Game form of teaching preschool children as one of the main methods of preparation for school

In this article, the authors consider preschool education as an integral part of lifelong learning. The theoretical analysis of normative legal base of preschool education in the Republic of Kazakhstan was carried out. The purpose and methods of achievement of this purpose at individual development of the child's age potential are set. The active teaching methods used in preschool institutions are highlighted. Authors list the most widespread methods and technologies of game forms of training. It is concluded that game forms of training create conditions for formation and consolidation of knowledge, abilities and skills of children; create conditions for development of abilities to think independently, to be guided in a new situation, to find the approaches to the solution of problems.

In the Republic of Kazakhstan, preschool education is considered as a component of the social infrastructure of the society and is one of the priorities of industrial-innovative and socio-economic development of the country. Preschool education is an integral part and the first link in the unified system of continuous education, where the foundations of the individual are formed. In accordance with the generally accepted age periodization of human development preschool childhood covers the period from birth to 6 years, when there is an active formation of neuromuscular, sensory and intellectual systems of the child, the development of his speech and basic mental processes, abilities and socially significant qualities.

The high intensity of the formation process of the personality in the period of preschool childhood allows to realize particularly effective pedagogical interaction with the child and to solve the problem of his/her development, education and training. It is this provision that gives reason to consider the problems of targeted training of preschool children in accordance with their specific age characteristics as the most relevant for the modern stage of development of both General and preschool didactics.

This is timely reflected in the State program for the development of education in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 [1], the law «About education» [2], the Program of providing children with preschool education and training «Balapan» for 2010-2014 [3], the State compulsory standard of preschool education and training of the Republic of Kazakhstan [4] and other fundamental normative documents and by-laws.

The main direction of pre-school education is the preparation of children for school, the formation of a healthy, developed, independent personality of the child, the development of his/her abilities, the education of hankering for learning, for systematic learning.

Pre-school education, as an integral part of the General education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan, plays an important role, as it identifies the natural qualities and characteristics of the child, provides the conditions for their development, a large-scale program of readiness of the child for school. At the present stage in the world readiness for school is understood as a set of two components: readiness to learn and readiness for school. Preschool education is the Foundation of the entire educational system, since it is here that the foundations of the individual, determining the nature of the future development of the child, are laid [5].

The purpose of preschool education is to create conditions for the maximum development of the individual age potential of the child, it is necessary to create conditions for the development of functionally literate person - a person who is able to solve any life problems, using acquired throughout life knowledge, skills and remaining a person at the same time. A child should have the right to become a subject of his/her own life, to see his/her potential, to believe in his/her own strength, to learn how to be successful in activity. This will greatly facilitate the child's transition from kindergarten to school, maintain and develop an interest in education at school.

To achieve these goals, scientists have developed various methods of training. Methods of teaching - a General didactic category, which gives an idea of the teacher's interaction system with students and provides learning content, which, in turn, meets the goals of education (P.I Pidkasistyi [6], I. Lerner [7], L.M Fridman [8], M.G. Garunov [9]).

Currently there are various classifications of training methods, in which the authors under their distribution on groups and subgroups use different signs:

  1. E.Ya. Golant classifies teaching methods at the transmission source and character of information perception: verbal (story, conversation, lecture and so forth); descriptive (display, demonstration and so forth); practical (laboratory works, compositions, etc.) methods [10];
  2. Yu.K. Babansky developed a classification of teaching methods on the main components of the teacher: a) methods of organization and implementation of educational activities (verbal, visual, practical, reproductive and problem, inductive and deductive, independent work and work under the guidance of the teacher); b) methods of stimulation and motivation of the teaching (methods of interest formation – educational games, analysis of life situations, creating situations of success; methods of duty and responsibility formation in the teaching – explanation of social and personal importance of the teaching, presentation of pedagogical requirements); c) methods of control and self-control (oral and written control, laboratory and practical work, machine and machine-free programmed control, frontal and differentiated, current and final) [11];
  3. M.I. Makhmutov on the basis of the combination of external and internal in the activities of the teacher and the student distinguishes methods of problem-developing training: monological, demonstrative, dialogue, heuristic, research, algorithmic and programmed [12];
  4. I.Ya. Lerner [7; 125] and M.N. Skatkin [13] divide methods of training on character of mutual activity of the teacher and student depending on level of inclusion of the last in productive creative activity. From this point of view, scientists distinguish the following methods:
  • – explanatory-illustrative or informational-receptive method, the essence of which is to inform students of the finished information by different means;
  • – reproductive method, the main purpose of which is to form the students ' skills and abilities to use and apply the knowledge in a manner similar to the model;
  • – problem-solving method, aimed at revealing in the study of educational material, various problems and show their solutions;
  • – partial searching (heuristic) method to ensure the gradual preparation of students for independent formulation and solution of problems;
  • – research method used for the organization of creative search activity of students to solve new problems for them.

We grouped the methods of training on the main following directions of pedagogical activity in the learning process:

  • – the primary acquisition of knowledge;
  • – the consolidation and improvement of knowledge, development of abilities and skills;
  • – methods of control and evaluation of knowledge.

In addition, we believe it is necessary to shift the emphasis towards wider use of the so-called innovative teaching methods in the educational process, which in pedagogical science and practice are called active teaching methods. Let us dwell on their character is tics in more detail.

Active teaching methods contribute to greater activity of students in the learning process, characterized by a high degree of their involvement in the process of learning and acquiring skills, forced activation of thinking and activity of the student, the creative nature of the activities, the obligation of direct interaction of students with each other, as well as with the teacher, collective forcing efforts, intensification of the learning process. G.P. Shchedrovitsky points out that these methods allow «students in a shorter time and with less effort to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills» due to the conscious «formation of their necessary ac- tivities» [14].

Readiness for school is not only a child's condition, but also the conditions of school, family and environment. Standards for older children are needed to better understand and define these conditions. Design of pedagogical process is carried out by game, labor, productively creative, speech, improving and educational activity.

In preschool age psychological readiness of the child for school is formed. A big place in this is given to games. They bring up purposefulness, perseverance, the ability to finish the job started in children - all that is so necessary in the future.

Currently there are various classifications methods training, in which the authors under their distribution on groups and subgroups use different signs of.

Yu.K. Babansky developed a classification of teaching methods by the main components of the teacher:

a) methods of the organization and implementation of educational activity (verbal, visual, practical, reproductive and problem, inductive and deductive, independent work and work under the guidance of the teacher);

b) methods of learning stimulation and motivation (methods of formation of interest - cognitive games, the analysis of vital situations, creation of situations of success, etc.).

The most effective for the development of practical knowledge and skills is a group of active teaching methods.

Active teaching methods contribute to greater activity of children in the educational process, are characterized by a high degree of their involvement in the process of learning and acquiring skills, forced activation of thinking and activity of the student, the creative nature of employment, the obligation of direct interaction of children with each other, as well as with the teacher, collective forcing efforts, intensification of the learning process.

We list the most common active learning methods:

  • – business game – simulation of decision-making in various industrial situations, aimed at developing recipes for effective educational and professional activities;
  • – thematic exercises – in a certain way organized activity of students, aimed at the development of new skills;
  • – role - playing game – a game of educational purpose in which the student takes on any role and acts accordingly to this role for the purpose of mastering new knowledge, development of certain skills in the field of communications.

The search for new forms and methods of training in our time is a phenomenon not only natural, but also necessary. In the context of humanization of education, the existing theory and technology of mass education should be aimed at the formation of a strong personality, able to live and work in a constantly changing world, capable of boldly develop their own strategy of behavior, to exercise moral choice and bear responsibility for it, that means the self-developing and self-fulfilling personality.

A special place is occupied by the forms of classes that ensure the active participation of each child in the educational process, increase the authority of knowledge and individual responsibility for the results of educational work. These tasks can be successfully solved through the technology of game forms of training.

With the help of the game you can instill in children the desire to replenish the missing knowledge, improve the skills necessary to increase creative activity.

Game situation helps to relieve fatigue, enhances involuntary memorization. The game reveals brighter and more fully the abilities of children, their individuality. For shy guys, the game becomes sometimes the only opportunity to prove himself/herself.

However, children should not be taught that new games are waiting for them in every lesson. The game is not an end in itself, it should not be held just for fun.

Games contribute to the activation of mental activity of children, arouse keen interest in the subject and help to assimilate the material. With the help of the game you can instill in children the desire to replenish the missing knowledge, improve the skills necessary to increase creative activity.

Technology of game forms of training were studied by V.P. Bespalko, A.K. Kolechenko, G.K. Selevko, P.I. Pidkasistyi et al. [15-18].

V.P. Bespalko believes that the game develops internal speech and logic. After all, a child often has to choose and perform one of the many possible operations, in his opinion, the most appropriate. Promoting the intellectual development of the student, learning games encourage to think of the most economical, to tame the emotions, and instantly react to the actions of the rival and the partner [14].

D. Elkonin, a classic theorist in the field of game psychology, defined it as an activity in which behavior management is developed and improved. In this regard, he drew attention to the role of the game in the development of motivation, mental actions, overcoming «cognitive egocentrism», etc. [19].

The game continues to attract the attention of scientists, both in theoretical and applied fields. Contemporary cultural historians, psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, educators are studying its perspective.

For example, in the Dictionary of the Russian language, «the game - one way or another, how to have fun, as a set of objects for the game» [20].

In the Pedagogical encyclopedia it is defined as «the kind of activity of children consisting in reproduction of actions of adults and the relations between them and directed on orientation and cognition of subject and social reality» [18; 25].

In the Pedagogical dictionary, the word «game» is absent (there are only «children's games»), and in Psychological dictionary it is termed: «Game is a form of activity in conditional situations, aimed at recreating and assimilating social experience fixed in socially fixed ways of implementing subject actions» [20; 328].

The use of the game for educational purposes is specified by complexity and inconsistency of the nature of gaming activity and, first of all, focusing on the end result.

The purpose of pedagogical technologies in general, and the technology of the game in particular, is the practical implementation of the pedagogical theory and obtaining in the pedagogical process of pre-planned results. First of all, the development of creative abilities of each child, the formation of their own activity and everything that directly meets the interests of the individual and society. In this regard, the theory of the game acts as a part of the scientific substantiation of the pedagogical process.

The technology of learning games is aimed at teaching the student to understand the motives of his study, of his behavior in the game and in life, i.e., forming the purpose of public interest independent activities.

Game forms of training allow you to use all levels of learning: from reproducing activity through transforming to the main goal - creative-search activity.

There are six well-known organizational forms of game activities: individual, single, pair, group, collective and massive form of the game.

Individual forms of games include the game of one person with himself in dreams and reality, as well as with various objects and signs.

A single form is the activity of one player in the system of simulation models with direct and feedback from the results of achieving their desired goal.

Pair form - a game of one person with another person, usually in a competition and rivalry.

Group form is a game of three or more opponents pursuing the same goal in the competition environment.

The collective form is a group game in which the competition between individual players is replaced by teams of rivals.

The massive form of the game is a replicated single-player game with direct and feedback from a common goal pursued simultaneously by millions of people [21].

Pidkasistyj P. I. allocates a number of concepts of learning games:

  1. The target reference point in training is development and formation of creative individuality of the person. And the most initial link – awareness of the uniqueness of their intelligence, of himself.
  2. The reorientation of consciousness of the pupil from the unallocated public on personal social important development.
  3. Freedom of choice, freedom of participation, equal opportunities for development and selfdevelopment.
  4. Priority organization of the educational process and its content for the General development of students, the identification and «nurturing» of open talents, the formation of entrepreneurial activity [18; 35].

Based on these conceptual provisions, it is possible to determine the purpose of the application of the technology of game forms of education - the development of sustainable cognitive interest in children through a variety of game forms of education.

At the moment, the introduction of computer technology in the structure of the lesson becomes an integral part of the study of many school subjects, which contributes to the improvement of teaching methods, the development of intersubject communications, the formation of a holistic natural science picture of the world in students, improving the quality of students ' knowledge in General by strengthening the individualized approach.

Computer games are not a substitute for regular play, but complementary, enriching the pedagogical process of new opportunities. Therefore, computer games must meet the following requirements:

  • – all computer programs should have a positive moral orientation, they should not be aggressive, cruel, violent; of particular interest are programs with elements of novelty, surprise, originality;
  • – it is strictly forbidden to use in working with students «commercial» computer games with aggressive, «hard» content in order to train the responsiveness, with the intense pace of deployment of events on the screen;
  • – it is recommended to use computer, game, educational and training programs adequate to the mental and psycho-physiological capabilities of the student.

Computer games are not isolated from the pedagogical process. They are offered in combination with traditional forms of learning, not replacing the usual course of lessons, and complementing them, entering their structure, enriching the educational process with new opportunities. Games should be preceded by educational and training tasks that create the basis for the introduction of students to computer games.

Computer training programs can be combined into groups, based on different criteria: age, subject matter, the level of complexity of the game task, the complexity of management, tasks of development of mental abilities and other characteristics. The computer programs for children are grouped into the following large classrooms:

  •  developing games (computer programs of «open» type, designed for the formation and development of children's general mental abilities, goal-setting, the ability to mentally correlate their actions to control the game with the images created in a computer game, for the development of imagination, emotional and moral development);
  •  educational games (game programs of didactic («closed») type, in which the game form proposed to solve one or more didactic problems);
  •  games-experiments (the purpose and rules of the game are not clearly defined-hidden in the plot of the game or a way to control it; to succeed in solving the game tasks the student must come to an awareness of the purpose and method of action by search actions);
  •  fun games;
  •  computer diagnostic games.

Thus, game forms of learning create the conditions for the formation and consolidation of knowledge, skills and abilities of children; create conditions for development of abilities to think independently, to navigate in the new situation, finding their approaches to solving problems, and also have a great impact in the future for faster adaptation of children at school.

 

References

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Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy