Methods and approaches in teaching languages in the context of updated content of education

The article is devoted to the method and approaches in teaching languages in the context of the updated content of education. The existing normative documents in the educational system of the Republic of Kazakhstan are considered. Adoption of these documents contributed to changes in the political, economic and social spheres of the country, renewal of the content of education and new directions. The article reveals the content of the concept, as a «method», «approach», «teaching languages». The article analyzes the views of domestic and foreign researchers on the definition, significance of methods and approaches in teaching languages, which showed that success in teaching languages, without a doubt, largely depends on what methods and approaches are used to achieve it. This direction is also complemented by consideration of the newest methods and approaches in the contextof the updated content of education. Namely, a new wave of the education system in Kazakhstan is aimed at modernizing the national system of multilevel education, improving the quality of personnel training, taking into account the needs of the individual and society. Therefore, one of the criteria of the modern Kazakhstani education system is the language competence (Kazakh, Russian and English). What made it possible to conclude that to become successful in the modern information society, children and young people should participate in more effective forms of active, collaborative, integrated and interactive learning, providing new skills and abilities for use in life situations and further personal development.

Introduction

Today we get using to live in the world of transforming and development. Education system is one of the leading spheres of social-economic growth of people in the world. We can't deny that today's education system should be updated by the great requirements of social order. Within the times of Kazakhstan joined the Bologna declaration we have had a huge modification of our education system and we are still in the progress.

We all know that every alter in the country officially showing in the regulatory documents of the state. Nowadays key topic in educational environment in Kazakhstan is a new updated content of education program. It was introduced for 13.05.2016 by the Government regulation No. 292. Decree Of The President of The Republic of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev on 1st March, 2016 adopted the state program «Development of science and education in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2016 - 2019 years» this document has a huge role in the implementation of the updated content of educational program [1].

The main part

The role of language teaching in the educational program has a great place because of proceeding to trilingual education starting from 2008. The most largely part of this program is in teaching Kazakh language, Russian and English as the language of integration to the science world. We all know English is one of the wide spreading languages of the planet. In 1999, the UNESCO Resolution adopted by the General Conference approved the term «multilingual education», meaning the use of at least three languages, namely the mother tongue, regional or national language and the international language in education.

The main idea to know what is teaching languages? In the long history of developing pedagogical thoughts, teaching languages was the basic problem of innovative teachers of all the time: Al-Farabi (870-950), Jan Amos Comenius (1592-1670), K.D. Ushinskyi (1824-1870), L.N. Tolstoy (1828-1910) etc. Comenius developled a new methodology for teaching the Latin language and corresponding textbooks at this time. The result was the work «The Newest Method of Languages», in which Comenius applied his general pedagogical principles to a specific method and tried to substantiate three important points: the parallel study of things and words, the observance of strict sequence and gradualness in teaching, the transition from easy to difficult [2]. For the long time teaching languages had just taught strictly memorizing and studyingvocabulary and grammar by applicattion grammar–translation method. To start with analyzing the Kazakh scientists' researches on teaching languages we want to stop on the first Kazakh linguist and pedagogue in the history was Ybyrai Altynsarin. He had a great impact in teaching methods of Kazakh language at school. He showed approaches, principles to teach native language in comparative ways using methods of teaching Russian language. Y. Altynsarin was a founder of methodology of Kazakh language teaching. Another one representative of Kazakh language teaching linguist was Akhmet Baitursynov. He was an author of teaching Kazakh by dividing sounds, also in comparative studies of Russian language.At this way he wrote a lot articles, his collection of those articles were published in 1920 in Kazan its called «Bayanshy». In the period of Soviet Union K. Mukanov (1967), T. Shonanuli (1966), S. Musabekov (1966), A.A. Beisenbayeva (1970) worked on teaching language disciplines in the contextof integration school subjects. At present time most of Kazakh linguist scientists as N.A. Orazkhanova (1994), B.A. Zhetpisbayeva (2010), N.Zh. Shaimerdenova (2013) et al. mostly are oriented in the implementation of trilingual education.

Today and always learning languages is the guarantee of a bright future and flourishing of individuals even the country. To know more than 2 languages is the main criteria of the world society. Without exception teachers in the classroom try to make their subject more attractive to their students. According to the updated content of education teaching should be consisted of action oriented lessons. As every subject has own objects, aims, content etc. it has own way of teaching methods and approaches.

So why this program is called updated content? We have analyzed these two programs and see several content differences between updated content of education program (2016) and educational program in 2013.

– the principle of helicity when designing the content of the subject, that is a gradual build-up of knowledge and skills the increasing complexity of the skills on the topics and classes);

– hierarchy of learning objectives in Bloom's taxonomy based on the mechanisms of cognition; teaching goal setting throughout the course of study that allows taking into account integrated subject connection;

– presence «through the» between subjects either within the same educational field and in realization of intersubject communications;

– conformity of the content of the proposed sections and the queries time, the emphasis on social learning; – technologization of educational process in the form of long, medium and short term plans.

Expected learning outcomes specified in the learning objectives for each section. Between long, medium and short term plans there is very close relationship.

The transition to the modernization of education makes new demands on the teacher. Starting from 2017–2018 school year, according to the updated programs will be studied by students of 1, 2, 5, 7 classes [3].

We figure out that every discipline in education program consists of 6 parts:

  1. Explanatory part
  2. The aim and objectives of the discipline
  3. Pedagogic approaches program of discipline
  4. Assessment in the program of discipline
  5. Description of the organizational requirements and content of the subject
  6. Long and short term plans.

And we want to emphasize 3rd part of the program of updated content of education. Begin with we want to know what it is approach. What approaches do we use in teaching language disciplines in the context of updated content of education program? According to British Council teaching English website: «An approach is a way of looking at teaching and learning. Underlying any language teaching approach is a theoretical view of what language is, and of how it can be learnt. An approach gives rise to methods, the way of teaching something, which use classroom activities or techniques to help learners learn [4]». So, approach is a way where methods can be used effectively in teaching to an appropriate level of the subject.

To the extent of perceiving an updated content of education in language teaching, it will be appropriate to study what are meant a widely used terms method, approach, technique, procedure etc. Three decades ago Edward Anthony (1963) gave us a definition that has quite admirably withstood the test of time. His concept of method was the second of three hierarchical elements, namely, approach, method, and technique. An approach, according to Anthony, is a set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language, learning, and teaching. Method is an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon selected approach. Techniques are the specific activities manifested in the classroom, which are consistent with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach as well [5]. Following Anthon, approach refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in languageteaching [6]. We want to distinguish some approaches using in language disciplines as Kazakh, Russian and English in context of updated content of education program. There are more than 15 approaches showed in teaching languages at school:

 Research approach. The research approach takes on special significance in connection with the fact that it is on its basis that the transition to new content education.

 Value-oriented approach. A value-oriented approach to learning is the way organization and implementation of training activities, obtaining and the use of its results from the standpoint of certain values. The value-oriented educational process purposefully shapes system of personal values of the learner. The values of general secondary education are based on the national idea

– «Mangіlіk El» is as values of secondary education are defined:

– Kazakhstan's patriotism and civil responsibility;

– respect;

– cooperation;

– work and creativity;

– openness;

– education throughout life.

  •  Learner-centered education is to individualization of the educational process, harmonious formation and comprehensive development of the personality of the learner, full disclosure of his creative forces, taking into account his individual characteristics of mental and physical development, needs and motives of behavior, taking into account potential opportunities.
  •  Active learning approach is that the student receives knowledge is not in the finished form, but extracts them himself, is aware of the content and forms its educational activity, understands and accepts the system of its norms, that promotes active and successful formation of his knowledge, training skills and skills of a wide range.
  •  Competency-based learning is approach is not the assimilation of the sum knowledge, and the development by students of such skills that would allow them determine their goals, make decisions and act in typical and non-standard situations.
  •  A communicative approach to learning is the transmission and communication information, exchange of knowledge, skills and abilities in the process of speech interaction of two or more people. The result of communicative approach is the ability to communicate through the interaction with other participants in the using the system of linguistic and speech norms and choosing the communicative behavior adequate to the situation of communication. In accordance with the communicative approach in the learning process use tasks that contribute to the formation of communication skills, and modes of work that are adequate to the conditions of real communication (pair and group work).
  •  Integrative approach. With the integrative approach, the learning process is built on the principle of combining several types of activities and different means of development students. Integrative approach includes many types motor activity: physical training, moving pauses, theatrical games.
  •  Use of information and communication technologies. Competence in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) is built on basic ICT skills and includes correct and creative application of technology for work, leisure and communications. Trainees develop ICT skills in the process training in all subjects, finding, creating and working with information, cooperating and exchanging information and ideas, evaluating and then improving their work using a wide range of equipment and applications. Problem solving is the most relevant tool formation of the world outlook.
  •  Efficiency of Problem Learning consists in the fact that in solving problems of this type, students critical, creative, dialectical thinking is formed. Problem training contributes to the formation of skills application of a system of logic receptions or individual methods creative activity, skills of creative application of knowledge, i.e. application of knowledge in a new situation. It contributes to the accumulation of creative thinking.

In general, our students receive strong substantive, to be precise, factual knowledge, but often they do not have the skills to use them in life situations.

As it turned out, traditional education provides a sufficient level of academic knowledge of Kazakhstani schoolchildren, but does not prepare them to extract, analyze and effectively use knowledge independently. Above said approaches and methods are unique and need a lot practical application during all of the lesson. And we have no doubt as much as we use them it 'll will help to increase the number of a good language skilled people in Kazakhstan.

Conclusion

When students are taught few languages at school is an educational aim, students are expected to become competent speakers of different languages. One of the most important issues in this process is to identify the best possible conditions and approaches to teach languages, that is, the most efficient ways of ‘becoming multilingual' [7]. These strategies necessarily include using the languages, of effectively contributing language disciplines.

True, in the domestic education attempts to depart from the traditional system of education have been undertaken repeatedly, but the fragmentary introduction of changes has been super imposed on the old content of education. This led to congestion in the learning process and the transfer of a large volume of finished information. And so far the student continues to be a passive «recipient» of knowledge.

 

References

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  2. A Comparative Study of the Philosophies of John Amos Comenius and Maria Montessori on the Education of Children Irene Lang Loyola University Chicago (2010). ecommons.luc.edu. Retrieved from: [ http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=1774&context=luc_diss]11.05.17.
  3. 2017–2018 oku zhylynda Kazakstan Respublikasynyn zhalpy orta bі lі m beretіn uiymdarynda oku protsesіn uiymdastyrudyn erekshelіkterі turaly adіstemelіk nuskau khat (2017) [Instructive and methodological letter on the peculiarities of organization of educational process in schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2017-2018 in educational year]. Astana. nao.kz. Retrieved from [ http:// http://nao.kz/loader/fromorg/2/24.]01.11.17 [in Kazakh].
  4. Teacher knowlegde database: Approach (2001). teachingenglish.org. Retrieved from: www.teachingenglish.org.uk /article/approach“.
  5. Douglas Brown, H. (1994). Principles of language learning and teaching. (3d ed.). San Francisco State University.
  6. Jack, C. Richards, & Thodore, S. Rodgers. (2001). Approaches and Methods in language teaching. (2d ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Jasone, Cenoz, & Durk, Gorter. (2015). Multilingual Education: Between Language Learning and Translanguaging Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy