This article is devoted to a problem of forming the research culture of future teachers of foreign languages. It is shown here the stages of formation of research culture and orientation to social problems of society and to development of science at the same time promote formation of interest in science and researches at students and high-quality preparation of young scientific shots. In this regard the foreign language of future teachers has relevant search of ways of increase in learning efficiency. Much attention in work is paid to stages of formation of research culture of future teachers. Authors of article postulate the position that formation of research culture needs to be begun in higher education institution today. The advantage of the reviewed work is consideration of problems of formation of research culture at future teachers of foreign languages.
In the Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – the Leader of the nation NursultanNazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan «Strategy Kazakhstan-2050 – a new political policy of the taken place state N.A. Nazarbayev has set specific objectives in the field of education: «…. During modernization of an education system it is important to us to carry out the following measures. First, to introduce modern techniques and technologies in training process. Secondly, it is important to increase quality of teaching staff. It is necessary to strengthen standards of basic pedagogical education, the requirement to professional development of teachers of schools and higher education institutions .
For performance of these tasks professionally competent teachers are necessary, «capable to think crea- tively», «to find non-standard solutions», «to show an initiative», ready to train pupils in independent information search, design and research activity. According to relevant for professional education in the Republic of Kazakhstan there is a problem of formation and development of the identity of the competent teacherresearcher owning technology of statement of a scientific and pedagogical experiment in complete pedagogical process. In this regard the unconditional requirement of training of the teacher are arms his knowledge of subject matters, formation of skills of research activity, development of his professional qualities, search and planning of new approaches to training and education of pupils.
The processes connected with transformations of the social sphere set new valuable reference points of society in this connection the concept of formation of the 21st century marks out his quality and the leading role in culture and spirituality, education, in realization of innovations. At the same time a basis of a modern educational paradigm are such priorities as self-development and self-education [2; 38].
For all that, modern educational practice not fully promotes the maximum stimulation of research orientation of pedagogical work that causes need of studying of theoretical aspects of such pedagogical phenomenon as «research competence» of future teacher .
In the Republic of Kazakhstan the problem of training of teachers for research activity was considered in Z.A. Isaeva and Sh.T. Taubayeva's basic researches.
In particular Z.A. Isaeva has developed the concept of stage-by-stage formation of professional and research culture of future teachers in the system of university education as implementation of gradual transition of students from the contemplate and theoretical analysis to structurally modeling type of the activity directed to assimilation of methodology of scientific creativity and development of research style of thinking in the conditions of active informative process.
Sh.T. Taubayeva has proved the concept of research culture as qualities of innovative and didactic activity of the teacher in complete pedagogical process of comprehensive school.
The problem of formation of research activity of teachers was studied by the Kazakhstan researchers in the context of complete pedagogical process N.D. Hmel, T.N. Bidaybekova, A.A. Moldazhanova, V.K. Omarova, etc.), in line with valuable orientation of the identity of G.K. Nurgaliyeva, R.Ch. Bekturganova, etc.
Formation of the teacher-researcher – process long, continuous, demanding providing certain conditions at all his stages. It is impossible to train the teacher-researcher only in the conditions of higher education institution as change of the professional sphere goes very in high gear. Therefore continuous, continuous process of professional development, the created system of continuous professional education is necessary. «In modern conditions formation of knowledge isn't a main goal of education (knowledge for the sake of knowledge). Knowledge and abilities as unit of educational result is necessary, but is insufficient to be successful in modern information society».
Sh.T. Taubayeva allocates the following stages of formation of knowledge, skills of research activity of the teacher.
At the first stage the teacher masters the traditional forms of methodical work which are based on the concept of pedagogical education, professional development of pedagogical shots.
At the second stage work of the teacher is focused on the concept of pedagogical creativity, studying and synthesis of the best pedagogical practices (a stage of didactic judgment by the teacher of the activity).
At the third stage (development of educational and methodical literature) the teacher has to realize need of own research activity, he takes part in curriculum development, studies possibilities of technology of training and teaching the subject.
At the fourth stage (realization of own ideas) the teacher studies the experience, develops author's programs and educational and methodical complexes to them, develops separate elements of technology of training.
The fifth final stage (development of new pedagogical knowledge) assumes preparation by the teacher of scientific articles, writing of scientific works by him, creation of new techniques of training and education, new technology of training. Professional growth from the expert teacher to the teacher-researcher Sh.T. Taubayev reflects in the scheme «the teacher-the trainee-the teacher who is creatively working-the teacher innovator-the teacher master-the teacher-the innovator» [4; 370].
We consider that the modern teacher surely has to be a researcher. He has to, owning the theory and technology of scientific creativity, to apply the created skills of research search in the pedagogical activity. As all know, recently the pedagogical worker is faced by the new requirement – mastering research activity as professional and significant activity. Thus, the problem of formation of research culture of future teachers is relevant in pedagogical science to this day. The technologies of training used by the higher pedagogical school not always stimulate research activity of students enough. Therefore, we consider that it is important to form their research culture in the course of vocational training of students, to induce to creative scientific activity.
In these works it is emphasized that orientation to social problems of society and to development of science at the same time promote formation of interest in science and researches at students and high-quality preparation of young scientific shots.
But nevertheless there is an unresolved part of this topical issue an analysis of formation of research culture of future teacher in the course of training of future teachers of foreign languages as a pedagogical problem.
We believe that process of formation of research culture of future teachers of foreign languages will help to define optimum ways of the solution of the existing contradictions between rapid development of society, changes which happen in the state, and level of training of students; between growth of volume of information in the conditions of development of the market relations in society and ability to acquire the apprehended information; between the order of the state for future teachers at whom research culture, and insufficient development of this question in the pedagogical theory and practice is created.
Only continuously studying achievements of science in the professional sphere, introducing them in practice; being guided by new scientific ideas; analyzing the research experience and applying diagnostic techniques; carrying out the analysis of system of training and education; proving efficiency of author's heuristic techniques by means of reliable scientific data, future expert can become teacher-researcher. To seize such abilities, the teacher on average needs 5–10 years which are the most optimum period of formation of the teacher-researcher. Future teacher can seize skills of research activity in higher education institution. However, at this stage he can only be engaged in the analysis of scientific theoretical and practical achievements and his work isn't connected with continuous updating of information.
Research activity of students assumes opening of the new scientific facts, concepts, laws, regularities, scientific definitions and the related nonconventional ways of development of practice; achievement of an original, unique product of scientific activity; activization of all inner world of the person (according to I. Kuklina) and, first of all, his talents, abilities, talent; development of creative research thinking; interrelation of individual creativity and coauthorship on the basis of comprehension of science. Therefore we consider that it is necessary to be engaged in formation of research culture of future teachers in higher education institution already today [5; 87].
It is known that research culture is considered the personal education promoting inclusion of the person in research activity and being that part of culture of the person which gives the chance to acquire new knowledge, to be acquainted with public culture.
Sencha I.A. gives the following definitions to the concept «research culture»:
- – a certain way and result of creative self-realization of the expert in professional activity;
- – personal property and certain extent of possession of receptions and ways of the solution of professional tasks;
- – and characterize by abilities which appear in creative professional activity features of consciousness, professional thinking;
- – a source of new knowledge and abilities which provide creative professional development, aspiration to self-improvement [6; 74].
We consider that the research culture of future teacher of foreign languages is a part of general culture, set of norms and methods of knowledge, ways of realization and improvement, this complete education which is formed and develops in process in the pedagogical focused activity.
According to us, functions of research culture of future teacher, are: creative – consists in definition of ways and development tools and improvement of professional activity; significative – determination of the importance of improvement and development of professional activity; imperative – determination of norms, standards, technologies of carrying out the professional focused researches necessary for improvement for both professional, and research activity in the professional sphere; adaptive – consists in definition of space for self-affirmation and self-realization of the expert – the subject of professional activity; developing – definition of ways and ways of development of the expert as professional.
The personal research culture of future teacher of foreign languages is characterized as research activity in the sphere of the chosen profession; formation of such culture assumes transition of a standard basis of research activity to individual style of her performance, and in this sense the individual style of research activity of the student is the integrated characteristic of his personal research culture.
Formation of research culture happens to research work of future teachers in higher educational institutions. It is necessary to cover basics of carrying out research work in higher educational institutions
First basis: the organization of scientific and methodical readings, seminars promoting increase in level of scientific-theoretical and methodical training of future teachers for studying and use in professional activity of modern pedagogical technologies, techniques, ways and methods of successful training. The second basis experience acquisition, that is participation in research activity through development of a subject of an individual research is considered. The third basis is distribution of new type of relationship in educational activity on the basis of abilities of diagnostics.
Observance and realization of these bases is a major factor of professional formation of future teacher for formation of research activity, with an algorithm inherent in her:
- – updating of the training program for creation of an individual-based methodical complex of future teacher on the basis of the psychology and pedagogical analysis of educational process;
- – allocation of the through ideas of each training course;
- – establishment of interrelations between different courses through allocation of the general principles and approaches during the work with information;
- – planning and development of compatible educational actions;
- – allocation of the generalizing occupations which form complete (system, critical) thinking;
- – training in bases of drawing up bibliography and work with scientific literature on research materials;
- – a formulation of conclusions in the form of tables, charts, schedules, schemes following the results of research activity;
- – the organization and preparation of performances at scientific and methodical and scientific and practical conferences with involvement of scientific consultants and reviewers;
- – illumination of results of work in printing editions;
- – development and publication of author's didactic material (educational posters, schemes, developments of individual tasks of research character for students of different level of educational opportunities);
- – synthesis of experience according to the program of research activity in scientific articles.
Research skills are a kernel of structure of formation of research culture of the student. M.M. Gladysheva has considered and has compared determination of research abilities which are analyzed by modern writers. N.S. Amelina understands as research abilities possession of the difficult system of the mental and practical actions necessary for cognitive activity in all types of educational work. V.I. Andreyev considers that the research ability is an ability to apply the corresponding reception of a scientific method in the conditions of the solution of an educational problem, performance of an educational research task. E.I. Barchuk in the research defines research abilities as abilities to conduct a scientific and empirical research in various subject domains. P.Y. Romanov formulates the following determination of research abilities: research ability – ability of the student to effectively perform the operations adequate to the maintenance of each level of system of training in the solution of the task which has arisen before him according to logic of scientific research, on the basis of the available knowledge and abilities.
Analyzing the above-named definitions, we come to a conclusion that research abilities can be characterized as the purposeful actions which are based on the system of earlier acquired knowledge, skills in the course of educational cognitive activity of future teachers and answer the purpose and problems of research activity.
Classifying research skills, in structure of each of them it is possible to allocate the following components: a) an intellectual component (ability and skills not only to perceive information and to adopt social experience, but also to adequately turn them by means of the analysis, synthesis, systematization, establishment of relationships of cause and effect, promotion of a hypothesis); b) a practical component (skills to apply theoretical provisions of separate subject matters according to tasks of teaching and educational process, ability to obtain new information from various sources, ability to study and make out the obtained information by means of different methods);
c) self-organization and self-checking (ability to organize own activity, to define methods, means, the sequence and term of performance of a task, ability to estimate quality of his performance).
Sometimes unite all research skills which future teacher, in several groups has to seize (for O.L. Mirgorodska). Operational research skills are an ability to analyze and synthesize scientific information, to systematize and classify it, to allocate main and essential, to establish relationships of cause and effect, to generate the ideas, to make hypotheses. Organizational research skills are an ability to plan research work, to use methods of self-organization and self-checking in research activity.
Communicative research skills are skills to use methods of cooperation in the course of research activity, to operate with style of business scientific communication, to exercise mutual aid and control. Practical research skills are skills to observe and describe the facts and the phenomena of reality, to conduct pilot studies, to work with scientific literature, ability to carry out information search, to analyze the facts and the phenomena by means of various methods.
We consider that educational and research skills are a difficult mental education (synthesis of intellectual and practical actions, self-organization and self-checking – acquired and fixed in modalities of action) which is the cornerstone of readiness for research, informative search that results from management of educational and research activity.
Following the results of the carried-out analysis we have allocated stages of formation of research culture of future teachers.
- stage (1, 2 courses) – orientation and research which essence consists in accumulation of experience of search and processing of scientific information, formation of ability to reveal, formulate, analyze demanding solution of the problem of the pedagogical theory and practice, obtaining data on the operating forms of scientific creativity in higher education institution; performance of the independent researches based on the analysis and systematization of scientific information.
- stage (the 3rd course) – organizational and research, consist in mastering fundamentals of methodology of a pedagogical research, data on methods, forms and the principles of pedagogical researches, the methods of transformation of pedagogical reality, performance of independent software developments to pedagogical problems based on creative interpretation of materials of scientific research.
- stage (the 4th course) – research, are based on formation of experience of introduction of achievements of pedagogical science (own developments, the best pedagogical practices) in practice, accumulation of data on structure of process of introduction, performance of the scientific research which has undergone approbation in educational institutions.
At the end of a research we have drawn a conclusion that the research culture of future teacher of foreign languages is a component of his general culture. Formation of research culture is inappropriate withoutperformance by students of research work. A kernel of research culture are research skills. Research skills have integrative character as make synthesis of two groups of skills: search and research. The structure of each research ability and skill allocate intellectual and practical components, self-organization and selfchecking.
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