To the formation problem of future specialists' readiness to use foreign language in professional activity

The article deals with the formation problem of future specialists' readiness to use foreign language in professional activity, which is a necessary condition of competitiveness in the light of world globalization and integration. Entry into the globalized world and open information community is the important circumstance testifying in favor of foreign languages demand in the modern world, as foreign language is the main means of communication in modern multilingual and polycultural society. Proceeding from the requirements of modern society, the higher education has faced a problem of training the expert who can easily deal with informational and foreign-language society connected with its professional activity. To solve the abovenamed task, it is necessary to consider different types of readiness for professional activity, the formed competences at a learning of foreign language, features of a foreign language as a subject and its place in the system of professional and personal preparation, its influence on the formation of the professional expert, realization of his personal potential, features of training process of a foreign language. Using foreign language as a learning tool allows to use more stoutly the personal potential of the student, to activate his abilities to selfstudy, self-development and self-realization as a professional.

The considerable changes happening in the Kazakhstan society in recent years affect directly the reforms in the education system. In particular, it relates, first of all, to the language education importance of which for multicultural of Kazakhstan is indisputable. So, accession of Kazakhstan to Bologna Process purpose of which is creation of a strong competitive education system in the world [1] played a significant role in trilingualism development in Kazakhstan. According to the principles of the Bologna declaration in Kazakhstan, the system of polylingual education where English is used equally with Kazakh and Russian languages has to be realized.

The legal and regulatory side of the above-named process is provided by the State Program of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011–2020 which describes development of languages in new conditions, improvement of the regulatory framework directed to strengthening of the institutional status of Kazakh as the state language, maintaining sociolinguistic activity of Russian and development of English as integration tools in world space [2].

Within realization of the 79th step of the Plan of the Nation of «100 steps» [3] and the State program of development of education for 2011–2020, systematic transition to training in Kazakh, Russian and English languages is carried out [4].

According to the documents on the modernization of higher education, foreign language should be an integral part of the training of experts in high school; learning a foreign language should be based on an interdisciplinary integrative manner; training should be aimed at the development of multicomponent general cultural and professional competence of students [5].

On the basis of the legislative documents analysis it is possible to claim that future graduate has to:

  • - take active vital and professional positions;
  • - be responsible for own welfare and a condition of society, to have ability to self-organization;
  • - be guided by social and professional self-determination and self-realization;
  • - master the main social skills, practical abilities in the field of economy and the social relations;
  • - be capable to enter the globalized world, open information community;
  • - have tolerance (tolerance to others' opinion), ability to conduct dialogue, to look for and reach substantial compromise;
  • - own achievements of modern common cultural level;
  • - skillfully use legal culture: to know fundamental precepts of law and to be able to use possibilities of a legal system of the state.

Entry into the globalized world and open information community is the important circumstance testifying in favor of demand of foreign languages in the modern world as the foreign language is the main means of communication in the modern multilingual and polycultural society. The value of language education is caused by the personal need to be socially mobile and capable to enter information space.

Proceeding from the requirements of modern society, the higher education has faced the task of training the expert capable to be guided freely in information including foreign-language, the society connected with its professional activity, so there is a problem of formation of the future experts' readiness to use a foreign language in professional activity.

The humanistic pedagogical heritage was fully shown in modern concepts of higher education main goal of which is not simple mastering technical knowledge and abilities now, but formation of the personality able to increase the potential, to show competence, to connect the actions with the expected results, to see problems, to model professional skill. Development of such professionally important qualities which would meet the requirements of quickly changing society is not less important: awareness of the self-importance in own destiny, ability to adequately estimate the developed vital and professional skills and, proceeding from this assessment, to make decisions and to build the prospects of further activity, to reflex personal responsibility for the made decisions.

Foreign language, being an integral part of humanitarian education, makes the substantial contribution to optimization of language training process, formation of professional and personal qualities of future experts. Mastering foreign-language knowledge, practical skills help to use a foreign language as means of information activities, systematic replenishment of the professional knowledge, professional communication and professional culture in general.

It is possible to distinguish Z.I. Konnova, P.A. Razinov, L.A. Milovanova, E.N. Makovskaya's works who consider a concept of readiness in terms of self-education and self-training to a foreign language and also readiness for application of a foreign language as means of orientation in economic tasks and situations from the researches of readiness connected with a foreign language.

Among the scientists dealing with a problem of readiness of future experts for professional activity, there is no uniform point of view.

In S.I. Ojegov Dictionary of Russian Language [6; 142] the concept «readiness» is defined as consent to make something and as the state at which everything is made, everything is ready for something. A concept «ready» is defined as developed, i.e. already existing, capable to something.

In psychological science two main approaches to this problem are allocated: the concept «readiness of the expert» is considered from a position of the theory of activity (a state and process) and theories of the personality (its relations and installations). The first approach assumes readiness state assessment as certain functional state (close to the concept «operational rest» (Ukhtomsky A.A.) [7], «prestarting state» (Marishchuk V.L.) [8], etc.

In the second approach, some authors connect the concept «readiness for activity» with the concept «mental set» (the Georgian school — Uznadze D.N.) [9]. The phenomenon of mental set is considered against the background of the general activization of an organism as the state preceding behavior and is understood as readiness for a certain form of reaction including activity. These mental sets (attitudes, dispositions, relations) characterize public behavior of the personality, etc. Also I.M. Kondakov [10] who connects readiness for action and training with a concept of a mental set holds the same opinion. The scientist defines readiness for action as a mental set form (the property of activity expressed by psychological readiness in certain conditions), activity which is characterized by orientation on performance of this or that action with certain knowledge, abilities, skills. Readiness for training, I.M. Kondakov claims, it is expressed by formation at the trainee of psychological properties without which successful mastering educational activity is impossible and allocates: general psychological readiness; special (achievements according to programs); the general personal (readiness as an integrative indicator of already reached mental development).

Proceeding from the provided analysis, it is possible to draw some conclusions. In these definitions a variety of categories in which the term «readiness» is considered that reflects complexity and versatility of this concept, its integrative character is observed. Readiness is considered at the personal, psycho physiological and pedagogical levels. This concept includes such categories as motives and abilities, a readiness state, psychological state, qualities and a condition of the personality, property of the personality, mental set on a certain behavior of the personality, a complete readiness of forces on performance of a task, — all this demonstrates the integrative nature of the concept «readiness». We hold to A.Z. Ibatova's definition: Readiness is integrative personal education which includes knowledge and abilities, positive motivation necessary for successful implementation of a certain professional activity type [11; 30].

The concept «readiness» is difficult, multidimensional, therefore, it is necessary to structure it accurately. Modern scientific literature allocates different types of readiness for professional activity:

  1. Psychological readiness — a certain professional development level of the informative personality's sphere of the expert: professional perception, thinking, imagination, memory, attention.
  2. Motivational readiness — personality's focus on self-development in educational process, understanding of the profession sense, positive attitude to the profession, necessary level of a self-assessment and claims in activity, readiness and ability to professional and personal self-affirmation, strong motivation of success achievement.
  3. Operational and activity readiness — includes professional skill (set of professionally important qualities, knowledge, abilities, skills, habits of professional behavior), the necessary development level of professionally important abilities and strong-willed readiness of the expert, his ability to self-control of behavior and activity.
  4. Communicative readiness — the sufficient skills development level of constructive and effective contact interaction with people, with the professional environment, professional communication with employees and heads, the sufficient level of the person speech culture and professional thinking.
  5. Creative readiness — ability of the modern expert to search, vision of new ways, means, ways of the solution of the professional tasks which are put forward by life, both a traditional, and nonconventional character [12].

Communicative readiness assumes at the professional presence of the sufficient skills development level of effective contact interaction with people, with the professional environment, professional communication with employees and heads, readiness to go for business and personal interaction with colleagues and ability to establish, support and develop such interaction [12].

In this regard it is also necessary to note that nowadays communication in one language is not sufficient. Training in oral and written communication more than in one language, of one of the most widespread foreign languages, training of a literary oral and written speech in native language, ethics of communication and document linguistics, fundamentals of social and professional psychology, to methods and means of modern communication becomes one of the main objectives of the modern university graduates' training.

Further development of a methodical thought in the field of a learning of foreign languages led to understanding of a priority role of the humanistic concept in professional education. It means that educational process creates optimal conditions for personal and professional development of future expert. The humanistic concept found the bright reflection in personally focused training («student-centered education») where interaction of the teacher and student is directed to fuller disclosure of opportunities of each subject of educational process [13; 4–11].

As appears from the standard program, training in foreign languages pursues complex implementation of the practical, educational and developing objectives; at the same time the educational and developing objectives are achieved in the course of practical acquisition of a foreign language. Practical orientation of training consists, first of all, in the social maintenance of the purpose which has still the cross-cultural, pedagogical and psychological contents. Thus, when determining content of training in foreign languages it is necessary to consider all parties of this content. All of them in a complex are interconnected, interdependent and are shown in the form of the training, informative, developing and educational result. The result, in turn, is reached gradually, in the course of acquisition of a foreign language.

The leading purpose of training in a foreign language at different steps of education is formation at students of communicative competence which is defined as many-sided ability to conduct foreign-language communication with representatives of other culture (T.V. Markova, I.L. Bim, Z.I. Konnova). At this approach linguistic, cross-cultural and professional materials are organized according to the following competences: linguistic, pragmatical, sociocultural, discursive, paralinguistic.

The linguistic competence assumes knowledge of rules and ability to operate with them for producing and reception in the course of communication.

The pragmatical competence defines ability to choose the language means adequate to a communication situation.

The sociocultural competence is shown in ability to organize communication taking into account the rules, norms and traditions of verbal and nonverbal behavior accepted in the country of the learned language.

The discursive competence is shown in possession of various discourse types: abilities to connect one statement with another (by metacommunication) and also abilities to logically state thoughts in a situation of oral and written communication.

The paralinguistic competence means ability of use of the nonverbal means of communication bearing an essential share in means of communication.

The professional competence assumes bases possession of the specialty, knowledge of basic technical and special theories, regularities and special terminology [14].

The system of higher school training in a foreign language in Kazakhstan includes two stages of preparation — two levels (a bachelor degree and a master degree) and assumes on the one hand, the autonomous nature of training in a foreign language, and on the other hand, the autonomous nature of training in a foreign language at each stage at which achievement of the goals of each stage allows to use a foreign language and provides a possibility of continuation of training at the following stage.

Two grade levels to a foreign language in non-language higher education institution assume implementation of a certain hierarchy in formation of foreign-language skills and abilities. So, the bachelor has to have communicative competence necessary for foreign-language activities for studying and creative judgment of foreign experience in profiling and the adjacent fields of science and technology and also for business professional communication. At the second level the expert with full higher education has to have the communicative competence necessary for the qualified information and creative activities of various spheres and situations of business partnership, joint production and academic affairs.

Let's consider features of a foreign language as subject and its place in the system of professional and personal preparation, its influence on formation of the professional expert, realization of its personal potential.

I.A. Zimnyaya [15] divides characteristics of language into three groups: the first reflects social functions of the person (language is a means of communication as forms of social interaction; familiarizing of the individual with cultural, historical values). The second includes characteristics of language by means of which intellectual functions of the person are implemented. The third group consists of «personal» characteristics of language (understanding by the person selfhood, self-expression and self-control of the personality).

Assimilation of a foreign language does not give the person direct knowledge of reality. However the foreign language as any other subjects is open for use of contents from various fields of knowledge, other subjects and promotes training of creatively active identity of future expert.

The specifics of a foreign language as subject consist also in its «boundlessness». At a learning of foreign language the student has to know all his sections — the phonetics, grammar, lexis necessary for communication.

Process of training in a foreign language has also the specific features. The first feature, the object of studying (foreign language) is at the same time both the tutorial and the means of communication between the teacher and students.

The second feature is that acquisition of a foreign language is most productively carried out in the course of speech communication where the teacher and the student are equal speech partners. In that case the relations between them represent pronounced subject-to-subject relations that assume teachers' abilities possession of speech partnership.

The third feature states that at acquisition of a foreign language the purpose of acquisition not only the sum of knowledge, how many the system of skills and abilities is set. Knowledge of a training material is a necessary condition of successful skills possession development of this material. At the same time unlike other objects which also demand mastering skills and abilities, development of skills when training in a foreign language depends not so much on logical as speech actions.

The result of availability of professional language readiness is successful teaching of a profile subject in a foreign language, successful acquisition of the discipline by students, further development of the teacher and his professional growth. In case of insufficient readiness to conduct one's subject in a foreign language, the result may be deterioration in the quality of teaching of profile subjects in a foreign language, distortions in the choice of goals and expected results: the emphasis can be either put on teaching the language without its connection with a core subject, or on teaching a subject with an arbitrary inclusion of special vocabulary in a foreign language. Therefore, we consider the optimal methodological solution to be the development of unified methodological and normative support for teaching Biology in English with the observance of continuity of normative and methodological support [16; 36].

The fourth feature presumes that the teacher of a foreign language is the main source of information on those changes which happen in language and a sociocultural situation in the countries of the learned language [17; 49].

The foreign language has the considerable developing potential. Acquisition of a foreign language has beneficial influence on development of abilities of the speech-motor apparatus; phonemic and intonational hearing, imitating abilities, «feeling of language» (ability to a guess), abilities to allocation of the main thing, all types of memory. Modeling of educational situations of reality in estimated circumstances on lessons is developed by imagination and creative abilities of students.

Foreign-language skills differently correspond to various systems of professional skills. At the same time need of formation and development of foreign-language skills evolves from professional skills and in parallel with them as practice shows that realization of professional opportunities of a general education subject is reached in that case when students see communication of these objects with the specialty. This communication is provided with updating of intersubject communications, synthesis of special and general education knowledge, formation of «through» abilities, transfer of abilities on a general education subject and vice versa.

The foreign language is one of means of the professional expert formation; in it huge reserves of high professional culture and professional thinking development are put. In educational activity at a learning of foreign language necessary prerequisites of personal development, awareness of importance of professional orientation, positive motivation, strong-willed and informative processes are formed. Formation of foreign- language sociocultural competence develops personal qualities of students: sociocultural susceptibility, openness, tactfulness, empathy, ability to adapt to a new situation, ability to show respect for the interlocutor, persuasiveness and tolerance at the solution of difficult tasks.

It is known that the expert will never become the professional of the highest level if he does not seize strategy and tactics of business communication. The foreign language as a subject comprises big reserves for formation of communication culture including professional at students. The learning of foreign language promotes communicativeness as property of the personality, formation of any attention and storing, linguistic observation, planning of the speech. Acquisition of a foreign language promotes formation of expert speech communication culture: to ability of correct and competent statement of thoughts, to establishment and maintenance of contacts, management and regulation of joint activity processes, stimulation of the partner activity in communication according to the established communicative rules and norms.

Communicative abilities have that general that allows transferring them to other types of activity and therefore, forming them, it is possible to have an impact on such spheres of activity as communication and work.

When training future experts special attention should be paid to active forms of mastering a subject with inclusion of problematical character elements, scientific search, a wide reserve of independent work; communicative orientation of all process of training, motivation of students speech activity; to introduction of professionally focused educational technologies in practice of training allowing not only to intensify, but also to individualize training process. Use of a foreign language as tutorials allows realizing more stoutly the personal potential of the student, to make active his abilities to self-knowledge, self-development and selfrealization as a professional.



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Year: 2019
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy