The prerequisites of students' civic standpoints development

The article focuses on students' civic standpoints development. Modern socio-economic changes associated with the construction of civil society, put forward the requirements of the formation of an active and thinking citizen who can live in a democracy, capable of diverse and productive activities for the benefit of society, the state and his personal and the solution of problems to improve the system of training and education of University students, aimed at mastering their professional knowledge and skills, the formation of civic conviction and responsibility, a sense of civic duty, patriotism, active citizenship. The goals of the educational policy put the problems of educating students, one of the most basic social and demographic groups of the modern youth, to the forefront. Civil education in the conditions of modern Kazakhstan is objectively key to ensuring sustainable political, socio-economic development and the national country. Civil education and vocational training is a single, purposeful process of forming the humanity of a citizen, a worker, and a professional. The success of educating a citizen in a higher educational institution largely determines the spiritual space of the student body, which orients him to acquire and use the human experience of democratic relations that characterize student self-government, design and create similar space in future professional activities. The results of the definition and specification of the notion of «civic education» are also introduced in the article.

In the current political and socio-economic conditions of Kazakhstan the significance of civic education becomes more and more relevant. Economic disintegration, differentiation of society, devaluation of spiritual values had a negative impact on public consciousness of most social and age groups of the population, particularly on youth. This is evident in the increasing apathy, selfishness, cynicism, drug addiction, unmotivated aggression, disrespectful attitude towards the state and social institutions. Many countries around the world adopt Civic Education programs in order to teach their citizens about the dynamics of democracy, their rights and duties and the skills and virtues necessary to live in a democratic society. These programs are very relevant because they aim to develop citizens' capacity of participating in democratic processes, which could be done by voting, participating in governments' decision-making processes or demanding accountability and transparency from the state.

Societies have long had an interest in the ways in which their citizenship and in how they learn to take part in civic life. Today interest might better be described as a concern-in fact as a growing concern, particularly in democratic societies. There is evidence aplenty that no country, including our own land, has achieved the level of understanding and acceptance of the rights and responsibilities among the totality of its citizens that is required for the maintenance and improvement of any constitutional democracy.

One of the most important tasks in society today is to give spiritual and moral education to young people, as Al-Farabi says, «Unobtrusive education is the enemy of humankind», so the main purpose of young generation upbringing is a useful to the society, able to respect adults, spiritually rich humanity. Therefore, the education of the students, who are able to manage community, and their civic qualities are emphasized. Creation of a civil society has changed the purpose, content and methods of training highly educated personnel. Modern society needs professionals who have active citizenship. It is a guarantee of a positive change in the attitude towards the notion of civic education, moral and legal behavior, love for the country, the protection of the state's interests. In order to achieve professional success basic and vocational training for future professionals do not enough, they need to learn about their civil rights and freedoms, to protect them, to participate in self-governance, and to work together to solve shared issues.

Civic education is currently a field of vibrant research and practice that is producing significant pedagogical innovation. It is a contested field with intense discussions about its goals and what teaching and learning processes should be privileged. These issue reflect a transition from «traditional» forms of civic education to «new civics» that considerably extend the definitions of civic participation and the purposes of civic education.

However, many democracies around the world have been facing problems. In many cases, citizens are not interested in participating in any democratic process. This attitude threatens the political system, since it loses legitimacy. In addition to that, Civic Knowledge indexes are falling in many societies, which could be a result of ineffective or unequal Civic Education programs, lack of prioritization related to this subject or even lack of interest from students and citizens in the topic.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2013) brings a very broad definition of Civic Education and states that every process that influences the way people behave as citizens can be considered as some sort of Civic Education. It argues that institutions and society transmit some values and norms in a natural and sometimes unintentional way, which could be harmful because these values might not be empowering or impartial. This definition is important because it takes into consideration some institutional values sometimes undermined when analyzing citizens' behavior. However, it is still too broad and not very objective to be considered as the main definition in this work.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 2010) argues that Citizenship Education (another term for Civic Education) differentiates the individual from a citizen. The first one is a person qualified for human rights, with law and ethical duties. The second one is qualified for civil and political rights, identified by the constitution of a certain country. Of course, the same human being assumes both roles in a society, which creates an intrinsic relation between human and citizen rights.

Being a priority area of public education, the upbringing of citizens is aimed at direct involvement of adolescents and girls in society through the formation of their civil position. Civic position is formed within the framework of the general principle and, as the person develops, it takes more place in his structure. It describes the individual in terms of the way and nature of the individual's relationship with certain actions. This concept reflects the political, legal, and human rights and duties of citizens in relation to their state, and expresses a conscious, responsible view of people [1].

Cultural models of development focus on the growing individual's social and cultural context, knowledge, the narratives, values, and norms of action to which the growing individual is exposed in different sociocultural settings, interactions, and experiences that promote or inhibit effective and relevant learning. Students' results are not only from formal teaching of information, but also from individuals' interaction, dialogue, and performance of action within their social context. Meaning and understanding, therefore, are co-constructed and negotiated in social and cultural interactions, not merely processed in individual cognition. In cognitive developmental approaches, the individual actively is successively restructuring and reflecting, producing increasingly complex and abstract understanding. Within culturally oriented approaches, the active process also involves negotiating meaning through dialogue with others and with cultural resources.

The manifestation of the civil position of a person is his attitude to society, to action, to people, to himself. Generally speaking, relationships show, on the one hand, the impact of environmental, education, social practices on a young person and, on another hand, the active involvement of a schoolmate as a community member. The core of the relationships that make up a person's civil position is human relationships, since relationships to human beings are relevant because human self-esteem in society is the highest value and original purpose.

We can think of the dimensions of civic learning as building blocks that contribute in different ways to achieving the aims of civic education, reflecting different models of development. These are: civic knowledge and understanding; civic skills; civic values, motivation, and identity; and civic action.

The term «civil position» is not thematic, it does not appear in encyclopedias, in reference dictionaries. For a long time, the concept of «citizen» has not clarified. In the XVII–XVIII centuries educators made an active statement on the basic of T. Hobbs book. For example, in the pre-revolutionary monarchy Russia called the famous towns «citizens». In short, they are our law-abiding citizens, others are patriots and the third are those who struggled with authority. According to the research conducted in the study, textbooks and scientific works have little to do with the actual content of the civil position. Enrichment with this new concept of the concept of «a worthy citizen of a country» simplifies the process of obtaining «a modern citizen's image».

Before defining the concept of citizenship, we first need to understand the meaning of «position». The position is a different quality of the person's relationship with the environment (society, state). It includes the subject line of behavior as a social unit in implementing their life priorities and values. «Citizen», «civil society», «civilized upbringing», «citizenship» are main concepts of «civil position». The issue of civil education and formation of citizenship are studied in the works of the authors in russian pedagogical science by Amanbaeva, T.N. Osmankina, N. Popova, L.V. Ruhlova, F.H. Hahapova, E. Titova. The authors point out that civic education and civic formation are one of the pedagogical problems that are at the depth of history of the world's oldest civilization.

The idea of bringing up and forming citizenship has arisen with the emergence of a state, and depends on a state and public interests, due to the fact that obedient and honest people of the state need first to have a power apparatus. Aristotle's «Politics» book is the point of counting serious studies on citizenship issues. Aristotle considered the younger generation to be the most important factor that contributed to the preservation of the state structure [2].

In the 60s of the XIX century the greatest classics of Russian pedagogics N.P. Pirogov, K.D. Ushinsky have developed their creative activity. At the same time, the democratic movement created a strong progress in the progressive pedagogical thought, and class struggles and fierce disputes were raised around the issues of education. According to K.D. Ushinsky, the moral basis of a citizen is the feeling of national consciousness, his love for his country [3].

Leading representatives of Russian society N.K. Krupskaya, А.С. Macarenko, V.A. Sukhomlinsky, Т. Shatsky consider civilian qualities in civil thought as a responsibility to society, with collective; understanding unity of consciousness and behavior, words and actions; understand events and processes occurring in society; honest work for the benefit of society and so on. Communist and civic education begins in the 30th. It is precisely stage when the task of educating a citizen is commenced in the process of educating the educator, replacing a conscious and active member of the socialist society, a participant of a revolutionary change, a struggle for communism, the successor and successor to the preceding revolutionary generations [4].

At the end of the 50–60s, our country entered the stage of socialism developed by politicians. At this stage the issue of civil education of the younger generation is again in the interest of pedagogical researches. B.A. Suhomlinski made a significant contribution to the development of citizenship. In his opinion, the most important characteristic of a person is the ability to integrate his / her own needs with the society, which he calls «a sense of duty» and ensures the basic quality of his / her citizenship. V.A. Sukhomlinsky develops the idea of A.S. Makarenko's team that it is the first civilian school where citizen quality is shaped, mandatory for responsibilities, activity, behavior, and people's well-being [5].

A.I. Factor, a teacher who analyzed V.A. Sukhomlinsky's writings, says that «a) the individual's attitude towards the collective and the society, and b) the individual's need to act in line with the ethical standards of society, and c) the self-necessity to demonstrate, d) the necessity to have everywhere and every person and citizen». However, civil education is interpreted only as a special process organized in recent years as an independent course in the educational system and to form a stable citizenship characterizing the individual as a subject of legal, moral and political, socio-economic relationships in public education.

By Slastenin V.A. the purpose of civic education is to promote citizenship as an integral quality of humanity, which is a harmonious representation of domestic freedom and respect public authority, love for the country and a sense of self-worth and sense of patriotism, culture of patriotic feelings and interethnic communication [6].

Based on the understanding of students as direct or indirectly socially-motivated pedagogical influence through the use or development of certain situations that contribute to their socialization and selfdevelopment in the process of education or educational activities in the educational environment we adhere to S. Guyazov's definition and understand that targeted activities for the development of civic positions of university students are civilized upbringing.

S.V. Anholin and V.G. Smolni and other scholars have shown that the most important features of a person who complement civic identity are patriotism and internationalism that is closely related to it. If patriotism is defined as love for the Motherland, its culture, history and traditions, its manifestation is an active socially meaningful activity aimed at strengthening and developing its political and economic greatness, preparing its interests, protecting the freedom and sovereignty of our country, where internationalism is only interethnic tolerance not only friendships but also racism, nationalism, and chauvinism. Both of these qualities are shaped on the basis of knowledge of respect themselves and other peoples, and the various nations and peoples are settled in collaboration and communication with people. The relevance of these civic qualities is crucial in reconstructing the place of peoples in the era of country's transformation in a family of multinational state. Using scientific works to build students' citizenship should be based on the age characteristics, related to the students' experience in variety of forms: educational, recreational, organization of functioning of the educational environment of the institution. Methods of obtaining knowledge and the development of intellectual skills in the formation of active citizenship are classified as methods of thinking — critical, analytical, reflective and strategic.

At the present stage of the development of pedagogical science, scientists state that this concept is based on «citizenship». This explains the differences in interpreting the civil concepts in pedagogical dictionaries for different years. For example, in 2002, the social pedagogy dictionary explains that «citizenship» means continuous communication with the people, ensuring security, prosperity of the country, its progress. In 2003, in the «pedagogical encyclopedic dictionary», «citizenship» is defined as an integral quality that allows a person to be legally, morally and politically capable. And in 2005 in the «Pedagogical Dictionary» it is interpreted as the moral quality of a person who consciously and actively carries out the duties of the state, society and citizen; rational use of their civil rights; fully comply with the laws of the country [7].

Developing a civil position of a person is made within a wider process of self-determination of the person and, on the one hand, involves the cognitive aspect — social experience, the acquisition of the material and spiritual culture of the society, and also the practical aspect it coincides with it. It is a complex, long, complicated process, which requires taking into account the internal and external circumstances of the individual, the versatile manifestations. Therefore, the development of a civilian attitude begins with a complete perception of the human being and the world itself. The attitude of the individual to the world affects the person's activity, the general direction. This development is reflected in the conception illustrated by for younger students, civic institutions and social realities are embodied by those who represent them. Later they come to understand the societal functions of institutions within a wide range of systems and structures. Younger students tend to believe that the various levels of social order are diverse and disconnected realities. For instance, cultural changes have no connection with political or economic factors, revolutions are simple confrontations between groups rather than structural changes affecting all aspects of society. Social change is difficult to understand because things are as they are, social situations are immutable, and little change is possible. Younger students tend to think that civil rights depend on the willingness of individuals or social institutions. With further conceptual development they understand that their existence rests on political, economic, social, and cultural factors forming a multicausal structure. Younger students understand a country's presidency only in terms of an individual and they also may have difficulty in understanding that a modern nation-state is not simply a territory or a group of inhabitants but an abstract concept that only emerged in country. Life always offers exceptional circumstances for people. In these challenging circumstances, people do not prepare for choosing their behavior at the level of moral recipe. In the event of an unexpected endeavor, human behavior is viewed not only as a moral prescription, such as a system of human moral coordinates, that it is possible and accessible, and vice versa, impossible and unavailable. In this regard, the formation of an individual's civil position creates a moral basis for the growing individual, charity, truth and beauty.

Taking into account the students' specific nature, we determined the specificity of students' civic education by means of a foreign language, which includes the differentiated approach, interest to a foreign language in specific form of studies (discussion on problem questions, press conferences, a teleconference, dialogue around). We defined three levels of students' civic consciousness formation: high, average, low allowing to define the field of influence on the civic consciousness by means of foreign language learning activities. So, successful implementation of students' civic education may be achieved through a number of conditions on the state level: the development of standards, financial and ideological support. Civic dispositions, like civic skills, develop slowly over time and as a result of what one learns and experiences in the home, school, community, and organizations of civil society. Those experiences should engender understanding that democracy requires the responsible self governance of each individual; one cannot exist without the other. Traits of private character such as moral responsibility, self discipline, and respect for the worth and human dignity of every individual are imperative. Traits of public character are no less consequential. Such traits as public spiritedness, civility, respect for the rule of law, critical mindedness, and willingness to listen, negotiate, and compromise are indispensable to success.

Civic dispositions that contribute to the political efficacy of the individual, the healthy functioning of the political system, a sense of dignity and worth, and the common good were identified in the National Standards for Civics and Government. In the interest of brevity, those dispositions or traits of private and public character might be described as becoming an independent member of society. This disposition encompasses adhering voluntarily to self-imposed standards of behavior rather than requiring the imposition of external controls, accepting responsibility for the consequences of one's actions and fulfilling the moral and legal obligations of membership in a democratic community, assuming the human, political, and economic responsibilities of a citizen.

These responsibilities include taking care of themselves, supporting somebody's family and caring for, nurturing, and educating one's children. They also include being informed about public issues, voting, paying taxes, serving on juries, performing public service, and serving in leadership positions commensurate with one's talents, respecting individual worth and human dignity. Respecting others means listening to their opinions, behaving in a civil manner, considering the rights and interests of fellow citizens, and adhering to the principle of majority rule but recognizing the right of the minority to dissent, participating in civic affairs in a thoughtful and effective. This issue entails becoming informed prior to voting or participating in public debate, engaging in civil and reflective discourse, and assuming leadership when appropriate. It also entails evaluating whether and when one's obligations as a citizen require that human desires and interests be subordinated to the public better and evaluating whether and when one's obligations or constitutional principles obligate one to reject certain civic expectations, promoting the healthy functions.

This disposition encompasses being informed and attentive to public affairs, learning about and deliberating on constitutional values and principles, monitoring the adherence of social leaders and public agencies to those values and principles and taking appropriate action if adherence is lacking. This disposition also inclines the citizen to do through peaceful, legal means to change laws that are thought to be unwise or unjust. Educational standards or frameworks for civic and related subjects can be implemented as an interdisciplinary level and represent the disciplines adopted at a particular stage of learning. Based on our research, we can make the conclusions. Civic positions of youth are being formed. They have their own opinions, they are interested in the political changes and events in the country. They try to give their assessment. Corruption in government institutions indicates a negative factor. Youth relies on the authorities to address facing challenges. However, there is also a number of youths who are convinced that their knowledge can be solved through their education and work.

Many institutions help to develop citizens' knowledge and skills and shape their civic character and commitments. Family, religious institutions, the media, and community groups exert important influences. Schools, however, bear a special and historic responsibility for the development of civic competency and civic responsibility. Schools fulfill that responsibility through both formal and informal education beginning in the earliest years and continuing through the entire educational process.

Universities and higher schools should provide a basic and realistic understanding of civic life, politics, and government. It should familiarize students with the constitutions of the country where they live, because these and other things are tasks which can be used to judge the means and ends of government.

Universities and high schools should enable citizens to understand the workings of their own and other political systems, as well as the relationship of the politics and government of their own country to world affairs. Good civic education promotes an understanding of how and why one's own security, quality of life, and economic position is connected to that of neighboring countries, as well as to major regional, international, and transnational organizations.

Universities and high schools should emphasize the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a constitutional democracy. Documents, which consider to be an extended preamble to the Constitution, holds that governments are instituted to secure the rights of citizens. Those rights have been categorized in various ways but a useful and generally accepted categorization divides them in this manner human rights such as freedom of thought, conscience, expression, and association and freedom of residence, movement, and travel. Human rights such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and petition, as well as the right to vote and run for public office. Economic rights such as the right to acquire, use and transfer property, to choose one's work or change employment, to join a labor or a professional organization, to establish and operate a business, to obtain a copyright or patent, and to enter lawful contracts. Instruction about rights should make it clear that few rights can be considered absolute. Rights may reinforce or conflict with one another or with other values and interests and therefore require reasonable limitations. The rights of liberty and equality, for example, or the rights of the individual and the common good often conflict with one another. It is very important, therefore, that citizens develop a framework for clarifying ideas about rights and the relationships among rights and other values and interests. This framework then can provide a basis for making reasoned decisions about the proper scope and limits of rights. Universities and high schools in civics and government should be no less attentive to the responsibilities of citizens in a constitutional democracy. An understanding of the importance of individual rights must be accompanied by an examination of human and civic responsibilities. For us to flourish, citizens not only must be aware of their rights, they must also exercise them responsibly and they must fulfill those human and civic responsibilities necessary to a self-governing,free, and just society. Those responsibilities include human responsibilities such as taking care of oneself, supporting one's family, and caring for, nurturing, and educating one's children, accepting responsibility for the consequences of one's actions, adhering to moral principles, considering the rights and interests of others, and behaving in a civil manner. Civic responsibilities such as obeying the law, being informed and attentive to public issues, assuming leadership when appropriate, paying taxes, voting, serving as a juror or in the armed forces, monitoring the adherence of political leaders and governmental agencies to constitutional principles and taking appropriate action if that adherence is lacking, and performing public service. Instruction about responsibilities should make it clear that rights and responsibilities go hand in hand. Responsibilities are another half of the democratic equation. A sense of human responsibility and civic obligation are in fact the social foundations on which individual rights and freedoms ultimately rest. So, as a social phenomenon, a person's civil position is to approach, to deal with something; behavioral attitudes, behavioral actions, conduct. The civic properties of a person is reflected in his civil position, determining himself as a full-fledged sovereign entity of social relations, defining his place in a democratic society, his life goals and ways to achieve them.

Thus, the result of students' civil position is a well-developed humanity, a civilian value that has universal values and interests. Civilian values are ideas, attitudes and beliefs that are reflected in civic behavior and contribute to the self-activation of a person in a civil society and state.

 

References

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  2. Osmankina, T.N. (2000). Formirovanie hrazhdanstvennosti starsheklassnikov v usloviiakh obshcheobrazovatelnoi shkoly [Formation of citizenship of senior students in the conditions of secondary school]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Orenburg [in Russian].
  3. Ruglova, L.V. (2005). Formirovanie hrazhdanskoi pozitsii studencheskoi molodezhi na sovremennom etape [The Formation of citizenship of the student at the present stage]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Kemerovo [in Russian].
  4. Shapova, F.Kh. (2004). Hrazhdanskoe vospitanie studentov tehnicheskoho vuza sredstvami inostrannoho yazyka [Civil education of students of technical University by means of a foreign language]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Kazan [in Russian].
  5. Kalimoldaev, A.K. (2003). Formirovanie patriotizma budushchikhspetsialistov v tselestnom pedahohicheskom protsesse vuza v sovremennykh usloviiakh [Formation potriotizm of future specialists in pedagogical process of the University in modern]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Almaty [in Russian].
  6. Nurshaikov, A. (2000). Patriotizm kannan ba? [Patriotism is of blood?]. Akikat, 10, 16–20 [in Kazakh].
  7. Sardone, N.B. & Devlin-Scherer, R. (2013). Game-Based Learning to Develop Civic Literacy and Twenty-First Century Skills: Making Judgments and Decisions. Teaching &Learning, 8, 24–28 [in English].
Year: 2019
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy