In this article is about a new system of assessment in Kazakhstan schools, it is proved that it is an important part of the learning that allows you to define the causes of learning and non-learning. The modern assessment system, based on the new programs, provides for the assessment of knowledge as a result of the formative, summative criteria-based assessment of classroom learning in accordance with the types of tasks in the teaching and its learning outcomes. The assessment system has also undergone radical changes and has been analyzed in a system of criteria-based assessment, with a clear set of predictive criteria for students' progress and consistency, consistency and effectiveness. The importance of understanding the depth of knowledge, skills and flexibility in evaluating the students' knowledge is emphasized. The new assessment system has come to the conclusion that it is possible to improve the educational society of teaching, to create the moral and spiritual qualities of the student, to comply with the content of the sections and the timing of the proposed topics, to focus on social skills, and to actively participate in the learning process.
A contemporary education is specified by new trends and initiatives, scientific discoveries. The role and importance of modern assessment, which is the one of great importance in the organizing and developing a students' academic work, collaborative work in the classroom should be fully transformed to ensure a new role for the teacher as an educator, developer, supervisor and administrator.
In the National Encyclopedia, the concept of «assessment», is the approach used to identify learning outcomes is a factor that helps the learner to overcome deficiencies in learning the subject. Assessment is often done by the synthesis of pricing. Also, school-based assessment is not limited to pricing; it is an important part of the learning that allows you to define the causes of learning and non-learning .
Assessment is also a term used to describe activities that are systematically summarized for purposes of further learning.
In the case of introduction of result-oriented education, the educational process is carried out on the basis of the entity-subject between the participants. The students organize their activity in order to achieve certain successes as a subject in the educational process. Student achievement is determined by estimation of quality of development of educational activities in the form of system of expected results. Expected result in this regard is a description of various types of educational activities, which provide integration of subject knowledge, skills, components of core and basic competences in a certain context. Estimated results demonstrate their achievements in acquiring knowledge of the subject, knowledge, skills and ethical standards of learners in mastering behavioral approaches in the context of common human and national values. A student achievement assessment tool is a graded and summative scoring system based on a rating score.
The ability to correctly apply the «pedagogy of assessment» is an important pedagogical art. It is not only about the objectivity of assessment. Comprehensive consideration of the psychological effect of assessment, the ability to use this effect for the purpose of influencing the student in a way desirable for the teacher, taking into account the circumstances influencing the student, and his personality is another, no less important aspect of this art. The most probable assessment periods are the initial assessment at the beginning of the school year, further ongoing assessments during the school year, and final grades. In order for the assessment to be most effective and to facilitate the success of the students in each assessment period in a given situation, the teacher is recommended to perform a series of mental and logical actions.
In recent times, the results of the research on different aspects of learning outcomes have been developed in a new system of rating systems that perform differentiated, summative, and monitoring activities in the experience of individual creativity teachers. Until now, 5-point system is used in schools: 2 («unsatisfac- tory»), 3 («satisfactory»), 4 («good»), 5 (excellent) and teacher attitudes, because the teacher when settingthe mark is oriented on the student's level relative to a certain standard, to the class as a whole and to himself in the previous period
Assessment of school practice is not only a prize, but also an important part of the learning that allows you to identify the causes of learning and non-learning. In general, all types of assessment include the following:
Interpretation of collected information;
Summarize the solutions used to identify future actions.
There are many searches according to the system of education control. Such as N.A. Vasilyeva, V. Nadelyaev, T.S. Kulikova, N.Yu. Korobova, S. Ershikov, V.E. Sosenko, G.N. Ushko, L.G. for Ustinova. Radical researches are not limited to Kazakh methodologists. E.J. Smagulov, M. Esmukhan, B.B. Baimukhanov, E. Medeuov, A.K. Kazbayeva, N.K. Akhmetov, A.S. Kenesh, A.P. Mustafayev, V.P. Dobritsa, B.K. Otejdjanova, E.A. Tuyakov's candidate researches. It does not only examine the specific methods of knowledge testing and assessment, but also broaden the pedagogical thinking of students, the general principles of the forms and methods of organization of educational activities. Knowledge check – a broad concept. It covers such issues as the knowledge-based system of verification, identification of requirements, organization and content structure .
To formulate assessment criteria, the expected results should be decomposed into simpler constituent elements:
1.information (subject results) on integral semantic units
2.learning activities (meta-subject results) on the operation
Prior to the release of a new educational program, assessment of learning outcomes in each lesson is carried out by defining the average arithmetic mean of studentren accumulated within the same class within the targeted price scale, in accordance with the level of educational activity. To determine the mean arithmetic mean, students are used when performing educational activities on reproductive, productive tasks.
The assessment is divided into two categories: «assessment for learning» and «assessment of learning». It is worth noting that the assessment for learning is a formative one, and assessment of learning is sumptuous. Formative assessment during each lesson, in the classroom, all the actions of the student are evaluated by their thinking, conception, and order. Controls, quizzes, quarters, summaries, aggregate price dimensions at a definite period .
The formative assessment is a process carried out in each lesson. The objective of a formative assessment is to get objective information on the learning material, timely detect the student's defects, and establish feedback between the teacher and student. All activities in the classroom format are assessed by the student's personal thinking, concepts and discipline, including the level of knowledge and skills. The main feature of formative assessment is to evaluate students' ability to understand and cognitive progress in using analytical tools and examples. The results of such assessment can be used to improve learning levels. One of the methods is used by the teacher in explaining lessons and exercises. Summative assessment or summative assessment is a measure of the level of knowledge that can be seen during a test of knowledge by a student over a certain period of time. Formation of this type of assessment is aimed at determining the price of a particular students, their drawbacks in learning content and the most effective replenishment of their place of residence. The teacher can accurately define the purpose of the subject by means of this assessment. It can help the student to focus on past topics in a single way, by identifying appropriate methods of outcome control, and encouraging them to reach a higher level.
Another important component of the formative assessment, which has been effective in recent years, is self-esteem and mutual assessment. Self-assessment is a type of valuation activity associated with non-selfassessment, but associated with assessment activities. It is closely related to the description of the task execution process, its positive and negative aspects, especially scores. The teacher can offer the student the following algorithm of self-assessment:
- What should be done when performing the task? What was the purpose? What was the result?
- Was it possible to get results? Did the solution find its answer?
- Have your assignments been properly executed or made mistakes?
- Is it fully fulfilled privately or by someone else's help?
- What skills have been developed during the task? If not, what mistakes were made and what did these difficulties arise?
One of the major component of formative assessment is feedback. Feedback is carried out verbally and in writing. No matter what this activity is, the facilitator should indicate what the teacher has done well. In the event of errors, the teacher can provide specific recommendations for improving their work. Feedback is the information that has been provided for specific recommendations that will help the learner to make progress in helping her realize personal accomplishments and learning gaps and make changes to their own behavior.
In a generalized, thematic and final assessment, the teacher takes into account all the levels of their actions. Types of assessment of students' educational achievements are current, periodic, intermediate.
Current - Assessment at grades 2-11. Thematic, every lesson;
Periodicity - Assessment at the end of the term, as well as half a year, academic year. Thematic, generalized;
Graduation - after the completion of the study cycle, assessment after grades 2, 4, 8, 10, 11. Thematic, generalized.
The teaching paradigm has changed. The content of education has been updated. In this regard, teachers are tasked with constantly upgrading teaching methods and mastering new technologies and applying them effectively. Basically, the updated education system is a program of competence and quality. The feature of the updated educational program is the spiral principle. The assessment system also undergoes radical changes and is transition to a system of criteria-based assessment. In assessing the criteria, students' progress is measured by a set of predetermined criteria. Learners' progress in the subject is assessed in two ways: formative assessment and summative assessment .
The content of the system of criterial assessment is regulated by the following instructive and methodological documents:
State compulsory education standard;
The order of criterial assessment of educational achievements of students in educational organizations implementing general educational programs;
Guidelines for criterial assessment for primary school teachers;
Guidelines for criterial assessment for primary and general secondary school teachers;
Guidelines for regional and school coordinators;
Collections of tasks on formative assessment;
Methodological recommendations for summative assessment.
Criteria-based assessment is one of the new trends in education that has emerged on the basis of modern requirements. It is a process based on comparisons of students' academic achievements with predetermined criteria for all participants of the educational process, who are responsible for the formation of students' educational and cognitive skills that are relevant to the purpose and content of education.
Criteria – a rule, justification and sign-on decision-making rule in accordance with the requirements. There are discrepancies of each criterion, which gives a clear idea of the correctness of the outcome of the assignment. Assessment of the syllabus determines whether the student achieves the goal set.
Formative (current) assessment is an assessment that defines the level of knowledge and skills acquired on a daily basis. Formative assessment carries out closely the relationship between the student and the teacher in the educational process.
Internal Summative Assessment – Determining the level of formation and learning skills after reading the block of learning information.
External Summative Assessment – Determines the level of formal education and learning, and is the basis for determining the final grade of the training reporting period.
In evaluating the criteria, student achievement is measured by a set of predetermined criteria (Glairer's introduction, 1963). This type of assessment differs from the assessment based on the norm that is normally evaluated for the performance of the students with the progress of their classmates. Formative assessment is an integral part of the daily learning and learning process and is held regularly throughout the quarter. Regular assessment provides feedback between students and teachers continuously and lets you correct the learning process without score or rating. Teachers use it to measure reading and to plan future classes. The sum- mative assessment is carried out by taking the points of the curriculum with the points and marks for obtaining general information about the progress of the student who has completed a certain academic period. The formative and total assessment is applied to all disciplines, but assessment methods may differ depending onthe content and the specific content of the subject. Comprehensive Assessment Methods are reviewed in detail in the Comprehensive assessment tools for grades. Teachers use the results of forming and summative assessment to provide feedback to learners and provide parents with information in the learning process. All types of assessment are based on the content of the curriculum in the subject. Formative Assessment Formative Assessment is an integral part of learning and learning that directly affects students' achievement and advancement in learning, and provides feedback between learners and teachers .
In addition, the criteria-based assessment system differs from the previous assessment by the formative and summative assessment. If a formative assessment is focused on identifying teaching, methods and opportunities for improving those opportunities, the summative assessment is needed to make the learning outcomes for target marking and certification or promotion of learning progress.
Formative and total assessment is conducted on all disciplines. However, assessment routes vary according to its content and type. Detailed instructions for your total assessment are provided in each method and guidelines for a summary assessment of grades. Teachers use the results of forming and summative assessment to give feedback to learners and provide parents with the information about the learning process. All types of assessment are based on the content of the curriculum. In order to determine the degree of achievement of the curriculum in the reader's curriculum, the assessment criteria of B. Bloom's taxonomy of learning objectives are regulated by the levels of thinking skills .
B. Bloom's taxonomy is based on the 6 basic levels of thinking in the learning process and on the levels of educational process:
- Recognition, memorization, learning, memory;
- Understand interpretation, self-expression;
- Use the information in practice, use the information to succeed;
- Division of knowledge into several parts for the purpose of knowledge acquisition;
- Complete viewing of words or objects in order to obtain the most effective results;
- Creating controversy, making decisions, evaluating.
The summative assessment supplements the results of the formal assessment, evaluating the results of the knowledge gained and the skills gained by the students in accordance with the common themes and quarterly learning objectives. Information on the structure and duration of each test and how to manage them can be found in the test specification on the subject. The summary specification provides samples of questions and assessment drawings so teachers can see how different skills are evaluated. Even if there are specific benchmark criteria, marking is still a challenge, and teachers can comment on them. Moderation is used to increase the reliability and validity of the grades that teachers have provided. Black and Others (2011) describe this process as two steps, standardization and moderation: «Standardization is based on a common set of examples, and it is assumed that schools will be competent to apply common standards and criteria in their work. The requirements for moderation are so stringent that it requires annual interschool and inter-school meetings, setting the current realistic data. Moderation is an essential part of vocational training and involves discussions about how practical the criteria are, helping teachers understand the standards that are relevant to those criteria. Teachers can exchange ideas and methods to help their students improve their academic performance to achieve learning goals. A professional dialogue with colleagues has proven that moderators have a positive impact on both assessment and learning (Gardner et al., 2010), allowing teachers to clearly understand students' performance in their own disciplines. The Criteria-based model of assessment and detailed information on how to use it in teaching is provided in the teaching guide for criteria-based assessment for teachers of general education. The purpose of the criteria-based assessment is to provide students with all the information needed to obtain objective information on student learning achievements and to improve the learning process on the basis of assessment criteria.
Criteria-based assessment tasks:
- Expand the range of activities and opportunities in the learning process;
- Creating a systematic feedback to help students constantly improve themselves;
- Assisting in the development of uniform standards, quality assessment tools and mechanisms;
- Available, accurate, continuous.
The main feature of the Criteria-based assessment:
Predicted scale of estimation;
Fairness of prices;
Possibility of student self-assessment.
Criteria include clear, accurate indication of the correctness of the reading assignment, and the extent to which the assessment is to determine the extent to which the student has reached the set goal. It is called «Listening, Reading, Writing, Speaking» in language disciplines. Learning objectives are based on the development of these skills in a student. Leading to active learning and group work in the classroom, motivating the student to learn, requires the teacher's professional skills. Creating a rational and constructive assessment task would be a good result. Students here learn how to evaluate the results, learn to comprehend and evaluate the criteria, evaluate themselves and their friends, apply their knowledge in performing specific tasks, freely express ideas, and critically think. It does not matter how it should be read. «It allows the student to study independently and learns better», said Peter Klein. During the lesson, group discussions, research discourse, and open and closed questionnaires create a sense of self-interest and interest to the student.
Criteria-based assessment principles:
Interrelationship between learning and assessment. Assessment is an integral part of learning, which is directly related to the objectives of the curriculum and the expected results.
Truth, reliability and validity. The assessment provides accurate and reliable information. Applicable criteria will make sure that tools will value the learning objectives and the expected outcomes.
Transparency and accessibility. The assessment provides clear and clear information, as well as enhances the interest and responsibility of all the learning process participants.
Continuity. The assessment is an ongoing process that enables the timely and systematic tracking of schoolstudentren's progress.
Orientation for development. The assessment finds out and stimulates the development of students, teachers, schools, and education.
Criteria include clear, accurate indication of correctness of the reading assignment, and the same indicator - to determine the extent to which the student has reached the set goal. During the criteria validation, students will be able to express their views on how to express their thoughts, stories and talk about their dreams, expectations and plans, listening to conversations and audiovisual material; To make a concise conclusion and analysis of literary and non-literary texts; learns the ability to use the necessary and interesting information in writing short-term texts. This is still a problem that needs to be clarified.
Using a criteria-based assessment system, we focus on the personality of the student in an active position, define the level of training and growth, and see the student's confidence in the assessment system.
The level of achievement or advancement of learning objectives in order to determine the level of understanding of students for effective teaching and learning should be monitored. For each student, the achievement of the learning objective can be summarized in a portfolio showing student progress and can be used for formulating assessment. Portfolio can contain many data, including:
Written works (for example, workbooks, register, homework assignments, student notes);
Photos or video evidence (for example, art works, classroom presentations, models, presentations, musical presentations with students and events involving students);
Electronic records (for example, presentations, documents, animations);
Teacher notes or class oversight notes;
The nature of the evidence suggests that the traditional test allows evaluating skills that are difficult to identify. Darling-Hammond and Pecheon (2010) describe this method as «empowering and displaying high- level thinking skills such as finding and organizing information for researchers, researching and conducting research, analyzing and assembling data, and applying these new ones in new situations» .
Finally, the advantage of the new assessment system is that it promotes creativity and science by developing a student's thinking abilities. Formative Assessment is an integral part of the daily learning and learning process, conducted throughout the quarter. The formative and summative assessment applies to all disciplines.
We know that the implementation of the system of criterial evaluation will be carried out according to the schedule of transition to the updated content of education compiled and approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan:
Since September 1, 2016 - 1st grades
From 1 September 2017 - 1st, 2nd, 5th, 7th grades
From September 1, 2018 - the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 10th grades
Since September 1, 2019 - all classes.
Compared with traditional education, peculiarities of functioning of the curriculum, spherical principles of the content of the subject, hierarchy of learning objectives on Bloom's taxonomy, the provision of common themes for the implementation of interdisciplinary communication, the medium-term plan and shortterm plan modeling on the basis of the long-term plan, the ability to form the moral and spiritual qualities of the student, the content of the sections and the offered salary comply with the requirements of the time, the focus on social skills, students will be active participation in the learning process.
Each teacher needs a reflection in the classroom to assess the impact of the course at the end of each lesson, and to formulate a formal assessment by expressing its own ideas, essays, and methods. It is also important that school practice has a personal diary that evaluates the individual's daily activities by descending. This diary provides a lot of information on the development and growth of adult learners.
Prior to this, reading and subscribing is of importance, and in the context of new educational content, we see that listening and speaking is primarily due to public needs. The focus here is that the oral, written language of the learner is interconnected and, therefore, requires that the work be reflected in oral or written form. On the basis of this, we can educate healthy and creative young generation of language.
So, we think that the objective is to be objective, objectiveness should be derived from the equality of education and pedagogical, sociological and psychological functions. Consolidation of equation and co - existence of functions in the objective assessment of the teaching - learning process.
Thus we have come to the conclusion that criteria-based assessment performs a feedback function when the student receives information about his successes and failures. At the same time, even the most unsatisfactory results of intermediate work are perceived by the student only as recommendations for improving their own results.
Before that, reading and writing are of paramount importance, and in the context of the new educational content, we see that listening and speaking are primarily related to public needs. The main attention is paid to the fact that the oral, written language of the student is interconnected and that the work should be expressed verbally, in writing. Based on this, we can educate a healthy and creative young generation of the language.
Thus criteria-based assessment allows teachers to develop criteria that facilitate the production of quality results, having operational information to analyze and plan your activities. To improve the quality of training, to build an individual way of training for each student, taking into account his individual abilities and characteristics, to use a variety of approaches and assessment tools, to make proposals for improving the content of normative and methodological documents.
Students can use a variety of learning styles, types of thinking activity and abilities to express their understanding, To know and understand the criteria-based assessment for predicting their own learning outcomes and understanding success, to anticipate in reflection, assessing themselves and their peers, to use knowledge to solve real problems, to express different point of view, think critically.
And parents obtain objective evidence of the level of their student's training, to monitor progress in teaching the student, to provide the student with support in the learning process, to establish feedback from teachers and school administration, to be confident and calm for the comfort of the student in the classroom and school.
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