisen among the participants of communication. These errors are most related to the processes of perception and understanding of speech and to individual statements of communicants.

The factors of communicative failures also include language errors. Nevertheless, as practice shows, not always situational language errors are errors of behavior.

In this article, we propose to consider communicative errors as a violation of the formula models of behavior, including a set of rules governing our mode of action in accordance with social requirements - etiquette - on the example of behavioral culture.

Formal models of behavior as an integral part of the external and internal culture of communication in the activity of societal structures are presented as a factor that forms communicative activities, knowledge, attitudes and behavioral responses.

It is known that communication could be implemented between units of different sizes and complexity of social groups. The communication activity expands the movement of basic meanings and meanings of communication in social space and acts as a spiritual part of the activity of every individual.

The convergence of information technologies and communication interrelations also lead to the emergence of a new concept of «information and communication technologies» (ICT), which standardize communication procedures at a certain level [14].

It is known that this type of communication leads to the level of communication culture and the type of models of the communication mode of action with a set of bio - psycho - neurolinguistic systems of rules of interaction and information exchange.

Considering the present fact, it can be concluded that only by following a certain pace and rhythm of communication interactions of the rules of the culture of communication, and also adhering to the existingaccepted by the communicants of the accepted established system of values, there is recognition of oneself as a member of this societal structure.

The rate of human activity can connect communicants or isolate them from each other, while the rhythm shows the synchrony or asynchrony of communication process. Therefore, the ability to observe the space-time tempo-rhythm of communication phenomena is the basis of successful communication.

What are the technologies of this process? In order for communication to take place, the psychological mood, conditioned by both social and personal circumstances, are also important.


First, consider the term psycho-linguistic tonality. This is a positive attitude of the individual to the perception of information, which makes him either sympathetic, or an opponent, or a neutral consumer of information. Information is collected on the basis of two main criteria - social motivation and individual orientation of the communicant's personality. Thus, the needs, interests, values, goals of communicants are different levels of socio-psychological knowledge and communication technologies. These technologies show the level of communication at different stages of communication (Table 3).

Table 3 The level of communication at different stages of communication


Communication level



First level

Consumption of something, extraction of something, is there an accounting for the needs of others


Medium level

Deep psychological motivation, orientation of action


Below average level

Deep psychological and more informational


Deep level

Rational motivation, orientation of action on some result

The result of the communication process, from the point of view of its development, can be estimated according to the following parameters (Table 4).

Table 4 Communication parameters at different stages of communication






A parameter that reflects the diversity of motivational factors of communication: motives, needs and goals. The more a person's motives, needs, goals, the more developed his motivational sphere of communication



More flexible is the motivational sphere which has more communication motivators are used to meet the needs of communicants



The more differences in strength and frequency of actualizations of motivational formations of a certain level of communicants, the higher the hierarchy of their motivational sphere

The initial concept for the study of communicative personality is the concept of personal motivation in communication has a great importance. So, the motivation for communication is developed relatively independently, and only the integration of the positive content of communication has an ability to give a complete picture of the determination of communicative behavior in communication.


Summarizing the above, we can note that motivational communication will be effective only when the communicant not only successfully masters all available psychological and technological methods and communication skills, but also follows the development of science, annually updates the content and form of the communication material, regularly uses feedback from communicants of the societal structure.

This convergence in communication between communicants makes it very easy to reconcile the initial target positions of communicants, the methods of communication, the terminology of established forms of communication.

Analyzing the communication situation in the societal structure, we noted that the transfer of information could be considered not only as a language structure, but also as patterns of behavior, which often shows the sign of a speaker's belonging to a common communicative-behavioral culture.

And this phenomenon often leads to communicative luck, which is a sufficient environment for its emergence. Sociability is a useful component of the individual in general, since communications occupy 80 % of the entire human existence.



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Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy