Intonation and speech technology of the future English language teachers

Mastery of speech culture is the main condition for professional success, psychological comfort, moreover it contributes to the integration of the individual into the world community and culture. In this regard, when preparing a specialist in the field of professional and pedagogical language activities, it becomes necessary not only to know the oral and written norms of the literary language (both native and foreign), but also the ability to use expressive means characteristic of a language in the context of intercultural communication. The formation of the sound culture and expressive qualities of speech of the specialist in the field of foreign language is of particular importance, as the teacher's speech is a role model. In this article the complex of didactic means used in the process of speech's rhythmic-intonational expressiveness training of future foreign language specialists is considered.

Today in Kazakhstan, as in the world community as a whole, there is an awareness that in the 21st century the position of the individual, his pedagogical skill, material and moral well-being largely depend on the development of the quality of education.

The head of the state of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the project «Intellectual Nation-2020» noted that «the main goal is Kazakhstan's education of a new formation, the transformation of Kazakhstan into a country with competitive human capital». In this context, the role and importance of the modern education system, human capital, management and training of qualified personnel is growing. Education is the foundation of human resources. We learn in order to apply our knowledge in practice. The President also noted that «the project should take into account three potential points. The first point concerns the innovative development of the education system. It is necessary to ensure that our young people are able not only to receive, but also to create new knowledge. The most valuable knowledge today is creative thinking, the ability to re-engineer knowledge, generate new solutions, technologies and innovations. New methods, new forms of teaching, new specialists are needed for this» [1].

In this regard, vocational education in the Republic of Kazakhstan should, on the basis of the National Program for Personnel Training, reach a level at which it will be able to provide advanced training for competitive personnel taking into account the development of science, technology, technology and economics at home and abroad. A new generation of cadres should have the ability to set and solve tasks for the future, a high culture of thinking and the ability to independently orient themselves in various information. This applies equally to pedagogical cadres.

Socio-economic transformations in our country set the task of forming a progressively thinking youth who can critically approach existing technological processes, forms of organization labor. As never before, society is acutely aware of the need for active creative persons familiar with the methods of solving nonstandard tasks in real life situations. The social significance of this problem is that the formation of creative principles in a person in the early stages of his development determines the successful implementation of the motives that are stimulating the activation of the creativity of the younger generation.

After all, today we need specialists of a new type, in addition to high professional skills, such properties as the ability to manage and entrepreneurial activities, to diagnose business relations and establishing business contacts, competence, huge intellect and a high level of culture, as well as propensity to individual creativity, ability to live and work in the new information world [2].

The undoubted impetus to this movement is Bologna process. Kazakhstan's entry into the world's information community can develop dynamic, effective approaches to solving the problems of optimizing the open learning. This, in turn, activates the communicative-cognitive activity of specialists during the period of university, promotes the development of personal creativity, self-actualization of a specialist.

Teachers of pedagogical disciplines of pedagogical universities are trying to solve the problem of forming pedagogical skills and improving the culture of speech of future specialists, but their efforts are complicated by insufficient knowledge of the theoretical, theoretical and pedagogical foundations of this problem, and so it has not yet found its principal solution. The potentialities of the teaching and upbringing process in the university as a whole and the disciplines of the pedagogical cycle in particular, in optimizing the process of the formation of pedagogical mastery in students - future teachers are insufficiently substantiated. The study of the problem in real practice revealed the following: in pedagogical universities, the actualization of the idea of the role, place and significance of pedagogical skill (in an organic relationship with the culture of speech and pedagogical communication) is not sufficiently accented; the content and process of formation of pedagogical skills and culture of speech of the future teacher are not always organically interconnected; lectures do not emphasize their decisive place and importance in the activities of the future teacher of English language; insufficient attention is paid to the communicative abilities of future educators, the development of their speech, the skills of pedagogical communication (to its styles), teachers have little knowledge of the necessary optimal pedagogical technology and methodology; teachers of pedagogical disciplines need, first of all, psychological-pedagogical and theoretical-practical help in the formation of pedagogical abilities in the future teachers-mastery, speech culture and oratorical skills, the foundations of pedagogical communication, tact, ethics, pedagogical partnership of the future teacher-educator and students.

The problem of the formation of the communicative-speech culture of the personality was studied in the studies of B.G. Ananyeva, L.P. Buieva, V.V. Vasilyeva, M.A. Vikulina, M.S. Kagan, V.V. Ryzhov, A.N.Shamov and others.

Instruction in foreign languages, in the English language, is recognized as a priority in the direction of the Kazakhstan Conversion, which causes the inferiority of the start-up phase injected language with the use of the newest technology on language vocabulary. On this stage the main goal of learning injected language is not only language communication, with four kinds of speech activity (speaking, reading, reading and writing), but also in the developing students of the skills of the universal communion, ability of practical use of the language material, the expansion of the recognized competitions (in the sense of cultural and cultural revelations, the knowledge of moral ethics, etc.) [3].

Perception and understanding of speech is one of the most complex and still little developed problems of psychology and pedagogy. The need for its study in relation to the tasks of pedagogical communication is extremely great. B.D. Parygin notes: «An essential condition for the reliability of the system of upbringing is the consideration to workers of the ideological front of the mechanisms to which the process of perception, processing and assimilation by the individual of information is subject ...» [4]. It is the participation in one and the same kind of activity that serves as an internal factor uniting all those listening to the lecture of people into a single group - the audience.

Management of listening, in turn, can be carried out only through the correct organization of the process of perception, comprehension and memorization. So, is it possible to talk about the proper organization of the listening process, if the English teacher delivers material on 10-15 points of the plan? Previous training course proved that it is impossible, since such a number of issues in question exceeds the permissible limit of «semantic pieces» that a student can remember during the lecture. There is no such characteristic of the audience where all people are busy and interested in the same kind of speech activity, and consideration of the laws of this activity can undoubtedly help the teacher in his work.

Speech is defined as «the process of expressing a person's thoughts, his feelings and desires through the language with the aim of influencing the interlocutor or the reader in the process of communication in various activities and social relations» [5]. Oral speech differs from writing, first of all, uniqueness, or rather irreversibility in time. This is due to the fact that oral speech as a sequence of sounds is realized in time, whereas written expression expresses a sequence of alphabetic, visual symbols and is realized in space.

The second psychological feature of oral speech is expressiveness, caused by the sound nature of speech. The phonetic characteristic of oral speech, in addition to the very utterance of sounds, includes, as we know, intonation, stress and pause. Each of these phenomena can manifest itself in speech in very large variations and ranges. In oral speech, you can convey an infinite number of shades of thought.

The next characteristic of oral speech is the participation in this process of non-linguistic means of disclosing thought. These tools include facial expressions and pantomimic movements, including gestures. One of the interesting and important features of mimicry are the movements and expression of the look.

It is known that a good voice, a clear diction (pronouncing individual sounds), following orthoepic norms (literary pronunciation), and expressive intonation in no small measure affect the success of the lecture speech. And this is not limited to the actual aesthetic moments, but is directly related to the effectiveness of pedagogical activity. E.A. Nozhin claims: «The sound form of speech, and through it the meaning ofwords and sentences is automatically perceived by us. However, such a process is established only in the case of an impeccable pronunciation of the speaker» [6].

The intonation for pedagogical speech of future English language teachers is of great importance. Our study has shown, unfortunately, not all use its enormous expressive possibilities. Each teacher of English should understand that modern teaching is primarily a natural colloquial speech, which, correspondingly, has a colloquial melodic design. But, unlike usual conversation, the intonation of the teacher of the English language should be brighter, the melodic movements are steeper, more contrasting, more expressive. That's why they face the challenge of working hard on intonation, developing a range of voice.

The range of the voice is a collection of sounds of different heights available to the human voice. A good teacher perfectly knows the entire range of his voice, creating high quality of sound on every part of it — in all registers — medium, thoracic, head.

The speed of speech, in general, the duration of sounding words, syllables, as well as the duration of pauses in conjunction with the rhythmic organization, the dimensionality of speech is its tempo rhythm. The speed of speech depends on the individual qualities of the teacher of English, the content of speech and the situation of communication. The speed of speech, especially the lecture, slows down considerably if students are recording. One should speak somewhat more slowly when speech is pronounced in a very large hall: a reflected echo can be superimposed on subsequent words. The optimal rate, for example, of Russian speech is about 120 words per minute, which roughly coincides with the magnitude of the average rate of speech of the Germans. For English, the pace of speech ranges from 120 to 150 words per minute. Perception of speech occurs, as is known, along the semantic lumps and represents the process of enlargement precisely on this basis. That is why it is easier to reproduce the content of an utterance than a complete sequence of words, its constituents [7].

The feeling of incompleteness deprives listeners of the opportunity to create blocks in the process of perception - steps that make it easy to follow the teacher's thoughts. In a living colloquial speech, all these components are present, regardless of the attention and desire of the speaker. The correct accentuation necessary for good perception of speech is the selection of the main words of thought and the passing (less significant) utterance of the secondary ones. You can raise and lower the sound of the voice, speak louder and quieter, slower and faster, highlight important pauses.

For pedagogical activity a completely new situation is emerging. Changes that occur in society, in information processes, can not but affect pedagogical activity. Students are more active than before, reject a formal, boring, chewing lecture. The skill of public speaking not only does not lose its role, on the contrary, the need for it grows.

Mastery of a future English language teacher is a concept that is capacious and multivalued in content. It includes erudition, fluency in scientific and educational material, ability to hold fast, speak confidently, intelligibly, at a high level of speech culture. Author's thoughts of the teacher appear before listeners not in the silent line of the text, they are affected by a living human voice with inexhaustible possibilities of expressive means. A feature of oral speech is the perception of the content of speech through two channels: the sound - through a sounding word, intonation and visual - through facial expressions, gestures, movements of the teacher.

According to A.F. Koni mimicry, posture, movements of the body of the speaker strengthen the semantic capacitance, expressiveness, emotional content of speech. The visual channel shows the teacher's working condition, his desire (or reluctance) to communicate with students, respect (or disrespect) for them. Therefore, it is very important for the future English language teacher to develop in himself/herself the ability to control the appearance in communication, to interpret the students' reaction to the peculiarities of their facial expressions, body movements, gestures and intonation of speech [8].

Thus, the language of future English language teachers should be literate, clear, but not primitive, fascinating, but not entertaining, easy, but not lightweight, affecting, but not intrusive. The instructor-lecturer is obliged to master oratorical skill — a live oral speech — to present the material politically correctly, informatively, competently, interestingly, gracefully and convincingly. To know and to foresee the didactic principles, to set before ourselves, above all, such four tasks: 1) influence on students; 2) the credibility of the lecture; 3) mastering the material by students; 4) remembering the lecture material by the listeners. In order to master the pedagogical skill, the skill of speech, one should prepare for each performance: you need to know the subject you are talking about, exactly the details, finding out its very positive and negative properties; you need to know your native language and be able to use its flexibility, wealth and original turnover.

The teacher of the university should be a teacher of high style and high level, i.e. one that teaches us to acquire knowledge and which, does this by means of an enticing sample of our own example.

The image of such a teacher resembles the image of the researcher. First of all, he is characterized by constant work on himself, constant improvement of his abilities, constant enrichment of his achievements. This is due to him not at all from formal needs, not from a desire to advance in the service, but from his own inner needs and the deeply understood needs of the social environment. Such teacher differs independence of thinking and acting. And if he follows others, it is not for his own convenience, but only when the arguments of others recognize his own. To what he knows, he is indebted not only to others, but to a large extent his own inquisitiveness, as well as his passionate desire to solve seemingly solved or otherwise unnoticed problems. Without departing from the wrong opinions, he seeks to influence others, inciting them to critical thinking and independent action.

 

References

  1. akorda.kz. Retrieved from http://www.akorda.kz/kz/official_documents/strategies_and_programs.
  2. Zhukovsky, I.V. (2005). Razvitie mezhdunarodnykh obrazovatelnykh proektov [Development of the international educational projects]. Innovatsii v obrazovanii – Innovation in education, 2, 13–16 [in Russian].
  3. Alexeeva, M.M. (2014). Formirovanie kommunikativnoi kompetentsii budushchikh ekolohov na osnove ispolzovaniia telekommunikatsionnykh tekhnolohii (v protsesse obucheniia anhliiskomu yazyku) [Formation of communicative competence of future ecologists on the basis of the use of telecommunication technologies]. Doctor's thesis. Turkestan [in Russian].
  4. Parygin, B.D. (1967). Sotsialnaia psikholohiia kak nauka [Social philosophy as science]. Leningrad: Lenizdat [in Russian].
  5. Rtemev, V.A. (1958). Kurs lektsii po psikholohii [Lectures on philosophy]. Kharkov: Izdatelstvo Kharkovskoho hosudarstvennoho universiteta [in Russian].
  6. Nozhin, E.A. (1978). Masterstvo ustnoho vystupleniia [Skill of an oral performance]. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
  7. Umirzakova, I.T. (2013). Nauchno-tekhnicheskie osnovy formirovaniia pedahohicheskoho masterstva i kultury rechi budushcheho pedahoha v protsesse professionalnoi podhotovki [Scientific and technical bases of pedagogical skill formation and speech standard of the future teacher in the course of professional training]. Doctor's thesis. Tashkent [in Russian].
  8. Koni, A.F. (1958) Sovety lektoram [Advice to lecturers]. Moscow: Hospolitizdat [in Russian].
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy