Introduction of polylingual education in Kazakhstan: experience and problems

In the article, on the basis of language, according to scientists, a deal with some topical problems of modern linguistic diversity is real. One of the important aspects of economic and social modernization taking place in society change, including in Kazakhstan, said it is in the sphere of language policy. In a world of many modern and multilingual culture languages, and thus relevant, effective and viable search programs the consolidation of society on the basis of language analyze the problems in this area. The integration of Kazakhstan into the world community related to the implementation of the understanding of a simple truth: new knowledge, open doors for fluency and attention of Asian, that the priority for language training. The language of the ethnic community is an integral part of the cultural life of the people. The revival and development of certain infrastructure elements of language structure dependent national groups, as well as the influence of external factors. Orientation of the public language has certain characteristic functional of the system with features, history, and social, political, determined by clear phenomena. According to the authors, speech, interaction, only in any language and the dictionary with the Fund and its structure, the interaction of linguistic action is carried out using one or more languages. The interaction of social relationships, or «especially in the style of the selected one language or in different languages, as well as socially in the team's only one-not only in society, among the wider social formation of several societies forming part of the territory of mastering the lan- guage». In bilingualism and multilingualism the term «concept» means equality of languages. Multilingualism in the end is important, however, the requirement of sign of the priority of the state language was one of the main legal Independence of implementation.

Introduction. In activity of any modern society language holds special position and exerts considerable impact on many parties of its functioning as an element of culture. Kazakhstan society is not an exception, especially, when we speak about importance of economic, social and interethnic stability. The social and economic, political processes happening in Kazakhstan in recent years led to change of a conduct of life and thinking of many Kazakhstan citizens. Harmonization of the interethnic relations on new democratic basis is integrally connected with national and language processes of society and, respectively, with language policy of the state.

The social and political events which gained the development at the beginning of 90 years caused a number of the problems connected with obtaining sovereignty of federal republics and, as a result of it is finding by national languages of the status state. One of the main theoretical methodological problems of process of formation of a state language is definition of its functional orientation.

Materials and methods. Language is the integral component of cultural life of ethnic community. Revival and development of language structure of separate national groups depends on both infrastructural elements, and on influence of external factors. The functional orientation of language has the distinctive features, determined by history, social, political phenomena inherent in a certain public system. In this regard, V. Humboldt's remark that «so far the spirit of the people with its live originality continues both to work itself is fair and to influence language, this the last is improved and enriched that in turn inspiring influences spirit» [1].

At the same time V. K. Zhuravlev analyzes that «in the history of linguistics it is difficult to find a little serious linguist who essentially denies the influence of society on development of language», but a lot of things was not allowed and do not allow a possibility of the natural self-movement of language matter, language structure without influence of external forces» [2; 5]. Level of scientific development of problems of a ratio of external and internal factors in the course of language activity of public system suggests that the problem is very difficult.

As Y.D. Desheriyev determines «it was to some extent analyzed in many studies, however, a comprehensive review of the problem of influence within social and structural factors on the functioning and development of language in a broad historical context for the first time in the work of V.K. Zhuravlev, regardingthe problems of correlation of language and speech, notes that «the language of communication is verbal interaction. A direct reality of language is speech» [2; 4-9].

According to the author, speech interaction takes place only in any language and is connected with its structure and lexicon, and language interaction is possible by means of one or several languages. Social interaction is implemented or «by specially selected styles of the same language, or – different languages», and also «is carried out not only in this social collective — society, but also between several societies entering larger social education» [2; 10].

V. K. Zhuravlev specifies that "in the interaction mechanism «language – society» at least three main educations come to light:

  1. Actually social education, public collective, society as something whole, integrated with the purpose of a certain social interaction;
  2. Language collective united by a community of speech interaction, a Socio Alem;
  3. language education is the Lingvema performing function of speech interaction in this or that society, in this or that sphere of communication» [2; 12]. In activity of any society the culture holds special position and exerts considerable impact on many parties of its organization. Besides, proceeding from the analysis of the concept of V.K. Zhuravlev, it is possible to assume that the culture, and also economic growth exert impact on formation of society of the social Socio Alem Volume group - groups of the individuals communicating in one language depends on extent of development of such important social institutes of society as science and education where in this process an important role is played by the frequency of language interaction. Civic consciousness formation Kazakhstan societies are an important task in questions of formation of statehood. Extent of social and language interaction of individuals fully depends on extent of interaction of language collectives. According to the famous researcher L. Bloomfield, «language collective is a group of the people interacting by means of the speech. All so-called highest forms of activity of the person, that is kinds of activity, specific to it, are generated by close cooperation between certain people which we call society, and this cooperation, in turn, is carried out by means of language; thus, language collective is the most considerable of social groups» [3].

It is necessary to recognize that language as the phenomenon social, serving as the means of communication and communications of language collectives has creative character as it is difficult to find any subsystem deprived of language application in public system. «It is necessary to take that circumstance that any languages develop in a context with each other into account, and loans of new lexicon belong to one of ways of designation of the new realities and concepts which are inevitably appearing in the presence of political, economic and cultural ties between the people. And communication is closer, the more arises the reasons of language loan» [4].

Factor of preservation of international peace and harmony is the language policy promoting interaction and mutual enrichment of their cultures. Language of any ethnos is a basis, the main condition of preservation of its traditions and culture.

According to definition of the state language formulated in the Law «About Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan», the state language is «the language of public administration, the legislation, legal proceedings and office-work operating in all spheres of the public relations in all territory of the state». Function of public administration identifies function of the government as which element the state language can serve. It emphasizes the special priority provision of a state language in relation to other national languages.

Developing R.M. Blakar's theory about language as the tool of the social power, it is possible to assume that the state language should be considered as the government tool. The concept «state» from which there is a definition of the «state» language represents, first of all, the sovereign organization of the power, the defining element of the state which functions by means of action of system of the special bodies and institutes which are carrying out such functions as management, expression of public concerns, providing a legal order and others. It is necessary to carry institute of «state language» to one of such institutes of the modern state which important feature of a political system is the institutionalization characteristic of all main types of activity in society [5].

As L.A. Baydeldinov fairly notes, «In general the Law «About Languages in the Republic of Kazakh- stan», having brought necessary base to development of an ethnolinguistic situation in the country, assists in the social plan to consolidation of the Kazakhstan society, forms a situation of mutual trust, a consent of citizens, provides moral and psychological comfort in the multiethnic state» [6; 65].

Discussion. At the present stage the situation in the ratio of functioning of the Kazakh and Russian languages in the multiethnic state significantly changed that demands more active scientific studying of this problem. It is still insufficiently mastered and studied.

Let's try to make attempt of studying of a similar question on the example of the North Kazakhstan area where still Russian-speaking population prevails. It is necessary to stipulate at once that preliminary work demanded great efforts. Several factors which need to be considered were revealed.

First, the number of schools increased in national language, the Institute of language and literature opened, there is a department of Kazakh at the North Kazakhstan state university, quality of professional and scientific training of specialists in a state language of training improved, newspapers in Kazakh are issued.

Secondly, in the area on the basis of Small Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan with assistance of Akimat of area and a multinational asset of the intellectuals the School of the national Renaissance was created (the second in our republic). It is according to the status an independent legal entity, in its eight offices: Azerbaijani, Armenian, Jewish, German, Polish, Tatar, Ukrainian, Checheno-Ingush. In each office the native language, literature, geography, history, art and culture, ethnography, national crafts is learned.

Thirdly, a part in language policy is played by public and cultural associations among which «There is a Cossack Tili», «Ladas», «The Russian community» and others.

Fourthly, the significant role is played by literary collections and books of authors, masters of the word. Their role would be more considerable if government institutions gave them financial support.

Fifthly, it is necessary to celebrate holidays and anniversaries of great writers Abay, Pushkin, etc. cultural figures and literature to support a role of clubs and literary and art salons, as potential opportunities are.

It should be noted this important humanitarian act which successfully decides in difficult social and economic conditions which was not carried out at relative economic stability in time of the Union State. Every year the role of a state language in institutions of preschool and secondary education increases. Considering that circumstance that children receive the first skills of social communication at communication with peers, in their primary language training preschool institutions have to play a huge role. In all places all possible measures for increase in their quantity, especially on expansion of number of the preschool organizations with training Kazakh are taken. Kindergartens work with training at a state language, in some kindergartens training in two languages is entered. Life requires from us close attention to education by the principle of a continuity, creation of training in the classical scheme: the preschool organization of education – school – the highest (specialized secondary) educational institution. In these educational institutions language training of citizens of the republic is carried out.

When determine tactics of language policy we have to consider such important factors as the hard to determine nature of objective assimilatory language processes, their lag effect, upon transition from the ideology assuming a possibility of the quick and painless translation to domination of Kazakh to ideology of gradual and stage-by-stage development of spheres of its application, creation of conditions for carrying out natural laws of language interaction and development of languages. In this plan it is difficult not to agree with N.G. Shaymerdenova's opinion: «Functioning in the territory of Kazakhstan typologically the versatile of the Kazakh, Russian languages and languages of other ethnos gives the chance to speak about existence in the territory of our country of the Eurasians union of languages» [7].

Questions of implementation of the Law «About Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan» and implementation of the program for development of languages are regularly considered at meetings of management, department of domestic policy, at meetings on the supervised questions. The most noticeable results are achieved in office-work of public institutions here. According to the approved schedule in the organizations of the city office-work in two languages is entered. Established posts of translators increase. Further expansion of the sphere of the use of a state language in system of public authorities demands the corresponding language training of shots. At the enterprises, city institutions the number of the groups learning a state language increased. Heads of institutions carry out monitoring of acquisition of shots of a state language. The government employees participating in a competition have an interview on knowledge of Kazakh. Over time it has to become an obligatory norm for all categories of government employees, irrespective of qualification requirements and functional duties.

Results. Recently increase number of the government employees understands and read in a state language, however for the solution of the main objective of language policy – ensuring functioning of a state language as the main language of public administration is noted – it still is not enough.

Actively there is a work on intensive training in the Kazakh, Russian, English languages. Laws RK provide legal guarantees and respect for all used languages, protect inalienable right of citizens of any nationality to development of the language and forbid any forms of discrimination of citizens.

Certain positive shifts in development of a state language are in the sphere of work of mass media. The volume of transfers increased in Kazakh. Besides the information program, on the channel various programs in a state language weekly go on the air.

From year to year in higher education institution set of the students study at a state language increases, there are groups of students in three languages. In average special educational institutions the number of groups of the students studying at Kazakh increases. In pedagogical and medical colleges conditions for implementation of the state program of functioning of development of languages are created.

Conclusion. The most important cure of a language problem is the principle of free development of languages of all people living in one territory. It is clear, that it is a problem not only linguistic and social, but also political.

We are convinced that Russian will keep the major functions of language of international communication in the nearest future in Kazakhstan including in the territory of our region. In this sense, the important stabilizing role is played not only by the biggest diaspora in the republic which the Russian diaspora and Russian-speaking, but also the fact that it is connected with it by close economic and cultural contacts. Practice shows that material resources and training of highly qualified personnel of linguists, continuous increase in their qualification are necessary for expansion and deepening of opportunities in the field of effective acquisition of languages. In this direction a lot of things become. All schools have specialized offices of the Kazakh, Russian, English languages. Modern language laboratories works, in educational process computer technologies are used. Considerable work is carried out on high-quality selection and arrangement of teachers of Kazakh: within academic year courses at institutes of retraining and professional development are organized; the school of the best practices of teachers of a state language works; holding seminars on introduction of new technologies is planned; the state language is learned in all staff of schools, and academic year comes to an end with certification on knowledge of Kazakh. Russian will play an important role as language of science and education in Kazakhstan though over time its functions will be narrowed a little at the expense of the state and English languages.

In general, language policy of Kazakhstan nevertheless did not go for speeding up of privileges of national language too hastily and preserved the international peace in multiethnic Kazakhstan by this.

 

References

  1. Gumbol'dt, V. Fon. (1984). Izbrannye trudy po iazykoznaniiu [Selected works on linguistics]. Moscow: Prohress [in Russian].
  2. Zhuravlev, V.K. (1982). Vneshnie i vnutrennie faktory yazykovoi evolyutsii [External and internal factors of language evolution]. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].
  3. Bloomfield, L. (1968). Yazyk [Language]. Moscow: Prohress [in Russian].
  4. Bilinhvizm v Kazakhstane yavliaetsia vazhnoi intellektualnoi sostavliaiushchei [Bilingualism in Kazakhstan is an important intellectual component]. zakon.kz. Retrieved from https://www.zakon.kz/110309-bilingvizm-v-kazakhstanejavljaetsja.html [in Russian].
  5. Blakar, R.M. (1987). Yazyk kak instrument sotsialnoi vlasti (teoretiko-empiricheskoe issledovanie yazyka i eho ispolzovanie v sotsialnom kontekste) [Language as an instrument of social power (theoretical and empirical study of the language and its use in a social context)]. Yazyk i modelirovanie sotsialnoho vzaimodeistviia – Language and modeling of social interaction. Moscow: Prohress [in Russian].
  6. Baidel'dinov, L.A. (2001). Ob etnolinhvisticheskoi situatsii v Kazakhstane (K 4-letiiu priniatiia Zakona «O yazykakh v Respublike Kazakhstan») [On the ethnolinguistic situation in Kazakhstan (to the 4 th anniversary of the adoption of the Law «On Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan»)]. Analiticheskoe obozrenie – Analytical Review, 4-5. Almaty [in Russian].
  7. Shaymerdenova, N.G. (2003). Natsionalno-kulturnoe svoeobrazie derivatov evraziiskoho sotsiuma. [National and cultural identity of the derivatives of the Eurasian society]. Proceedings from Evraziistvo i Kazakhstan: Trudy Evraziiskoho nauchnoho foruma «Humilevskie chteniia» – Proceedings of the Eurasian scientific forum «Gumilyov readings», Vol. 2. (рр. 156–159). Astana: Izdatelstvo ENU [in Russian].
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy