The article is devoted to the study of the basic concepts of the research problem «Methodology of adapting the best bilingual experience to the conditions of trilingual education», as so in the conceptual and categorical apparatus of the stated problem there should be definitions of all notions. In the article there are collected and analyzed main, key terms. Terms form the basis of a scientific language. The study and development of the conceptual-terminological apparatus presents special tasks of the research work. The authors revealed the essence of the concepts under study by detecting and clarifying the meanings and meanings of terms (concepts). This terminological analysis makes it possible to design, clarify and substantiate the basic working definitions.
In the modern life learning foreign languages is an essential part of preparing specialists, knowing several languages. Today in competitive world knowing foreign language is a grant success in professional occupation. Consequently, on the step of professional development to know one language is not enough. It has happened that today the world chooses English language for communication in the international sphere. Along with that, in the epoch of globalization it is being observed the aspiration of national communities to keep and develop their culture and language. Consequently in the modern social practice and in the sphere of linguistic education bilingual education takes its development.
Our research is being devoted to Methodology of adapting the best international practices of bilingual education to the condition of Kazakhstani trilingual education in its conceptual and categorical framework should contain definitions of all key notions involved in the given problem.
The notion «education» takes the central place in this list.
In pedagogical dictionary education is identified as a unique dedicated process of education and teaching which is socially significant benefit and accomplishing in the interest of person, family, community and government, also the summation of knowledge, skills, values, experience, activities and competencies of particular dimension and difficulties in the aim of intellectual, spiritual – moral, artistic, physical and personal professional development, the satisfaction of his educational demands and interests [1; 17].
In the context of our research the notion linguistic education is actualized.
Linguistic education is the education in the sphere of all modern languages (native or foreign languages and cultures [2; 336].
Therefore, if the education is process of teaching, gaining of knowledge and skills, linguistic education is presented as a meaningful segment, concentrated on linguistic knowledge and skills forming personal consciousness which gives an opportunity to enter into open infosphere.
In the conditions of the modern world, in education, much attention is paid to learning a foreign language, respectively, the knowledge of two or more languages is very relevant.
Hence there are appeared new types of education, where lessons are conducted not only in native language but also in other languages. One of these types of education is bilingual education.
There are many interpretation of the term bilingual education in the modern science. Today given educational programs are becoming more popular and their access begins to be spread in many countries.
Having considered the notion of bilingual education it is essential to point out that despite the difference of its structural models it means [3, 4]:
- as the language of education / training, to use not only one language but two - native (first) and second (state, foreign) or the language of the country of residence, if they do not coincide in the learning process;
- the educational scheme in which a child gains knowledge at least in two languages, one of them is native language for some or for all children, and the second language, as a rule, is language for wide communication, official or nonofficial language.
The main difference of bilingual education from traditional education is that in the given situation language of schooling is not only the means of teaching and education but also its main goal.
The peculiarity of given education is that students can effectively learn second language if it is used in some period of time for subject communication.
Along with the concept of bilingual association, the term dual language education is also widely used in linguistics, being a synonym for bilingualism.
If bilingual education alludes schooling in two languages, using three or more languages in the process of education is called trilingual, polylingual or multilingual education. Compared to bilingual and trilingual education, polylingual and multilingual education do not define the exact number of languages using in teaching.
In most literary books these two types relate to the term of bilingual education. According to the concept of UNESCO the notion «multilingual education» was introduced in 1999 and is supposed using at least three languages in education: native language, regional or national language and international language .
The analysis of the given notions shows that these terms can be used as synonyms, as so there are not significant differences in their meanings.
As it was mentioned above, in the context of our research, education is the main concept, and in pedagogical science it is the central category and subject of the research. From this we can point out that pedagogy is the branch of science, reveling essence, principles of education, and the role of educational process in developing of personality elaborating practical ways of increasing their resulting quality. Learning process takes an important place in the process of pedagogy. As so during learning, knowledge, skills and abilities are acquired, personal qualities that allow a person to show individuality and adapt to external conditions are formed.
Having reviewed pedagogical works of N.V. Bordovskaya, A.A. Rean, V.A. Slastenin, V.P. Kashirin, L.P. Krivshenko it was identified that all of them has the same meaning of the given notion [6–8].
Learning is a method of organization of educational process and reliable approach of getting systematic education:
- the process of giving and acquisition of knowledge, abilities and skills of work is the main device of training a person to the life and work;
- combined purposeful activity of teacher and student in the course of which personal developing and his education are realizing.
In the modern world there are different types of education, consequently new types of schooling are being appeared. One of the more probable methods of bilingual education is bilingual schooling, which differs from bilingual education that it is represented interim stage in transition from native language education to the second language education and it has little in common with academic education [3; 13].
The term learning is understood as the systematic work of the teacher with students, which is based on the mastery of knowledge and values, as well as the implementation and consolidation of changes in their knowledge. At the heart of any type of training there is the system: teaching and learning. In this process, the activity of the teacher is the teaching, while the activity of the student is the learning.
The analysis of definitions shows that «teaching» is pedagogical management of teaching activity of student and is one of the components of educational process [9; 175]. During teaching process teacher's work is directed to form student's positive motives of studying, to organize the perception, to understand presentational facts and occurrences, to supply them with skills to use gained knowledge and get the knowledge by themselves [7; 166]. Learning is purposeful, conscious, cognitive activity of the student, consisting in the perception and mastering of scientific knowledge, in the compilation of perceived facts, in the consolidation and application of the knowledge gained in practical activities on the instructions of the teacher or based on their own cognitive needs [6; 166]. If the duties of teachers include teaching, conveying information, to give a hand in difficult situations of studying, to motivate students and evaluate their abilities, however student need to master, assign and apply gained knowledge. The results of studying are expressed in knowledge and skills.
Like other science, pedagogy, representing the body of knowledge for the development and preparation of a person for life in society, has its object and subject of study.
Scholars like L.P. Krivshenko, M.E. Vajndorf, V.V. Kraevskij consider the pedagogy as a relatively independent scientific discipline, the function of which is the indirect use of knowledge borrowed from other sciences (psychology, natural science, sociology, etc.) and adapted to solve tasks arising in the field of education or upbringing [10; 43]. The content of such pedagogy is a set of fragmentary ideas about individual aspects of pedagogical phenomena. First of all, pedagogy is closely connected with the sciences that study man, since man is an object of pedagogy. Under the frame of such sciences are philosophy, psychology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, political science, economics, and linguistics.
The set of pedagogical branches form a developing system of pedagogical sciences. In our article we will consider the relationship of pedagogy with such sciences as linguistics, psychologists and philosophy in detail.
In connection with the emergence of new types of education (bilingual, multilingual, multilingual education), and in accordance with the studied problem, the main importance is given to such concepts as bilingualism, multilingual, multilingualism, etc.
Among the sciences which deal with researching such notions as bilingualism, polylinguism and multilingualism linguistic is marked. On the base of different approaches, in the science there are many definitions of the given notions.
Scientists distinguish the term bilingualism from different sides, identifying their classifications depending on the area in which they worked. The concepts of bilingualism and dual language are synonymous and are considered together.
Bilingualism [bi ... + lat. lingua language] - lingua, bilingualism is the ability of a person simultaneously use two languages in the same level (eg. French-English in Canada) .
As an object of science, the versatility of bilingualism has given rise to many different theories that solve the problems posed by researchers in the study of one or another aspect of bilingualism.
Language is a function of social groups, to be bilingual means simultaneously to belong to two different groups.
When studying the literature of Western countries, we came across the term «multilingualism». The term «multilingualism» as well as the term «bilingualism» is a term that can refer to the existence of more than one language in relation to: the use of language, the language competence of a person, and the language situation in a geographic space .
As a bilinguism, polylinguism is a combination of speaking skills and communicative competence which allow them to use several linguistic systems in communication. Together with the term polylinguistic theorists and experts in linguistic education often use the term «trilingualism» when three languages are used in communication. By this definition, the author cites the example of Russia, which, like Kazakhstan, is a multinational country. Even if a person studies two foreign languages and it is quite possible that they know or are studying their native language or they attend courses in another foreign language, in other words they are polyleggists. However, if we apply this term to the number of languages that they have learned, then we will come across the concept of trilingualism.
Therefore in linguistic there are different notions when we talk about using two or more languages. According to the given definitions polylinguism and multylinguism mean understanding and using two or more languages and the term trilingualism concretize three languages. When the population of the country speaks in several languages, then for the further development of the state there is a need to introduce new programs into the education system.
As our investigated problem connects with the adaptation of bilingual education to the conditions of trilingual education, one of the tasks is to determine the meaning of the concept of adaptation.
Today in pedagogy the word adaptation is often met. This term is used in different spheres of human life, such as: technical, medicine, psychology and in education. There are many scientists who gave their definitions to this notion.
A.A. Rean, A.R. Kudashev and A.A. Baranov consider the concept of «adaptation» and «daptedness» as synonyms, defining adaptation as a process and result of internal changes of external active adaptation and self-changing of an individual to new existence conditions, and the result of the adaptation process is the adaptedness [10; 17].
The connection of pedagogy with psychological sciences takes special interest, as so psychology studies the law of human psychological development. During teaching it is necessary to understand the characters of human nature, what are the needs and opportunities, also we must take into account mechanisms and laws ofpsychological work and development of personality, to form education in accordance with these laws, characters, needs and opportunities.
If in pedagogy adaptation is the result of getting used of person to a new event, in psychological sciences the process of adaptation meaningfully represents as an active formation of strategies for coping with distressing situations through the mechanisms of different levels of regulation.
In the book «Human adaptation and his failures» the notion of adaptation is defined in two ways:
1. As a condition in which the needs of human and the demands of society are fully satisfied. It is condition of harmony among person and nature or social environment.
2. As a process whereby this harmonious state is reached .
Adaptation is matching between updated needs of person, his capabilities and resources taking into account certain conditions. The analysis of these terms showed that in both sciences, adaptation is the process of adapting an individual to new conditions and at the same time achieving a harmonious state.
In the process of learning, not only learners, but also new training programs that are being implemented, adapt to external conditions. From this we can point out the notion «Adapted educational program». It is the programme which is adapted for learners with limited means of health taking into account peculiarities of their psycho – physical, individual abilities and if it is necessary to supply the correction of developmental disability and their social adaptation.
In the course of the study, as it was mentioned above, the notion of adaptation has traced its roots from psychology. The process of adaptation of personality is characterized by the activity of a person. Gradually, this concept began to meet in other areas of science. From a pedagogical or educational point of view, in the sphere of inclusive education this word is met frequently. In spite of this the meaning of adaptation is interpreted as getting used to smth new. In our research adaptation means with the help of amending to use specific program.
The main goal of education is the development of a person, respectively, the emergence of new types of education contributes the development of certain concepts related to a person, such as a language personality, a second language personality, as well as a multilingual personality.
In the modern linguistics the study about language personality acquired fabulous popularity, as so it gives an opportunity to investigate communicative essence of language. In the context of linguistic education the notion language personality is actualized. Given phenomenon attracts the attention of many scholars, there are lots of different definitions.
In anthropocentric linguistics cognitive, sociological and cultural trends imply a thorough study of the language personality. However, different interpretations greatly complicate the understanding of this phenomenon and complicate its study. Definitions of linguistic personality were presented in the works of V. Humboldt, K. Vossler, E.W. Barsukov, Yu.N. Karaulov, P. O. Selіgey, A. Potebni, A.B. Shakhmatova and etc.
In her book E.V.Barsukova presents linguistic persona as valuable data storage device and as a creator of texts using system language facilities for showing education and visions of surrounding reality for achieving particular goals in this world .
Whereas in philosophy language personality is a set of abilities and characteristics of a person with set skills and readiness to realize spoken activities of different levels, classifying according to the types of speech activity (speaking, listening, reading and writing) and according to the level of language (phonetics, grammar, lexicology). The creation and perception of texts differs by
- the degree of structurally linguistic complexity;
- the depth and accuracy of reflection of reality;
- a certain purposefulness.
As it can be seen from the given definitions, the language personality is the person of communication, using the means of the language to create a linguistic text and use it in oral or in written forms. The intention of «language person» and its integrative entity allow maintaining that this theoretical constructs has general pedagogical status :
- in methodology language person is a person expressed in language or through the language;
- from the point of view of pedagogical science, a language personality is a multilayered and multicomponent set of linguistic abilities and skills, readiness for speech actions of various degrees of complexity, actions that are classified on the one hand, by type of speech activity, and on the other hand by language levels;
- language person is who assumes language and for whom language is a speech.
The significancy of language person is that language person takes part in all types of communication, consequently during description it is important to take into account an individual characteristics and the norms of speech of any social group. Selіgej, P. O. developed the typology of levels of linguistic consciousness, noting that person having high linguistic consciousness is mature linguistic consciousness for whom active, interested and responsible attitude to the language are typical .
To implement this concept at the intercultural level, it is necessary to gradually translate the second language to the status of «inappropriate» and form a bilingual, multilingual and polylingual personality.
Summarizing the views of E. Belostok, L.V. Shherba, and K.Bjejker it can be argued that bilingual person is a person speaking in two languages at the same level and also acts on both languages on the sociocultural level in different context and for different purposes [17; 17]. The levels of language proficiency may depend on the contexts (for example, street and house) and how often this language is used.
Understanding the roles of language arises the question about efficiency of teaching languages and increasing level of linguistic skills of future specialists. If bilingual personality is a person knowing two languages also there are people who know and use three or more languages. Therefore it is necessary to analyze such term as multilingual personality.
Multilinguism represents a worthless achievement as each person so the whole community. Along with native language knowing other languages has always been considered a sign of high education and culture. According to the definition of Sh. Kemp «Multilingual identity is a person who has an opportunity to use three or more languages separately or in different levels of combinations» [18; 11].
For realization of the person in another country it is not enough to have knowledge, skills and abilities based on native language and culture. From this we can make conclusion that linguistic person is consistent system and second linguistic persona cannot exist without a primary unified system. In linguistic education linguistic persona is a person, who has linguistic skills and is ready to realize speech activities of various degrees of complexity. Having analyzed the notions of linguistic person we come to the conclusion that linguistic persona is a native speaker and the person knowing two or more languages and cultures of the given nations is identified as polylingual/multilingual person.
One of the social sciences with which pedagogy is closely related is philosophy. Philosophy is the methodological basis of pedagogy, which contributes to the understanding of the goals of upbringing and education. The directions of the pedagogical search, the definition of the essential, target and technological characteristics of the educational process depend on the system of philosophical views [6; 12].
The subjects of philosophy and pedagogy considerably coincide. In our investigated problem there are some notions which take their origins from philosophy, one of them is methodology. The word methodology (from gr. «method» is a way, research, investigation) means set of methods, techniques and operations of practical or theoretical development of reality, i.e. the way of knowledge . In the science methodological knowledge provides right methodological position of scientific problem; can be in the role of intellectual techniques of scientific work and also allows optimizing the organization of scientific research.
The main task of our research is to identify the best experience of bilingual education. As the term bilingual education was mentioned above it is necessary to identify the notion experience, which is frequently used in pedagogy. From the philosophic point of view the experience is defined as reflection in human consciousness of objectified world, social practice directed to the world change. It can be educed that experience is knowledge, skills gained in the process of human life.
It is important to emphasize that the basic meaning of generalizing experience is not only the realization of portable and reproducible experience, which serves as the basis for other specialists to develop new options, «personal recipes», but in mastering the positions of «diagnostician», «methodologist», «methodolo- gist», «expert», etc.
Thus, in this article the basic concepts that are directly related to our research were considered. Today, when it comes to education and upbringing, pedagogy is a fundamental science, since theoretical and methodological ideas to pedagogy help to improve educational activities. Accordingly, the development of this science is influenced by other sciences related to the study of humanity.
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